Skip to main content

Full text of "A classical dictionary of Greek and Roman biography, mythology and geography"

See other formats


A 

CLASSICAL DICTIONAEY 



SIR WM. SMITH'S DICTIONARIES. 



A DICTIONARY of GREEK and ROMAN ANTIQUITIES. With 900 lUustratioiis. 
2 vols, medium 8vo. £3. 3s. 

A SMALLER DICTIONARY of GREEK and ROMAN ANTIQUITIES. Abridged from 
tlie above Wori;. With 200 WooUcuts. Crowu 8vo. 7s. 6J. 

A DICTIONARY of GREEK and ROMAN BIOGRAPHY and MYTHOLOGY. With 664 
Illustrations. 3 vols, medium 8vo. £J. Js. 

A DICTIONARY of GREEK and ROMAN GEOGRAPHY. With 634 Illustrations. 2 vols, 
medium 8vo. aaa. 

A SMALLER CLASSICAL DICTIONARY of MYTHOLOGY, BIOGRAPHY, and 
GEOGRAPHY. WiLli 200 Woodcuts. Crown 8vo. 7s. Oii. 

A COMPLETE LATIN-ENGLISH DICTIONARY. With Tables of the Roman Calendar, 
Measures, Weiglits, Money, and ii Dictionary of Projier Names. Medium 8vo. 168. 

A SMALLER LATIN-ENGLISH DICTIONARY. Abridged from the above Work. 
Siiuare 12mo. 7s. ed. 

A COPIOUS and CRITICAL ENGLISH-LATIN DICTIONARY. Compiled from original 
sources. Medium 8vo. 18s. 

A SMALLER ENGLISH-LATIN DICTIONARY. Abridged from the above Work. 
Square 12mo. 7s. GU. 

A DICTIONARY of the BIBLE. Its Autiqnities, Biography, Geography, and Natural 
History. By Various Writers. With Illustrations. 3 vols, medium Svo. ;£■). -is. 

A CONCISE BIBLE DICTIONARY : comprising its Ant'qnities, Biogrnphy, Geography, 
and Natural History. Condensed from the above Work. With Maps and 300 IllustralionB, 
Medium 8vo. 21s. 

A SMALLER BIBLE DICTIONARY : comprising its Antiquities, Biography, Geography, 
and Natural History. Abridged from the above Work. Witli Maps and Illustrations. Crowu 
8vo. 7s. 6d. 

A DICTIONARY of CHRISTIAN ANTIQUITIES. The History, Institutions, and 
Antiquities of the Christian Church, in continuatiim of the above Work. By Vju'ious Writers, 
With Illustrations. 2 vols, medium 8vo. £3, 13s. 6d. 

A DICTIONARY of CHRISTIAN BIOGRAPHY, LITERATURE, SECTS, and 
DOCTRINES. From the time of the Apostles to the Age of Charlemagne. By v&riuui 
Writeis. 4 vols, medium 8V0. jEC. IBs. 6d. 



A 

CLASSICAL DICTIONARY 

OF GREEK AND ROMAN 

BIOGEAPHY, MYTHOLOGY, AND GEOGEAPHY 

BASED ON THE LARGER DICTIONARIES 



BY THE LATE 

SIE WILLIAM SMITH, D.C.L., LL.D. 

Editor of the Latin-Euglisli and Engliah-Latln Dictionaries 



HETISED THROUOBOUT Ai'D IX PART REWRITTEN BT 

G. E. MAEIKDBT, M.A. 

FOKMEULT fellow of KISO'S COLLEQB, CAIIBJIIDGB 



WITH NUMEROUS MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS 



LONDON 

JOHN MUEEAY, ALBEMAELE STEEET 

1899 



puixrjjD By 
sroTTiawooDE and co., new-stkebt squabk 

LONDON 



if 

N 



WELLCOME 
LIBRARY 



General CoUections 



M 



^1 



PEE FACE 



THE Classical Dictionary, published more than thirty years ago, of 
which this book is a revision, was designed by the late Sir William 
Smith to include in a single volume as much of the information 
contained in his larger Dictionaries of Biography and Mythology, and 
of Ancient Geography, as would be serviceable for the upper forms of 
schools, and might make it useful also as a compendious book of 
reference for somewhat more advanced students. 

It was intended chiefly to elucidate the Greek and Roman writers 
usually read in schools, and to the characters and subjects dealt with 
in their works the greatest space was accordingly allotted ; but a large 
number of shorter articles not included within those hmits were added, 
as it was not considered expedient to omit any names connected with 
antiquity of which it is expected that some knowledge should be 
possessed by every person who aspii'es to a liberal education. 

The book has for many years been found useful for the object for 
which it was written, and it is hoped that a revision with the ad- 
vantages of the new light thrown by the writings of more recent 
scholars and explorers will be no less serviceable at the present time. 

The design of this revised edition, projected by Sir William Smith 
more than two years ago, is much the same as that of the older work. 
It is intended for the use of the same class of students, as an aid in 
reading those Greek and Latin authors which wiU usually be studied 
by them. Hence the old limits are for the most part observed, and, 
as was then said, ' the historical articles mclude all the names of any 
importance which occur in Greek and Roman writers from the earUest 
times down to the extinction of the Western Empire in the year 476. 
Very few names are inserted which are not included in this period ; 
but still there are some persons who lived after the fall of the Western 
Empire who could not with propriety be omitted in a Classical 
Dictionary. Such is the case with Justinian, whose legislation has 
exercised such an important influence upon the nations of Western 
Europe ; with Theodoric, at wliose court Hved Cassiodorus and 
Boethius ; and with a few others.' Among the hterary articles has 
been included some notice, necessarily brief in many cases, of all 
Greek and Latin authors whose works are extant, and others who 
exercised an important influence upon literature, but whose writings 
have not come down to us. For those, however, who wrote only on 



vi 



PliEFACE 



ecclesiastical subjects, the student is referred to the Dictionary of 
Christian Biography. It has been thought that it would be service- 
able, and likely to encourage wider reading, to insert the more 
important ancient authorities (in literature) for each article : fuller 
references are generally to be found in the larger Dictionaries named 
above. 

Since the publication of the older edition so much additional 
knowledge has been acquired in most branches of classical study that it 
has been found necessary, not merely to alter, but practically to rewrite 
many of the articles : this appKes particularly to the articles on 
Mythology, and to many of those on Topography. Several new plans 
and maps have been inserted to illustrate the articles on those places 
which are most important in Greek and Roman literature. Among 
these are the map of the Troad and that of Syracuse, which is based 
upon one in Freeman's Sicily. For the alterations in the map of 
Athens, and for the description of the city, much help has been derived 
from Miss Habkison's Mythology and Monuments of Athens, horn Dr. 
Lolling' s treatise, and from Professor Gardner's New Chapters in 
Greek History, from which book also the plans of Tiryns, Eleusis, 
and Olympia, with much valuable information, have been taken. In 
altering the maps and plans of Rome, as well as in describing the 
topography, the Editor has been guided chiefly by Professor Middle- 
ton's Bemains of Ancient Borne : for the alterations in the map of the 
Roman Wall in Britain, and for other kind help, he is indebted to 
Mr. Haverfield. Several new cuts also have been substituted for 
those -which were intended to illustrate the articles on mythology or 
on art. 

Considerations of space have made it impossible to give any refer- 
ences to the modern authorities for each article, but it is thought that 
those who wish to make a fuller study of any matter which is here 
concisely treated will sometimes find useful a short Appendix which 
has been added to give a few of the more important and more accessible 
works in difterent branches of classical study. It must also serve to 
express obligations to the writers which the Editor could not acknow- 
ledge under the separate articles. 

Throughout the progress of the work Sir William Smith con- 
stantly directed and supervised it with all his knowledge and patient 
carefulness up to the time of his death : the last part of the book has 
been deprived of the great advantage of his guidance. 

G. E. Marindin. 



January 1804. 



A CLASSICAL DICTIONAET 



blOGEAPHICAL, MYTHOLOGICAL, AND GEOGKAPHICAL 




ABA 

Aba. [Abus.] 

Abacaenum ('A$aKaivou or to 'k^aKawa: 
'AficLKaivlvos : nr. Tripi, Ru.), a town of the 

Siculiin Sicily, 
about 4 miles 
from tlie N. 
coast, between 
Tyndaris and 
Mylae. The 
Coin of Abaoaennm In Sicily. boar and aconi 
Obr., head of Zeus ; rt'L'., boar and acorn, on the coins of 

Abacaeniun refer to the forest of oaks covering 
the neighbouring mountains and affording pas- 
tm-e to herds of swine (Diod. xix. 65, 110). 

Abae ('AjSai : 'ABaTos : nr. Exarcho, Eu.), a 
town in the N.W. of Phocis, said to have been 
founded by the Argive Abas. [Abas, Abantes.] 
It possessed a temple and oracle of Ajiollo 
(Soph. Oed. T. 899), hence surnamed Abacus. 
The temple was destroyed in the invasion of 
Xei-xes, and a second time in the sacred war : 
it was rebuilt by Hadrian (Hdt. i. 46, viii. 27, 
33, 134 ; Paus. x. 35). 

Abalus, said by Pytheas to be an island in 
the northern ocean, where amber was found, 
probably a portion of the Prussian coast upon 
the Baltic (Plin. xxxvii. § 35 ; Diod. v. 23). 

Abantes ("A^avres), the ancient inhabitants 
of Euboea (Horn. II. ii. 536), hence called ^6«n- 
tis and Ahantias (Eur. Here. Fur. 185 ; Plin. 
iv. § 64). Hence Abantius, Euhoean (Stat. 8. 
iv. 8, 46). The Abantes are said to have first 
settled in Phocis, where they built Abae, and 
afterwards to have crossed over to Euboea. The 
Abantes of Euboea assisted in colonising several 
Ionic cities of Asia Minor (Hdt. i. 146). 

Abantiades, Abantias. l Abas.] 

Abantidas ('A.3afTi'5aj), murdered Clinias, 
the father of Aratus, and became tyrant of 
Sicyon. B.c. 264 (Plut. Arat. 2; Paus. ii. 8, 2). 

Abaris, idis, acc. Abarim ('A/3apij, i5os). 
1. A Hv-perborean priest of Apollo who came 
to Greece, while his own country was visited 
by a plague, about b.c. 570. His history is 
mythical : he is said to have taken no earthly 
food, and to have ridden on his arrow, the gift 
of Apollo, through the air. He cured diseases 
by incantations, and delivered the world from 
a plague. Oracles and charms under his name 



ABDERA 

imssed current in later times (Hdt. iv. 36; 
mat. Charm, p. 158; Paus. iii. 13, 2).— 2. Or 
Avaris, the fortified camp of the Hykscs during 
their occupation of Egypt, on the E. of the Pe- 
lusiac branch of the Nile (Joseph, c. Apion. i. 
14). Hence Abaritanus (Plin. xvi. 172). 

Abaruis C A ^apv t s or" A fiapvos : 'A0apvevs), a 
tovm near Lomi^sacus on the Asiatic side of 
the Hellespont (Xen. Hell. ii. 1, 29). 

Abas, antis (''A/Sas, avros), twelfth king of 
Argos, son of Lynceus, grandson of Danaus, 
and father of Acrisius. When he informed his 
father of the death of Danaus, he was rewarded 
with the shield of his grandfather, which was 
sacred to Hera. This shield performed various 
marvels. It was gained by Aeneas ('magni 
gestamen Abantis,' Verg. Aen. iii. 286). Abas 
is described as a successful conqueror and the 
founder of Abae in Phocis. [Abae.] Hence (i.) 
Abanteus, adj. (Ov. M. xv. 164). (ii.) Aban- 
tiades ('A;8oi'Tia5?)s), a descendant of Abas ; his 
son Acrisius (Ov. M. iv. 607), his great-grandson 
Perseus, by Danae, daughter of Acrisius (Ov. 
M. iv. 673, Am. iii. 12, 24). (iii.) Abantias, 
adis {'A^avTids, dSos), a female descendant of 
Abas, i.e. Danae. [Danae.] 

Abates, i, /. ("A/SoToj, i.e. inaccessible), a 
rocky island in the Nile, near Philae (Sen. 
Q. N. iv. 2, 7 ; Luc. x. 323). 

Abbassus, a tovni of Phrygia (Liv. xxxviii. 15). 

Abdera (to "A^Sripa, Abdera, ae. f., and 
Abdera, orum, n. : 'A^S7)p(T7)S, Abderites and 




Colli of Abdera In Thrace. 
Oiip., a grlffln. as symbol o( Apollo s worBhip ; ' Calllda. 
nas. as tho maclBtrato of the year : rev., Afiinoinod. sur. 
rounding a square. 

Abderita, ae, vi.). 1, A to^vii of Thrace, near 
the mouth of the Nestus. According to mytho- 

B 



2 ABDERUS 

logy, it was founded by HeracleR in honour of 
Abdeuus; but according to history, it was 
colonised first by Timesius of Clazomenao about 
B.C. G5G, and a second time by the inhabitants 
of Teos in Ionia, who settled there after their 
own town had been taken by the Persians 514 
(Hdt. i. 1G8). Abdera was a flourishing to-svn 
when Xerxes invaded Greece (Hdt. vii. ]^0), 
and continued a place of importance under the 
Romans, who made it a free city. It was the 
birthplace of Democritus, Protagoras, and An- 
axarclius ; but in spite of this its inhabitants 
passed into a proverb for stupidity ( Juv. x. 50 ; 
Mart. X. 25, 4; Cic. Att. iv. 16 (17), vii. 7). 
Hence Abderitanus, stupid (Mart. I. c). — 
2. {Adrn), a town of Hispania Baetica on the 
coast, founded by the Phoenicians (Strab. p. 157 ; 
Plin.iii.§8). 

Abderus (■'A)35?)pos), a favourite of Heracles, 
torn to pieces by the mares of Diomedes 
(Apollod. ii. 5). [Abdera.] 

Abdolonymus or Abdalonimus, also called 
BaUonymus (Diod. xvii. 46), a gardener, but of 
royal descent, made king of Sidon by Alexan- 
der the Great (Curt. iv. 1, 19; Just. xi. 10, 8). 

Abella or Avella (Abellanus : Avella vec- 
chia), a town of Campania, not far from Nola, 
founded by the Clialcidians in Euboea (Just. 
XX. 1), afterwards an Oscan to\vn, was celebrated 
for its apples, whence Virgil {Aen. vii. 740) calls 
it mdlifera, and for its great filberts (cf. Sil. 
viii. 545), nuces Avelldnae (Plin. xv. § 88). 

Abellinum (Abelllnas : Avellino), a town of 
the Hirpini in Samnium (Plin. iii. § 63). Pliny 
(iii. § 105) speaks of two towns of this name : 
'Abellinates cognomine Protropi' and 'Abelli- 
nates ^ognominati Marsi.' 

Abelox, Abelux, or Abilyx ('A/3i'Au^), a Spa- 
niard of noble birth, who betrayed the Spanish 
hostages at Saguntum to the Roman generals 
(Liv. xxii. 22 ; Pol. iii. 98, &c.). 

Abeona (from aheo) and Adeona, Roman 
goddesses who protected children in their first 
attempts to walk (Aug. Civ. Dei, iv. 21, vii. 3). 

Abgarus, Acbarus, or Augarus ("A^yapos, 
'AK^apos, Aijyapos), a name common to many 
rulers of Edessa, the capital of Osroijne in 
Mesopotamia (Tac. A. xii. 12). Of these rulers 
one is supposed by Eusebius {H. E. i. 33) to 
have been the author of a letter written to 
Christ, which is believed to be spurious. 

Abia (7; 'Afiia : nr. Zarnata), a town of Mes- 
senia, on the Blessenian gulf, said to have been 
the same as the Ire of the Iliad (ix. 292), and 
to have been called Abia after Abia, the nurse 
of Hyllus, a son of Heracles. Subsequently it 
belonged to the Achaean League, and existed 
in the time of Hadrian (Pans. iv. 80; Pol. 

XXV. 1). 

Abli CA/Sioi), a Tliracian tribe mentioned by 
Homer {II. xiii. 6) as the justest of men (Strab. 
p. 296). At a later time they are described 
as a Scythian people in Asia (Curt. vii. 6, 11 ; 
Arr. An. iv. 1 ; Amm. xxiii. 6, 58). 

Abila (to "A^iKa : 'A^iK-t]v6s). 1. A town of 
Coele-Syria, on the eastern slope of Anti- 
Libanus, afterwards called Claudiopolis, the 
capital of the tetrarchy of Abilene. — 2. A town 
in the Decapolis. 

Abisares i'Api<rap-qs), also called Embisavns 
(Diod. xvii. 90), an Indian king beyond the 
river Hydaspes, sent embassies to Alexander 
the Groat (Curt. viii. 43, 18, ix. 1, 7, x. 8, 20 ; 
Arr. All. v. 8, 3, 20, 5). 

Abnoba Mons, the range of hills covered by 
the Black Forest in Germany, in which the 
Danube rises (Tac. G. 1 ; Plin. iv. § 79). Hence 



^ ABUS 

Abnoba Diana, or simply Abnoba, the goddess 
of this mountain (Orelli, Inacr. 1980, 4974). 

Abonitichos {'Affiivov tcTxoj), a town of Pa- 
phlagonia on the Black Sea, with a harbour, 
afterwards called lonopolis {'IwudmKis), whence 
its modern name Ineboli, the birtliplace of the 
pretended prophet Alexander, of whom Lucian 
has left_us an account (Strab. p. 545). 

Aborigines, the original inhabitants of a 
country, equivalent to the Greek avrdxBovfs. 
But the Aborigines in Italy are in the Latin 
writers an ancient people who originally dwelt 
in the mountain districts round Reate, and 
drove the Siculi out of Latium, where they 
took the name of Latini from their king Latinus 
(Dionys. i. 9, 60; Liv. i. 1,2; Sail. Cat. 6; 
Varr. L. L. v. § 58; Cic. Beji. ii. 8). We find, 
in the neighbourhood of Reate, a district called 
the Cicolano, vestiges of ancient cities which, 
from the polygonal style of their construction, 
have been referred to a very early period. 

Aborrhas. [Ch.u3oeas.] 

Abradatas {'A^paSiras), a king of Susa and 
an ally of the Assyrians against Cyrus, whose 
history and that of his wife Panthea are told in 
Xenophon's Cijrojmedia (v. 1, 3, vi. 1, 31, &c.) 

Abrincatui, a Gallic tribe (Plin. iv. § 107), 
whence the modern Avranches. 

Abrocomas {'A0poK6fj.as), a satrap of Arta- 
xerxes Mnemon, sent with an army to oppose 
Cyrus on his march into Upper Asia, B.C. 401. 
He retreated before Cyrus (Xen. An. i. 3, 20, &c.). 

Abrocomes, son of Darius, slain at Thermo- 
pylae (Hdt. vii. 224). 

Abronichus CA.0ptivtxos), an Athenian served 
in the Persian war, B.C. 480, subsequently sent 
as ambassador to Sparta with Themistocles and 
Aristides__(Hdt. viii. 21 ; Thuc. i. 91). 

Abrotonum, mother of Tkemistocles (Plut. 
Tlwm.ll 

Abrotonum {'APpStovov), a Phoenician city 
on the coast of N. Africa, between the Syrtes, 
identified with Sabrata, though Pliny makes 
them different places (Strab. p. 835 ; Plin. v. § 27). 
It formed, with Oea and Leptis Magna, the 
African Tripolis. 

Absyrtides or Apsyrtides, sc. insnlae {'A\pvp- 
Ti'Ses : Cherso and Osero), two islands off the 
coast of lUyricum (Strab. p. 315 ; Plin. iii. 
§ 151). [Absybtus.] 

Absyrtus or Apsyrtus {"A^vpros), son of 
Aeetes, king of Colchis, and brother of Medea. 
There are two accounts of bis death. 1. According 
to one, Absyrtus was taken, when a small child, 
by Jason and Medea on their flight from Colchis, 
and was murdered by Medea, and his body cut 
in x^ieces, that her father might thus be detained 
by gathering them. Tomi, the place where this 
horror was committed, was believed to have de- 
rived its name from re/ivci), ' cut ' (Ov. Tr. iii. 
9, 5, Her.xi. 129, xii. 113; Cic. Leg. Man. 9, 
22). 2. Accordingto another tradition, Absyrtus, 
when a young man, was sent out by his father in 
pursuit of Medea. He overtook her in certain 
islands off the Illyrian coast, where he was slain 
by Jason (Hygin. F. 23, 20). Aljsyrtus is 
called by some writers Aegialeus (Pacuv. ap. 
Cic. X.D. iii. 19, 48 ; Diod. iv. 45 ; Just. xlii. 8). 

Abulites {' A^ovKlrr)s), satrap of Susiana, sur- 
rendered Susa to Alexander, who restored to 
him the satrapy ; but be and his son Oxyathres 
were afterwards executed by Alexander lArr. 
.4/1. iii. 10, vii. 4 ; Curt. v. 2; Diod. xvii. 05). 

AburnuB Valens. [A'.^lens.] 

Abus (<5 'A;8oj) or Aba (Plin. v. § 83), a 
mountain in Armenia, identified with the 
Ararat of Scripture (Strab. pp. 627, 581). 



ABUS 

Abus {Sumber), a river in Britain. 

Abydenus CA.0u5riv6s), a Greek historian of 
uncertain date, wrote a history of Assyria in the 
Ionic dialect, vahnible for clu-onology. The 
fragments are given by Miiller, Fragm. Hist. 
Graec. iv. 278. 

Abydos "A^uSoi, Abydum, Plin. v. § 141 : 
'A/8u57)f<)J, Abydenus). 1. A town of the Troad 
on the Hellespont, and a Milesian colony (Thuc. 
viii. 61) nearly opiJOsite to Sestos, but a little 
lower down the stream. It is mentioned as an 
ally of the Trojans (II. ii. 886). The bridge of 
boats which Xerxes constructed over the Helles- 
pont, B.C. 480, commenced a little higher up 
than Abydos, and touched the European shore 
between Sestos and Madytus (Herod, vii. 33). 
In 411 Abydus revolted from Athens (Thuc. 




Coin oJ Abydos. 
Qhv., .-Vrtemis ; rt'r., eagle. 



■■aii. 62). On the conclusion of the war with 
Philip (B.C. 196), the Eomans declared Abydus, 
with other Asiatic cities, to be free (Liv. xxxiii. 
30). The names of Abydus and Sestos are 
coupled together in the story of Hero and 
Leander, who is said to have swum across the 
channel to visit his mistress at Sestos. Hence 
Leander is called Ahydemis (Ov. H. xviii. 1 ; 
Stat. S. 1, 2, 87). Abydus was celebrated for its 
oysters (ostrifer, Verg. (?. i. 207). — 2. (Nr. Arabat 
el Matfoon&Tudi. ElBirbeh, Ilu.),acity of Upper 
Egypt, near the W. bank of the Nile ; once 
second only to Thebes, but in Strabo's time (a.d. 
14) a small village. It had a temple of Osiris 
and a Me7>mo7iiu7n,hot)i still standing, and an 
oracle. Here was found the inscription known 
as the Table of Abydos, which contains a list of 
the Egyptian kings (Strab. p. 813 sq. ; Plut. 
Is. et Osir. 18 ; Plin. v. § 60). 

Abyla or Abila Mons or Colunma ('Aj8i5A.ij or 
"AjSiArj (TTr)\i] or ipos : Jebel Zatout, i.e. Apes' 
Hill, above Ceuta), a mountain in Mauretania 
Tingitana, forming the E. extremity of the S. or 
African coast of the Pretum Gaditanum. This 
and M. Calpe [Gibraltar), opposite to it on the 
Spanish coast, were called the Coluvms of 
Hercules, from the fable that they were origi- 
nally one mountain, which was torn asunder by 
Heracles (Strab. p. 829 ; Mel. ii. 6). 

Acacallis {' hKaKaWis), daughter of Minos, 
by whom Hermes begot a son Cydon, and 
Apollo a son Miletus, as well as other children. 
Acacallis was in Crete a common name for a 
narcissus jPaus. viii. 52, 2 ; Athen. xv. p. 681). 

Acacesium ['AKaK-riatou '. ' h.KaK4\(Tios), a town 
of Arcadia, at the foot of a hill of the same 
name (Paua. viii. 8, 2; 27, 4; 36, 10). 

Acaoesius ('A/ca/c^jirioj), asumamoof Hermes 
(Callim. Htjvi. in Dian. 143), for which Homer 
(II. xvi. 18.5; Od. xxiv. 10) uses the form 
oKrfxTjTa (dKo/c^T7)i). Some derive it from the 
town of Acacesium, others from (cojcrfs, the god 
who cannot be hurt, or who does not hurt. It 
is also given to Prometheus (Hes. Thoog. 614), 
whence it may be inferred that its meaning is 
deliverer from evil. 



ACANTHUS 9 

AcaoeteB. [Acacesius.] 

Academia or ia ('AKaSrj^cia or 'AKah-n/xia: 
also Academia in the older Latin writers), a 
piece of land on the Cephissus, 6 stadia from 
Athens, originally belonging to the hero AcA- 
DEMUS (Plut. Tlies. 32), and subsequently a 
gymnasium, adorned by Cimon with plane and 
olive plantations, statues, and other works of 
art (Diog. Lacirt. iii. 7 ; Plut. Cim. IS ; Paus. i. 
29, 3). Here taught Plato, and after him his 
followers, who were hence called the Academici, 
or Academic philosophers (Cic. de Or. i. 21, 98, 
Fin. i. 1, 1). When Sulla besieged Athens in 
B.C. 87, he cut down the plane trees in order to 
construct his military machines (Plut. SuU. 12 ; 
App. Mithr. 30) ; but the place was restored 
soon afterwards. Cicero gave the name of Aca- 
demia to his villa near Puteoli, where he wrote 
his ' Academica.' He had another Academia in 
his Tusculan villa (Cic. Tusc. ii. 8, 9, iii. 3, 7 ; 
ad Att. i. 4, 3). 

Academici. [Academia.] 

Academus {'AKaSrifios), an Attic hero, who 
betrayed to Castor and Pollux, when they in- 
vaded Attica to liberate their sister Helen, that 
she was kept concealed at Aphidnae. For this 
the Lacedaemonians, whenever they invaded 
Attica, spared the Academy (Plut. Thes. 32 ; 
Theogn. 975 ; Hor. Ej}. ii. 2, 45). 

Acalandrus ('AreaA.ai'Spos : CaJandro),& river 
in Lucania, flowing into the gulf of Tarentum 
(Plin. iii. 97 ; Strab. p. 280). 

Acamas ('A/cauas). 1. Son of Theseus and 
Phaedra, accompanied Diomedes to Troy to 
demand the surrender of Helen (Diod. iv. 62). 
He was one of the Greeks concealed in the 
wooden horse at the taking of Troy (Verg. Aoi. 
ii. 262). The promontory of Acamas in Cj'prus 
(Plin. V. § 129), the town of Acamantium in 
]?hrygia, and the Attic tribe Acamantis, derived 
their names from him (Paus. i. 5, § 2). He was 
the tribe hero of the Ceramicus according to an 
inscription [Mitt. iv. 8). — 2. Son of Antenor 
and Theano, slain by Bleriones [H. ii. 823, xii. 
100, xiv. 476, xvi. 342).— 3. Sou of Eussorus, a 
leader of the Thracians in the Trojan war [II. 
ii. 844, V. 462), slain by the Telamonian Ajax [II. 
vi. 8). . 

Acanthus ["hKavOos), a Lacedaemonian, victor 
in the Olympic games in 01. 15 (b.c. 720), the 
first who ran quite naked (Paus. v. 8, 3 ; Dio- 
nys. vii. 72 ; cf. Thuc. i. 6). 

Acanthus. 1. ["hKavBos : 'Afcaveioy, Acan- 
thius : Erisso), a town on the istlimus connect- 
ing the peninsula of Acte with Chalcidice, and 
about li mile above the canal of Xerxes. 
[Athos.J It was founded by a colony from 
Andros. Xerxes stopped here on his march into 
Greece (b.c. 480). It surrendered to Brasidas 
424 and its independence was guaranteed in 




Coin of Acanthus. 
I., lion killing a bull ; rev., 'AKi^vSCwv, ■with a squoro. 



the treaty of peace made between Athens and 
Sparta. It afterwards became subject to Blace- 
donia. In the war between the Romans and 
I'lnhp (200) Acanthus was taken and plundered 

B 2 



4 ACARNAN 

by the fleet of the republic. On the coin o£ 
Acanthus fij,'ured above is a lion killing a bull, 
which justifies the account of Herodotus (vii. 
125), that on the march of Xerxes from Acan- 
thus to Therme, lions seized the camels which 
carried the provisions (Hdt. vii. 115 seq., 121 
seq. ; Thuc. iv. 8i seq., v. 18; Xen. Hell. v. 2; 
Liv. xxxi. 45 ; Strab. p. 380). — 2. [Dashour), a 
city of Egypt, on the \V. bank of the Nile, 120 
stadia S. of Memijhis, with a temxjle of Osiris, 
so called from a sacred enclosure composed of 
the Acanthus (Strab. p. SOS) ; Diod. i. 97). 

Acarnan ('AKapvav, -avos), one of the Epi- 
froni, sou of Alcmaeon and Callirrhoe, and 
brother of Amphoterus. Their father was mur- 
dered by Phegeus when they were young, and 
Callirrhoii prayed to Zeus to make her sons grow 
quickly, that they might avenge their father's 
death. Wlien they grew up, they slew Phegeus, 
and went to Ejiirus, where Acarnan founded 
the state called after him Acarnania (Thuc. ii. 
102 ; Apollod. iii. 3, 5 ; Ov. M. is. 413). 

Acarnania ('A/capcavia : 'AKapvdv, -avos, 
Acarnan, anis, acc. iina, pL anas, Liv. xxxvi. 
11,6; Epit. 53: adJ.'AicapfdviKos, Acarniinlcus), 
the most westerly province of Greece, was 
bounded on the N. by the Anibracian gulf, on 
the W. and SW. by the Ionian Sea, on the NE. 
by Amphilochia, which is sometimes included 
in Acarnania, and on the E.by Aetolia. It con- 
tained about 1,571 square miles. Its chief 
river is the Achelous, hence called ' amnis 
Acarnan ' (Sil. It. iii. 42) and ' amnis Acarnanum ' 
(Ov. M. viii. 569) : the river god is represented 
on the coins of Acarnania as a bull with the 




Coin of Acarn&nia. 
Obv., head of river-god Achelous ; rev., Apollo. 

head of a man. [Achelous.] The name of Acar- 
nania does not occur in Homer. In the most 
ancient times the land was inhabited by the 
Taphii, Teleboae, and Leleges, and subsequently 
bj' the Curetes, who emigrated from Aetolia and 
settled there (Strab. p. 465). At a later time a 
colony from Ai-gos, said to have been led by 
AcjVBNAN, the son of Alcmaeon, settled in the 
country. In the seventh century B.C. the Co- 
rinthians founded several towns on the coast. 
The Acarnanians first emerge from obscurity 
at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war, 
B.C. 431, when they sided with the Athenians 
(Thuc. iii. 105 seq.). They were then a rude 
people, living by piracy and robbery, and they 
always remained behind the rest of the Greeks 
in civilisation and refinement. They were good 
slingers, and are praised for their fidelity and 
courage. They espoused the side of Philip in 
his war with the Romans (Liv. xxxiii. 16, 17). 
The different towns formed a League with a 
Strategus at their head in the time of war : the 
members of the League met at Stratos, and 
subsequently at Thyrium or Leucas. Under 
the Romans Acarnania formed part of the pro- 
vhice of Epirus. 

Acastus CA/caiTTOi), son of Peliaa, king of 
lolcus, one of the Argonauts (Apoll. Rhod. j 
i. 224), also took part in the Calydonian hunt 



^ L. ACCIU8 

(Ov. M. viii. 300). His sisters were induced 
by Medea to cut up their father and boil him, 
in order to molce him young again, whereupon 
Acastus drove Jason and Medea from lolcus, 
and instituted funeral games in honour of lus 
father (Paus. iii. 18, 9 ; ApoUod. i. 9, 27 ; Ov. M. 
vii. 297, seq. xi. 409). During these games 
Astydamia, the wife of Acastus, also called 
Hippolyte (called by Horace, Od. iii. 7, 17, Mag- 
7iessa, from Magnesia in Thessaly, to distinguish 
her from the Amazon), fell in love with Peleus, 
who refused to listen to her addresses ; where- 
upon she accused him to her husband of having 
attempted her dishonour (Piad. J/em. iv. 50, v. 
25). Afterwards, when Acastus and Peleus were 
limiting on mount Pelion, Acastus took his 
sword from him when he had fallen asleep. He 
was in consequence nearly destroyed by the 
Centaurs ; but he was saved by Chiron or 
Hermes, returned to Acastus, and killed him 
together with his wife. 

Acbarus. [Abgabus.] 

Acca larentia (not Laurentia), a mythical 
woman in early Roman story, connected with the 
legends of Romulus and Hercules, (i.) According 
to one account she was the wife of the shepherd 
Faustulus, and the nurse of Romulus and Remus 
after they had been taken from the she-woU. She 
was the mother of twelve sons, and when one of 
them died Romulus stepped into his place, and 
took in conjunction with the remaining eleven 
the name of Fratres Arvales. From the play 
upon the words lupus and lupia, she was also 
represented as a prostitute (liipa), who left 
the property she gained in that way to the 
Roman people. A festival, Ldrentalia [or 
Larentinalia] was celebrated in her honour on 
the 23rd of December by the Flamen Quirinalis 
as the representative of Romulus in the Vela- 
bruni, where she died (Gell. vii. 7, 7 ; Phn. xviii. 
§ 6 ; Ov. F. iii. 57 ; Macrob. i. 10, 11 ; Viu-r. 
L.L. vi. 23 ; Liv. i. 4). (ii.) According to an- 
other account, in the reign of Romulus or Ancus 
Martins a servant [aedituus] of the templs of 
Hercules invited the god to a game of dice, 
promising that if he should lose the game he 
would treat the god with a repast and a beauti- 
ful woman. Wlien the god had conquered the 
servant, the latter shut up Acca Larentia, with 
the surname Fabula or Faula, a beautiful 
prostitute, together with a well-stored table, 
in the temple of Hercules. On the following 
morning the god advised her to gain the affec- 
tions of the first wealthy man she should meet. 
She succeeded in making Tarrutius or Carutius, 
an Etruscan, love and marry her. After his 
death she mherited his large property, which 
she left to the Roman people (GeU. vii. 7, 6 ; 
Macrob. i. 10, 12, 16 ; Plut. Bom. 4, 5, Qu. B. 
35 ; Lactant. i. 20, 5 ; August. CD. vi. 7). The 
name Acca probably signifies mother (cf. Skr. 
akka), and the epithet iftrewita probably refers 
to the 12 Lares or Arvales. 

L. Accius or Attius, an early Roman tragic 
poet, son of a freedman, born B.C. 170, Uved to 
a great age. Cicero, when grown up, conversed 
with him (Brut. 28). His tragedies were chiefly 
imitated from the Greeks, but he also wrote 
some on Roman subjects (Practexiata) ; one, 
entitled Brutus, was probably in honour of his 
patron D. Brutus (Cic. Arch. 11, 27 ; Leg. ii. 21, 
54 ; Phil. i. 15, 36, ii. 8, 31 ; ad Ait. xvi. 5). We 
possess only fragments of his tragedies, but they 
are highly spoken of by ancient writers (Cic. 
Plane. 24, 59, Sest. 50, 120; Hor. Ep.u. 1, 56). 
He also wrote Annalcs in verse, containing the 
history of Rome ; and three prose works, ' Libri 



ACCO 

Didascalicon,' apparently a history of poetry. 
The fragmeuts of his tragedies are given by 
Kibbeck, Tragic. Lat. lieliq.; and those of 
the DidiiRcaHoa by Madvig, Hafn. 1831. 

Acco, a chief of the Seuones in Gaul, induced 
his countrymen to revolt against Caesar, B.C. 53, 
by whom he was put to death [B. G. vi. 4, ii). 

Acciia, a town of Apulia (Liv. xxiv. 20). 

Ace. [Ptolejiais.] 

Acerbas, a Tyrian priest of Heracles, who 
married Elissa, the sister of king Pygnialiou 
(Justin, sviii. i). In the narrative of Justin, 
Acerbas is the same person as Sichaeus, and 
Elissa the same as Dido in Virgil (Aeii. i. 843 
seq.), of whom the same tale is told. [DlDc] 

Acerrae (Acerranus). 1. [Acerra], a town 
in Campania on the Clanius, received the 
Eoman franchise in B.C. 332. It was destroyed 
by Hannibal, but was rebuilt (Liv. xxiii. 17, 
xxvii. 3). It suffered from the frequent inunda- 
tions of the Clanius (Verg. G. ii. 225 ; Sil. It. 
viii. 357). — 2. (Gerra), a town of the Insubresin 
Gallia Transpadana on the Adda, a fortified 
place (Pol. ii. 34 ; Plut. Marc. 6 ; Strabo, p. 
247). — 3. A town of Umbria with the epithet 
Vatriae (Plin. iii. § 114). 

Acerronia, drowned in B.C. 59, when an at- 
tempt was made to drown Agrippina, the mother 
of Nero (Tac. Ann. xiv. 4 ; Dion Cass. Ixi. 13). 

Cn. Acerronius Proculus, consul a.d. 37, in 
which vear Tiberius died (Tac. Ann. vi. 45 ; 
Suet. Tih. 73). 

Aces ("Aktjs), a river in central Asia, E. of 
the Caspian (Hdt. iii. 117). 

Acesas {'AK^cras), born at Salamis in Cyprus, 
famed for weaving cloth with variegated 
patterns. He and his son Helicon were the first 
who made a peplus for Athena Polias (Ath. 
p. 18), which is mentioned by Euripides {Hec. 
468) and Plato {Euthyphr. § (i). 

Acesines ("A/ceo-i'vTjs). 1. {Chenauh), a river 
in India, into whicli the Hydaspes flows, and 
which itself flows into the Indus (Arr. An. v. 
20, 13 ; Strab. p. 692 ; 'kK((r7vos, Diod. ii. 87 ; 
Plin. vi. § 71, xvi. § 162). — 2. (Cantara), a river 
in Sicily, near Tauromenium (Thuc. iv. 25), 
called by Pliny (iii. § 88) AsiNES. 

Acesta. [Segesta.J 

Acestea ('AA-e'o-Trjj, My((TTos), son of a Trojan 
woman, Egesta or Segesta, sent by her father 
to Sicily, that she might not be devoured by 
the monsters which infested the territory of 
Troy. In Sicily the river-god Crimisus begot 
by her a son Acestes, who founded the town 
of Acesta or Segesta. Aeneas, on his arrival in 
Sicily, was hospitably received by Acestes (Verg. 
A.en. i. 550, v. 35 ; Ov. M. xiv. 83). Dionysius 
(i. 52) has a different legend. 

Acestor {'AKe<rrap). 1. Surnamed Sacas, on 
account of his foreign origin, a tragic poet at 
Athens, and a contemporary of Aristophanes 
(Av. 31 ; Vesp. 1216).— 2. A sculptor of Cuossus, 
ubout B.C. 452 (Pans. vi. 17, 2, x. 15, 4). 

Achaei ('Axoiof) are represented as descen- 
dants of Achaeus, the son of Xuthus and 
Creusa, and consequently the brother of Ion 
and grandson of Hellen (Apollod. i. 7, 3 ; Strab 
388 ; Paus. vii. 1, 2). There was no broad dis- 
tinction of race between them and the Hellenes 
whoso name afterwards prevailed. Like the 
Hellenes, they were confined to the western 
side of the Aegean, except that Od. xix. 175 
mentions them in Crete. [For the supposed 
Achaeans on Egyptian monuments of tlie 14th 
cent. B.C. see Aegyptus.] In the heroic age ther 
are found in the southem part of Thessaly 
LAcHAi.v, 1], and also in the eastern part of Pelo- 



ACHAL^ 5 

ponnesus, more especially in Argos and Sparta. 
Homer describes them as a brave and war- 
hke people, and calls the Greeks in general 
Achaeans or Panachaeans (Uavaxaiol, II. ii. 
404, vu. 73, &c.). In the same manner Pelo- 
ponnesus, and sometimes the whole of Greece, 
is called by the poet the Achaean land 
('Axttiis yaca, II. i. 254, Od. xiii. 249). So 
also the Eoman poets use Achaia and the 
derivative adjectives as equivalent to Greece 
and Grecian (Ov. iU. viii. 268, v. SOG ; Verg. 
Aen. ii. 462 ; Juv. iii. 61). On the conquest 
of Peloponnesus by the Dorians, after the 
Trojan war, the Adiaeans were driven out of 
Argos and Laconia, and those who remained 
behind were reduced to the condition of a con- 
quered people. Blost of the expelled Achaeans, 
led by Tisamenus, the son of Orestes, pro- 
ceeded to the northern coast of Pelopon- 
nesus, which was called simply Aegialus 
{Aiyia\6s) or the ' Coast,' and -was inhabited 
by lonians. The latter were defeated by the 
Achaeans and crossed over to Attica and Asia 
Minor, leaving their country to their conquerors, 
from whom it was henceforth called Achaia 
(Strab. p. 883 ; Paus. vii. 1 ; Pol. ii. 41 ; Hdt. i. 

145). [ACH.UA.] 

Achaemenes ('Ax«'/"fV7;y. 1. Ancestor of 
the Persian kings, who founded the family of 
the Achaemenidae [' hxaifxivi^ai), which was 
the noblest family of the Pasargadae (Hdt. 
i. 125 ; iii. 75, vii. 11 ; Hor. Od. ii. 12, 21). 
The Roman poets use Achaemenius in the 
sense of Persian (Ov. Jlf. iv. 212; Hor. Carm. 
iii. 1, 44). — 2. Son of Darius I., governor of 
Egypt, commanded the Egj-ptian fleet in the 
expedition of Xerxes against Greece, B.C. 480. 
He was killed in battle by Inarus the Libyan, 
460 (Hdt. iii. 12, vii. 7, 97 ; Diod. xi. 74). 

Aehaemenides, or Achemenides, a com- 
panion of Ulysses, who left him behind in Sicily 
when he fled from the Cyclops. Here he was 
found by Aeneas (Verg. Aen. iii. 614 ; Ov. M. 
xiv. 161, Pont. ii. 2, 25 and 167). 

Achaeus ('Axairfs). 1. Son of Xuthus, the 
mythical ancestor of the Achaei. — 2. Of Eretria 
in Euboea, a tragic poet, born B.C. 484. Li 447, 
he contended with Sopihocles and Euripides, 
and though he brought out many dramas, he 
only gained the prize once. In the satirical 
drama he possessed considerable merit (Dioc. 
Laert. ii. 183 ; Athen. p. 451; Ov.Ib. 543). The 
fragments have been published by Urlichs 
(1884) and Eauch, Trag. Grace. Fragm. 
(1856). — 3, A later tragic poet, a native of 
Syracuse, wrote ten tragedies. — 4. Governor 
under Antiochus III. of all Asia W. of mount 
Taurus, revolted against Antiochus, and was 
put to death, B.C. 214 (Pol. iv. 51, 08, viii. 17, 
seq. ; Oy. lb. 301). 

Achaia ('Axdi'a, Ion. 'Axad'v : 'Axai6s, 
Achaeus, Ach i\T.is,/e»;. and adj. 'Axaias, Achii- 
ias, Achais : Adj. 'Axa'i'fos Achuicus, Achaius). 

A district in the S. of Thessaly, in which 
Phthia and Hellas were situated, the original 
abode of the Achaeans, who were hence called 
Phthiotan Achaeans ('Axaiol oi ^BicoTai) to dis- 
tinguish them from the Achaeans in the Pelo- 
ponnesus. It was from this part of Tliessaly 
that Achilles came (11. ii. 084). This district 
retained the name of Achaia in the time of 
Herodotus (vii. 173, 107), and the inhabitants of 
Phthia were called Phthiotan Achaeans till a 
still later period (Tliuc. viii. 3).— 2. A province 
m the N. of Peloponnesus, extended along the 
Corinthian gulf from the river Larissus, a little 
b. of the promontory Araxus, which separated 



6 ACHAIA 

it from Elis, to the river Sythas, wliioh sepa- 
rated it from Sicyoniiv. On the S. it was 
bordered by Arcadia, and on the SW. by EUs. 
Its greatest length along the coast is about 
05 Enghsh miles : its breadth from about 12 to 
'10 miles. Its area was about 650 square miles. 
Achaia is thus only a narrow slip of country, 
lying upon the slope of the northern range of 
Arcadia, through which are deep and narrow 
gorges, by which alone Achaia can be invaded 
from the south. From this mountain range 
descend numerous ridges running down into 
the sea, or separated from it by narrow levels. 
The original inhabitants were Pelasgians, called 
Aegialeis {Aiyia\eis), or the ' Coast-Men,' from 
Aegialtjs or Aeglvlelv (Alyia,\6s, Al'yia\eia, 
II. ii. 575, Pans. vii. 1, 1 ; Strab. p. 383), the 
ancient name of the country, though some 
writers sought a mythical origin for the name, 
and derived it from Aegialeus, king of Sioyonia 
(Hdt. vii. 94 ; Pans. vii. 1). The lonians sub- 
sequently settled in the country, from which 
they were expelled by the Achaeans, whence the 
country was called Achaia. [Achaj3I.] TheAohaei 
settled in 12 cities : Pellene, Aegira, Aegae, 
Bura, Helice, Aegium, Ehypae, Patrae, Pharae, 
Olenus, Dyme, and Tritaea (Hdt. i. 145). 
Leontium and Ceryneia were afterwards substi- 
tuted for Ehypae and Aegae. These cities are 
said to have been governed by Tisamenus and 
his descendants till Ogyges, upon whose death 
a democratical form of government was esta- 
bhshed in each state ; but the twelve states 
formed a league for mutual defence and protec- 
tion. In the Persian war the Achaei took no 
part ; and they had little iutiuence in the 
alfairs of Greece till the time of the successors 
of Alexander. In B.C. 281 the Achaei, subject to 
the Macedonians, renewed their ancient league 
to combine the states of the Peloponnesus for 
the purpose of shaking off the Macedonian 
yoke. This was the origin of the celebrated 
Achaean League. It at first consisted of only 
four towns, Dyme, Patrae, Tritaea, and Pharae, 
but was subsequently joined by the other to\vns 

of Achaia with 
the exception 
of Olenus and 
Helice. It did 
not, however, 
obtain much 
unportance till 
monogram 251, when Ara- 
and fish tus united to 
it his native 
town, Sicyon. The example of Sicyon was 
followed by Corinth and many other towns in 
Greece, and the League soon became the chief 
political power in Greece. It was undoubtedly 
a misfortune that Aratus rejected a union with 
Sparta and sought the aid of Macedon (see 
further under Akatus, Cleomenes, Philo- 
POEMEN.] In the following century the Achaei 
declared war against the Komans, who de- 
stroyed the League, and thus put an end to 
the independence of Greece. Corinth, then the 
chief town of the League, was taken by the 
Bonian general Mumniius, in b.c. 140. The 
different states composing the Achaean League 
had equal rights. The assemblies of tlie League 
were held twice a year, in the spring and 
autumn, in a grove of Zeus Homagyrius near 
Aegium. At these assemblies all the business 
of the League was conducted, and at the 
spring meeting the public functionaries were 
chosen. These were:— 1. a Strategus ((TTjjaTT;- 
■vds) or General, and an Hippnrchus {'imrapxos) 




Coin of Achaia, 
Obv., liead of Zeus ; ret;., 
of AX. in laurel crown : 
standing for Dyme. 



ACHELOUS 
or commander of the cavalry ; 2. a Se^recaty 
iypannaTivs] ; and 8. ten Demiurgi {SiJixiovpyoi, 
also called apxovres), who appear to have had 
the right of convening the assembly. — 3. The 
Roman provmce, including the whole of Pelo- 
ponnesus and the gi-eater part of Hellas proper 
with the adjacent islands. It is usually stated 
by modern writers that the province wag 
formed on the conquest of the Achaeans in n.c. 
140; but it is more probable that the south 
of Greece was first made a separate i>rovince 
by J ulius Caesar : since the first governor of 
the province of whom any mention is made was 
Serv. Sulpicius, and he was appointed to this 
office by Caesar (Cic. ad Favi. vi. 0, § 10). In 
the division of the provinces made by Augus- 
tus, the whole of Greece was divided into the 
provinces of Achaia, Macedonia, and Epirus. 
Achaia was one of the provinces assigned to 
the senate, and was governed by a proconsul 
(Strab. p. 840 ; Dio Cass. liii. 12). Tiberius in 
the second year of his reign (a.d. 10) took it 
away from the senate and made it an imperial 
province (Tac. Ann. i. 70), but Claudius gave it 
back again to the senate (Suet. Claud. 25). In 
the reign of this emperor Corinth was the 
residence of the proconsul, and it was here that 
the Apostle Paul was brought before Junius 
Gallio as proconsul of Achaia [Acta Apost. 
xviii. 12). 

AchaicuB, a surname of L. Mummius, who 

conquered Corinth. [Muliiiins.] 

Acharuae ("Axapcai : ' hxo.pvevs, W fixapvns, 
Acharnilnus, Nei). Them. 1 ; Adj. 'Axapi'ayi/cdr), 
the principal demus of Attica, belonging to the 
tribe Oeneis, 60 stadia N. of Athens, near the 
foot of Mount Pai'nes, possessed a rough and 
warlike population, who were able to furnish 
3,000 hoplitae at the conmiencement of the 
Peloponnesian war. Their land was fertile, and 
they carried on a considerable traffic in char- 
coal. One of the plays of Aristophanes bears 
the name of the inhabitants of this demus 
(Thuc. ii. 13, 19-21 ; Pind. Ne7H. ii. 25 ; Paus. 
i. 31, 0 ; Atheu. p. 234 ; Stat. Th. xii. 623). 

Acharrae, a town in Thessaliotis in Thessaly, 
on the river Pamisus (Liv. xxxii. 13), apparently 
the same place as the Achame of Pliny (iv. § 32). 

Achates, ae. 1. A Trojan, the faithful 
friend of Aeneas (Verg. Aeii. i. 120 ; Ov. Fa3t. 
iii. 603). — 2. AriverintheSW. of Sicily, remark- 
able for the clearness of its waters, in which the 
first agate is said to have been fomid (Sil. It. 
xiv. 208 ;_ Plin. iii. § 90 ; Theoplu-. La}}. § 31). 

Acheloides. [Achelous.] 

Aohel5us. 1. ('Ax^^vos, 'AxeAwios in 
Hom. : Aspro Potaino), the largest river in 
Greece, rises in Mount Pindus, and flows 
southward, forming the boundary between 
Acarnania and Aetolia, and falls into the 
Ionian sea opposite the islands called Echi- 
nades, formed bv the alluvial deposits of the 
river (Thuc. ii. 102). It is about 180 miles 
in length. The god of this river is described 
as the son of Oceanus and Tetliys. and a.s the 
eldest of his 3,000 brothers (Hes. Theog. 
840). He fought with Heracles for Deianira, 
but was conquered in the contest. He then 
took the form of a bull, but was again over- 
come by Heracles, who deprived him of one of 
his horns, which however he recovered by giv- 
ing up the horn of Amalthea, which became 
the horn of plenty (Soph. Track, d, 510 ; Ov. 
M. viii. 880, i.x. 1). This legend alludes appa- 
rently to efforts made to check the ravages 
' of the river inundations, whence largo tracts 
of land were gained for cultivation, which are 



ACHKMENIDES 

exwessed by the horu of plenty (Strab. p. -158). 
When Theseus returned from the Calydonmn 
chase, he was hospitably received by Achelous, 
who related to him in what manner he had 
changed certain nymphs into the islands callecl 
Echinades (Ov. Met. viii. 577-eil). The Achelous 
was re'^arded as the ruler and representative 
of all fresh water in Hellas. Hence he is 
called by Homer (17. xx. 194) Kpuwv "AxeAwioy, 
and was worshipped as a mighty god througli- 
out Greece. He was regarded as the represen- 
tative of all flowing water, so that the name is 
often used by the poets as equivalent to water 
(Ephor. ap. Macrob. v. 18 ; Aesch. Pers. 8G9 ; 
Eurip.-B«cc7i.625; Aristoph. iys. 381). Theroot 
ix- probably means water, and appears in aqua. 
The river god is represented on the coins oi 
Acaruania and Oeniadae as a bull with the 
head of a man. [See coins under Ac.uinanla. 
and Oexlvd.u:.]— Hence Acheloiddes, contr. 
■Lcheloides, i.e. the Sirenes, the daughters of 
Achelous (Ov. Met. v. 552, xiv. 87) ; Acheloia 
CalHrhoe, because Callirhoe was the daughter 
of Achelous (Ov. Met. is. 413) : pocula Ache- 
loia, i.e. water in general (Verg. Gcorg. i. 9) : 
Acheloius heros, that is, Tydeus, son of Oeiieus, 
king of Calydon, ^c/tetoiw« = Aetolian (Stat. 
Theh. ii. 142).— 2. A river of Thessaly, in the 
district of Malis, flowing near Lamia (Strab. 
pp. 434, 450). — 3. A mountain torrent in Arca- 
dia, flowing into the Alpheus, from the north of 
ilomit Lycaeus (Paus. viii. 38, 9).— 4. Also 
called Peebus, a river in Achaia, flowing near 
Dyme (Strab. pp. 342, 450). 

Achememdes. [Achaemenides.] 

Acherdus ('Ax^pSoGs, ovvtos: 'Ax^pSovtnos), 
from ax^pSos, a wild pear-tree, a demus of At- 
tica of uncertain site, belonging to the tribe 
Hippothoontis. Aristophanes (Eccl. 302), in 
joke, uses the form 'AxpaSovatos instead of 
'Ax^pSova-ios (Aeschin. in Tim. § 110). 

Acherini, the inhabitants of a small town in 
Sicily, mentioned only by Cicero [Verr. iii. 43). 

Acheron ('Axepwi', also Acheruns, untis. 
Plant. Capt. v. 4, 2 ; Aoheros, Liv. viii. 24), the 
name of several rivers, all of which were, at 
least at one time, believed to be coimected with 
the lower world. It has the same root ax- as 
Achelous = a(7ua, but was derived by the an- 
cients from ctxoS) " ''X'? i)fO}v. — 1. A river in 
Thesprotia in Epirus, which flows through the 
lake Acherusia, and, after receiving the river 
Cocytus, flows into the Ionian sea, now Gurla, 
or river of SuH (Thuc. i. 46 ; Strab. p. 324). On 
its banks was an oracle called v^Kvo/j-avT^^ov 
(Hdt. v. 92), which was consulted by evok- 
ing the spirits of the dead. — 2. A river in Elis 
which flows into the Alpheus (Strab. p. 344). 
— 3. A river in Southern Italy in Bruttii, on 
which Alexander of Epirus perished (Liv. 
viii. 24; Strab. p. 256; Justin, xii. 2).— 4. The 
river of the lower world, usually identified with 
the Acheron in Thesprotia. [No. 1.] In the 
Iliad the Styx is the only river of the lower 
world, but in the Odyssey (x. 513) the Acheron 
appears as the river of the lower world, into 
which the Pyriphlegethon (nvpi(p\ey46ijiiv, Fire- 
&/aa!«(/) and Cocytus (Kwkvtos, Wailiruj), a tri- 
butary of the Styx, flow. Across the river the 
shades had to be carried to reach the lower 
world (Eurip. Ale. 440 ; Verg. Aen. vi. 295). 
Acheron is frequently used in a general sense 
to signify the whole of the lower world (Soph. 
Ant. 805 ; Verg. Acn. vii. 312 ; Hor. Ocl. i. 
3, 30; Nep. Dion. 10). The Etruscans too 
were acquainted with the worshi]) of Acheron 
(Achei-uns). Their Acheruntici libri treated 



ACHILLES 7 

of the deification of the souls, and of the sacri- 
fices (Acheruntia sacra) by which this was to 
be effected.— Hence Adj. ' hx^povtrios, Ache- 
rusius; ' Ax^p6vreios , Acheronteus, Acheronti- 
cus, Acherunticus. . 

Acherontia [Acerenza], a town m Apulia on 
Mount Vultur, whence Horace [Od. in. 4, 14) 
speaks of celsae nidam Acherontiae. 

Acherusia ('Axfpow'^'a A'A"") Ax(pova-is), 
the name of several lakes believed to be con- 
nected with the lower world. 1. In Thesprotia. 
r^cHERON.]- 2. (Lago di Fusaro) m Campa- 
nia, so called in consequence of its proximity 
to Avernus. [A^tsexus.] (Strab. pp. 243, 24o ; 
Plin iii. § 6.)— 3, Near Hermione m Argolis 
(Paus. ii.' 35, 10). — 4. Near Heraclea in 
Bithynia (Xen. An. vi. 2, 6).— 6. Li Egypt 
near Memphis (Diod. i. 96). 

Achilla or AchoUa ("AxoAAa : AxoAAaios : 
Achillitanus : El Aliah, Bu.), a town on the 
coast of Africa, in the Cai-thaginian territory, 
above the N. point of the Syrtis Blinor (Strab. 
p. 831 ; Liv. xxxiii. 48 ; B. Afric. 33-48). 

AcMlIas ('Ax'AAay), commander of the 
Egyptian troops, when Pompey fled to Egypt 

B. C. 48. He and L. Septunius kiUed Pompey. 
He resisted Caesar, and was put to death by 
Arsinoe, the sister of Ptolemy, B.C. 47 (Caes. B. 

C. iii. 104 seq., B. Al. 4 ; Luc. viii. 538). 
Achilles ('Ax'AAeus, 'AxiAeus, fus, Bp. 

r\os : Lat. is, &c., also gen. Aohilloi, Hor. Od. 
i. 15, 4 ; Achilli, Verg. Aen. iii. 87 ; acc. Achil- 
lea, Luc. X. 523; a6L Achilli, Ov. Po«i. iii. 3, 
43: adj. 'Ax'AAeios, Ion. 'AxiAAi^ios, Achil- 
leus), the great hero of the J\\&a.— Homeric 
story. Achilles was the son of Peleus, king 
of the Myrmidones in Phthiotis, in Thessaly, 
and of the Nereid Thetis {II. xx. 206 Sic). 
From his father's name he is often called 
Pel'ides, Peleiades, and Pellon (Xhij\dhi)s , ITrj- 
Arji'aSrjs, IlT/Aefaji', II. xviii. 316 ; i. 1 ; i. 197 ; 
Verg. Aen. ii. 263), and from his grandfather 
Aeacides {AiaKiSr)s, II. ii. 860 ; Verg. Aen. i. 99). 
He was educated, along with Patroclus, his 
life-long friend (II. xxiii. 84), by Phoenix, who 
taught him eloquence and the arts of war {II. 
ix. 485, xi. 832), and by Chiron, the centaur, 
who taught him the healing art (xi. 232). 
His mother Thetis foretold him that his fate 
was either to gain glory and die early or to 
live a long but inglorious life (ix. 410). The 
hero chose the former, and therefore when 
Ulysses and Nestor came to Phthia to per- 
suade him to take part in the Trojan war 
he followed them willingly, though he knew 
he was not to retm-n (xi. 765). Accompanied 
by Phoenix and Patroclus, he led his hosts 
of Myrmidones, Hellenes, and Acbaeans, in 
fifty ships, against Troy (ii. 681). Here the 
swift-footed Achilles was the great bulwark of 
the Greeks, and the worthy favourite of Athene 
and Hera. Wlien, in the tenth year of the war, 
Agamemnon was obliged to give up Cliryseis 
to her father, he threatened to take away 
Briseis from Achilles, who surrendered her on 
the persuasion of Athene, but at the same time 
refused to take any further part in the war, 
and shut himself up in his tent. Zeus, on the 
entreaty of Thetis, promised that victory should 
be on the side of the Trojans until the Achaeans 
should have honoured her son. The Greeks 
were defeated, and were at last pressed so hard 
that an embassy was sent to Achilles, offering 
him rich presents and the restoration of Briseis ; 
but in vain. At last, however, ho was per- 
suaded by Patroclus to allow the latter to 
make use of his men, his horses, and his ar- 



8 ACHILLES 
Patroclua was slain, nnd when this news 



reached Achilles ho was seized with unspeak- 
able grief. Thetis consoled him, and iiromised 
new arms, to bo made by Hephaestus, and Iris 
exhorted him to rescue the body of Patroclus. 
Achilles now rose, and his thundering voice 
alone put the Trojans to flight. When his new 
armour was brought to him, with the cele- 
brated shield described at length by Homer, 
he hurried to the field of battle. He slew num- 
bers of Trojans, and at length met Hector, 
whom he chased thrice around the walls of the 
city. He then slew him, tied his body to his 
chariot, and dragged him to the ships of the 
■S-reeks. After this, he burnt the body of Pa- 
iroclus, together with twelve young captive 
Trojans, who were sacrificed to appease the 
s])irit of his friend ; but he gave up the body of 
Hector to Priam, who came in j)erson to beg 
for it. Achilles was slain at the Scaean 
gate, by Paris and Apollo, before Troy was 
taken. His death itself does not occur in the 
Iliad, but it is alluded to in a few passages 
(xxii. 358, xix. 417, xxi. 278). It is expressly 
mentioned in the Odyssey (xxiv. 36), where it 
is said that his fall — his conqueror is not men- 
tioned — was lamented by gods and men, that 



his origmal name, Ligyron, i.e. the ' whining,' 
into Achilles (Pind. h'em, iil 51; Static/////, 
i. 209 (fcc; Hor. E2iod. 13, 11). Chiron fed 
his pupil with the hearts of lions and the 
marrow of bears. According to other ac- 
counts, Thetis endeavoured to make Achilles 
immortal by dipping him in the river Styx, and 
succeeded with the exception of the heel, by 
which she held him (Stat. Achill. i. 269). When 
he had reached the age of nine, Calclias de- 
clared that Troy could not be taken without 
his aid; and Thetis, Imowing that the war 
would be fatal to him, disguised him as a 
maiden, and introduced him among the 
daughters of Lycomedes of Soyros, where he 
was called by the name of Pyrrlia on account 
of his golden locks. Here he remained con- 
cealed till Ulysses visited the place in the dis- 
guise of a merchant, and offered for sale some 
female dresses, amidst which he had mixed 
some arms. Achilles discovered his sex by 
eagerly seizing the arms, and then accompanied 
Ulysses to the Greek army. During his resi- 
dence at Scyros, one of his companions, Dei- 
damia, became by him the mother of Pyn-hus 
or Neoi)tolemus. [For the events at Aulis and 
the pretext of marrying Iphigeuia to him, see 




AchiUes at Sosrros. (From the Louvre.) 



his remains, togetlier with those of Patroclus, 
were buried in a golden urn which Dionysus 
had given as a present to Thetis, and were de- 
posited on the coast of the Hellespont, where a 
mound was raised over them. Achilles is the 
principal hero of the Iliad; he is the hand- 
somest and bravest of all the Greeks ; affec- 
tionate towards his mother and his friends; 
formidable in battles, which are his delight ; 
open-hearted and without fear, and at the same 
time susceptible to the gentle and quiet joys 
of home. His greatest passion is ambition, 
and when his sense of honour is hurt he is un- 
relenting in his revenge and anger, but withal 
submits obediently to the will of the gods. — 
Later traditiom. These chiefly consist of 
accounts which fill up the history of his youth 
and death. His mother, wishing to make Inm 
immortal, concealed him by night in fire, in order 
to destroy tlie mortal parts he had inherited 
from his father, and by day anointed him with 
ambrosia. But Peleus one night discovered 
his child in the fire, and cried out in terror. 
Thetis left her son and fled, iind Peleus en- 
trusted him to Chiron, who educated and in- 
structed liim in the arts of riding, hunting, 
and playing the phorminx, and also chanijed 



Iphigenla.; for the healing of Telephus by 
Achilles, see Telephus.] In the war against 
Troy, Achilles slew Penthesilea, an Amazon, 
but was deeply moved upon discovering her 
beauty ; and when Thersites ridiculed him for 
his tenderness of heart, he killed the scoffer 

, by a blow with the fist. He fought with Mem- 
non and slew the young Troilus (Q. Smjn-n. n. 

! 480 ; Verg. Aen. i. 474). Both incidents are 
favourite subjects with vase-painters. In the 
former the mothers of the combatants watch 
the fight, or Zeus is represented weighing the 
life of Achilles against tliat of Memnon. The 
accounts of his death differ nmch, though all 

I agree in stating that ho did not fall by human 
hands, or at least not without the interference 
of the god Apollo. According to some tradi- 
tions, he was killed by Apollo himself (Soph. 
P Jul act. 834; Hor. Od. iv. 6,3), as had been 
foretold (11. xxi. 278). According to others 
Apollo merely directed the weapon of Pans 
a^'ainst Achilles, and thus caused his death, as 
had been suggested by the dying Hector 0 erg. 
Acn. XX. 57 Ov. U. xii. 001; II. ^^'\-f>f^- 
Others again relate that Achilles loved Poly- 
xena, a daughter of Priam, and tempted by the 
promise that he should receive her as his wite. 



ACHILLES 
if lie would join the Trojans, he went without 
an 'into tlie temple of Apollo at Thpibm, and 
was a sassinated there by Paris His body ^vas 
rescued by Ulysses and Ajax the Telamonian ; his 
Zmonv was promised by Thetis to the braves 
among the Greeks, which gave rise to a contest 
between the two heroes who had rescued his 
hody [4jvx.] After his death, AchiUes became 
oneof the judges in the lower world, and dwelled 
in the islands of the blessed, where he was united 
with Medea or Iphigenia. The fabulous island 




Death of AchlUes. (Raoul Rochitto, Mon. Ined., pi. 53.) 



of Leuce in the Euxine was especially sacred to 
him. [AcHlLLEUS Dromos.] Achilles was wor- 
shipped m several places as- one of the national 
heroes of Greece ; as at Pharsalus, Tanagra, 
and Sparta : in Epirus even as a god. The re- 
markable worship on the coasts of the Euxine 
may have been spread by the Milesian settle- 
ment at Byzantium, perhaps combined with 
the worship of some local heroes. Various ex- 
planations of his name are given. Most of the 
ancients connect it with axos, because Achilles 
gave pam to the Trojans. Some writers re- 
gard him as originally a river god, arguing that 
dx-, like the root in Achelous, may signify 
water, as in aqua. Others make him a sun- 
god, as they have attempted to make the whole 
Iliad a representation of the sun taking posses- 
sion of the east. There is certainly more con- 
nexion in the story of Achilles with water di- 
vinities than with the sun : it is even possible 
that some part of his story may be boiTowed 
from local rituals of river or sea deities ; but 
there is no valid reason why the reader of 
Greek poets should not see in the main story 
of Achilles the glorification in ballads of a tra- 
ditional hero of war, in no degree suggested 
originally by any iihenomena of nature ; still 
less are we obliged to base his story on any of 
the Ku^iposed etjmologies of his name. 

Achilles Tatius, of Alexandria, lived in the 
middle of the fifth century of our era, and is 
the author of a Greek romance in eight books, 
containing the adventures of two lovers, 
Clitophon and Leucippe, published by Fr. 
Jacobs, Lips. 1821. He must be distinguished 
from Achilles Statius, or Tatius, who probably 
lived in tlie second century of our era, and wrote 
a work on the sphere (Trepl acpalpas), a frag- 
ment of which, professing to bo an introduction 
to the Phacnomr.na of Aratus, is printed iu 
Petavius, Uranuloyia, Paris, 1G30. 



ACMONIDES 9 
AcMUeum ("Ax^AAeiov), a town near the 
promontory Sigdum in the Troad, where 
Achilles was supposed to have been buried 
(Hdt. V. 94 ; Strab. p. 594; Ai'r. An. i. 12). 

AcMUeus, assumed the title of emperor 
under Diocletian, reigned over Egypt, and was 
put to death by Diocletian a.d. 296 (Eutrop. i:;. 
14, 15 ; Aur. Vict. Cues. 39). 

Achilleus Dromos ('Axi'AA.6ios Spo/xos : 1 en- 
dera or Tendra), atougneoi land in the Euxine 
Sea near the mouth of the Borysthenes, whero 
' Achilles is said to have 

made a race-course. Be- 
fore it lay the Island of 
Achilles (Insula Achil- 
lis) or Leuce {Xevidi), 
where was a temple of 
Achilles (Hdt. iv. 55, 76; 
Bur. Iph. in T. 438; 
Pind. 01. ii. 85; Strab. 
p. 306). 

AcMUeus Portus 
('Axi'AAeios \iixr,u : Va- 
thij), a harbour in Laco- 
nia, near the promontory 
Taenarum (Pans. iii. 25, 
4). 

Achillides, a patro- 
nymic of Pyrrhus, son of 
Achilles (Ov. Her. viii. 
3), also of Pyrrhus, king 
of Epirus, who traced 
his descent from Achilles 
(Ov. lb. 303). 

Achillis Insula, [Ach- 
illeus Deomos.] 
Achivi (gen. pi. Achivom, Verg. Aeii. xi. 
22G), another form of the Achaei, and used, like 
Achaei, to signify the -whole Greek nation 
(Hor. Ep. i. 2, 14 ; Ox. Pont. \. 4, 33, Her. i. 21). 
Acholla. [Achilla.] 
Acholoe. [H.VBPYIAE.] 
Achradina or Acradina. [Syeacusau.] 
Acichorius ('Akix'^'P'os), one of the leaders 
of the Gauls, who with Brennus invaded 
Thrace and Macedonia in B.C. 280, and Greece 
in 279 (Paus. x. 19, 4 ; x. 22, 5 ; x. 23, 1). 

Acidalia, a surname of Venus (Verg. Aen. i. 
720), from the well Acidalius near Orchomenos. 

Acidinus, L. Manlius. 1. AKoman general 
in the second Punic war, served against Has- 
drubal in 207, and was sent into Spain in 206, 
where he remained till 199 (Liv. xxix. 1-3, xxxii. 
7). — 2, Surnamed Fulvianus, praetor B.C. 188 
in Nearer Spain, and consul in 179 with his own 
brother Q. Fulvius Flaccus, which is the oiilj' 
instance of two brothers being consuls at the 
same time (Liv. xxxviii. 35, xl. 84 ; Veil. Pat. ii. 
8 ; Cic^ de Or. ii. 64). 

Acllia Gens, plebeian. See under the family 
names Aviola, Rvlbus, Glabrio. 

Acis ("Akis), son of Paunus and Symaethis, 
beloved by the nymph Galatea, and crushed by 
Polyphemus the Cyclops through jealousy under 
a huge rock. His blood gushing forth from under 
the rock was changed by the nymph into the river 
Acis, at the foot of Mount Aetna (now jF-i».7H.e tZe 
Jaci). This story is perhaps only a fiction sug- 
gested by the manner in which the stream 
springs forth from under a rock (Ov. M. xiii. 750 
seq., F. iv. 468 ; Sil. It. xiv. 221 seq.). Theocri- 
tus (Id.j. 09) speaks of the sacred waters of Acis. 

Acmonia ('hKixovla: 'A/cmoWttis, Acmoneii- 
sin), a city of the Greater Phrygia (Cic. Flaco. 
15, 84 ;_Plin. V. § 106). 

Acmonides, one of the three Cyclopes in Ovid 
(F . iv. 288), is tho some as Pyracmon in Virgil 



10 AC0ETE8 

{Acn. viii. 425), aud iis Arges in other accounts 
of the Cyclopes. 

Acoetes ('AKoiVr/s), a poor Miieonian (Ly- 
dian), or Tyrrhenian, who served as pilot in 
a ship. The sailors, landing at the i.sland of 
Ceos, brought with them on board a beautiful 
boy asleep, whom they wished to take with 
them ; but Acoetes, who recognised in the boy 
the god Bacchus, dissuaded them from it, but in 
vain. Wlien the ship had reached the open sea 
the boy awoke, and desired to be carried to 
Naxos, his native island. The sailors jn-omised 
to do so, but did not keep their word ; where- 
upon the god disclosed himself in his majesty; 
vines begsm to twine round the vessel, tigers 
appeared ; and the sailors, seized with madness, 
jumped mto the sea, and were changed into 
dolphins. Acoetes alone was saved and conveyed 
to Naxos, where he was initiated in the Bacchic 
mysteries. This is the tale related by Bacchus 
himself, in the form of Acoetes, to Pentheus 
(Met. iii. 582 seq.). The story is founded on the 
Homeric Hymn to Dionysus. 

Acontius {'Akovtios), a beautiful youth of 
Ceos. HavLug come to Delos to celebrate the 
festival of Diana, he fell in love with Cy dippe, and 
in order to gain her he had recourse to a strata- 
gem. While she was sitting in the temple of Diana, 
he threw before her an apple upon which he had 
written the words ' I swear by the sanctuary of 
Diana to marry Acontius.' The nurse took up 
the apple aud handed it to Cydippe, who read 
aloud what was written upon it, and then threw 
the apple away. But the goddess had heard 
her vow, and the rei^eated illness of the maiden, 
when she was about to marry another man, 
compelled her father to give her in marriage to 
Acontius. This story is related by Ovid (Her. 
20, 21), who borrowed it from a lost poem of 
Callimachus, entitled ' Cydippe.' 

Acoris ("AKopis), king of Egypt, assisted 
Evagoras, kmg of Cyprus, against Artaxerxes, 
king of Persia, about b.c. 385. He died about 
374, before the Persians entered Egypt in the 
following year (Died. xv. 2-4, 8, 9, 29, 41, 42). 

Acra. [AcEAE.] 

Acra Leuce ("AKpa Aev/crj), ccity of Hispania 
Tarraconensis, founded by Haaiilcai' Barcas 
(Died. XXV. 2), probably identical with the 
Castmm Album of Livy (xxiv. 41). 

Acrae ("AKpai). — 1. (Acrenses, Plin.; Palaz- 
zolo), a city of Sicily, on a lofty hill 24 miles W. 
of Syracuse, was founded by the Syracusans 
70 years after its parent city, i.e. B.C. 063 (Thuc. 
vi. 5 ; Liv. xxiv. 36 ; Plin. iii. § 91). — 2. A town 
in Aetolia (Pol. v. 13). — 3. (or'Afcpa). A town 
in the Cimmerian Bosporus (Strab. p. 494 ; 
Plin. iv. § 86). 

Acraea ('A/cpai'a), and Acraeus, surnames 
given to various goddesses and gods whose 
temples were situated upon hills, such as Zeus, 
Hera, and others (Liv. xxxii. 23, xxxviii. 2). 

Acraepheus. [Ack,u3imha.] 

Acraephia, AcraepMae, or AcraepMon 
('AKpaicp'ia, 'AKpai(p'm, 'Aicpaltpiov : 'AKpaicpios, 
' AKpatcpiaios' Kardhitza), a town in Boeotia, 
on the lake Copais, founded by Acraepheus, the 
son of Apollo. It contained an oracle of Apollo 
Ptous (Hdt. viii. 135 ; Strab. p. 410 ; Liv. xxxiii. 
29; Pans. ix. 23, 5; Plin. iv. §26). 

Acragas. 1. [Agrioentu.u.] — 2. A celebrated 
engraver (Plin. xxxiii. §154). 

Acratus, a frecdnnui of Nero, sent into Asia 
and Achaia (a.d. 64) to plunder the temples 
(Tac. Ann. xv. 45, xvi. 23). 

Acriae ('AKpial, or 'Aicpaiat : 'AffpiaTTjj), 
a town in Laconia, not far from the mouth ot 



^ ACROPOLIS 

the Eurotas (Paus. iii. 21; Pol. v. 10; Liv. 
XXXV. 27 ; Strab. p. 343, 363). 

Acrillae ("Aicpii^Ka), a town in Sicily between 
Agri;,'entum and Acrae (Liv. xxiv. 35). 

Acrisione, Acrisioniades. [Aciusius.] 

Acrisius ('A/cpio-ioj), son of Abas, king of 
ArgoB. He expelled his twin-brother, Proe- 
tus, t rom his inheritance ; but supported by 
his father-in-law, lobates the Lycian, Proe- 
tus returned, and Acrisius was compelled to 
share his kingdom with him. Acrisius held 
Argos, and Proetus Tiryns. An oracle had 
declared that Danai;, the daughter of Acrisius, 
would give birth to a son who would kill his 
gi'andfather. 'For this reason he kept Danae 
shut up in a subterraneous apartment, or in a 
brazen tower. But here she became mother 
of Perseus by Zeus, who visited her in a shower 
of gold. Acrisius ordered mother and child to 
be exposed on the sea in a chest ; but the chest 
floated towards the island of Seriphus, where 
both were rescued by Dictys. As to the manner 
in which the oracle was subsequently fulfilled, 
see Perseus (Hdt. vi. 53 ; Verg. Aen. vii. 372 ; 
Ov. M. iv. ^607 seq. ; Hor. Od. iii. 16, 5).— 
Hence Acrisloae ('A)fpicr(ti(/7))^Danae, daughter 
of Acrisius (I/.xiv. 319). Acrisioaiades, Perseus, 
son of Danae, grandson of Acrisius (Ov. M. v. 
70). AcrisiSneus, adj. : arces, i.e. Argos (Ov. 
M. V. 239) ; coloni, muri, referring to Ardea, 
supposed to have been founded by Danae 
(Verg. Aen. vii. 410 ; Sil. i. 661). 

AcritaB ('AKpuTas, 'AKpiras ■ C. Gallo), the 
most southerly promontory in Messenia (Strab- 
p. 359 ; Paus. iv. 34, 12; Plin. iv. §15). 

Aero. [AcKON.] 

Acroceraunia (to ' AKpoKepavvia, sc. up-q : 
sing. Acroceraunium prom. Plin. iii. § 97 ; C. 
Linguetta), a promontory in Epirus, jutting 
out into the Ionian sea, the most W. part of the 
Ceeadnh Montes. It was dangerous to ships, 
whence Horace (Od. i. 3, 20) speaks of in- 
fames scopulos Acroceraunia (comp. Luc. v. 
652 ; Sil. viii. 632). Hence any dangerous place 
(Ov. B. Am. 739). 

Acrocorinthus. [Cobdithus.] 

Acrolissus. [Lissus.] 

Acron. 1. King of tlie Caeninenses, whom 
Romulus slew in battle, and whose arms he 
dedicated to Jupiter Feretrius as Spolia Opima 
(Prop. V. 10, 7). Livy- (i. 10) mentions the cir- 
cumstance, without giving the name of the king. 
— 2. An eminent physician of Agrigentum in 
Sicily, said to have been in Athens during the 
great plague (b.c. 430) in the Peloponnesiau 
war, and to have ordered large fires to be 
kindled in the streets for the purpose of puri- 
fying the ah. This fact is not mentioned by 
Thucydides (Diog. Laert. viii. 65 ; Plut. Is. ut 
Os. 80). . 

Acron Helenius, a Roman grammarian of 
uncertain date, perhaps of the second century 
A.D., wrote a commentary on Horace, on some 
comedies of Terence, and perhaps on Persius. 
His commentary on Horace does not exist ; that 
which bears his name is the work of another 
writer, perhaps Porphyrion. It is published 
with the other scholia on Horace by Paully (2n(l 
ed. 1861), and Hauthal il8(14, 186G). 

Acropolis (n 'AKpAnoKis). The Acropohs of 
Athens, also called by the Athenuiiis PollS 
(ntiAis), from the city being originally con- 
fined to the Acropolis (Thuc. ii. 15, y. 23, ._>: 
cf. Aosch. Etim. 687), was a rock about_ 1;)0 
feet high, 1,150 long, and 500 broad. Upon 
it, as a defensible site rising out of the river 
valley, tho original Bettlemeiit was made, 



ACBOPOLIS 

• <^QT Vnv Suvvl of the pediments and statues of more than three 

whose name Cecropta (Strab. 397 , f f ''{^'^ temples have been found under the floor, so to 
658, £2. 1289) expresses the belief doubtless '/'^if ^.ropolis. It has been held by 

correct, ^^^'..^If'f^'',^''^^^^^^^ of &at this older temple whose foundations 

Attica attributed to -Lheseus. j'"<'1^ ^ ■ rebuilt and preserved after the 

Buildings earlier than ^QQ B.C. Our know ^J^^^l^^^^^^l^^t to this it is with justice 

ledge of the earlier buildmgs has teen greatly ^^^^^^1:^1^1^^^^ it would have presented a 
=:ftheU1ouncSfoTrhe rude = wall within six feet of the.porch of^the 



Im'^s of early inhabitants have been discovered 
and graves of the some age, with prmiitive pot 
tery of the type known as ' Mycenaean.' To a 
very early period must be ascribed also the 
remains of what was called the Pelasgian 



newer Erechtheum it is impossible to aclinit 
that it was standing after that porch was built. 

The Acropolis after the Persian War. The 

present form of the surface is due to Cimon. 
The natural rock surface sloped somewhat 



Greek writers who mention it (Hdt. ii. 137, v 
6i), but still available in the age of Peisistratus. 
Tliis wall did not surround the whole rock, 
since the natural precipice on the N. and NB. 
needed no fortification. In other parts portions 
of this wall have been discovered [see plan]. 
It followed the edge of the rock and sometimes 
falls within the lines of the straighter wall of 



compared to a low-pitched gable roof. To level 
tliis sufficiently for the projected works, Ciinon 
built up solid walls all round the edge of the 
platform and filled up the space between these 
walls and the highest ridge with earth and 
rubble, composed in great part of the tUbris 
left after the Persians burnt the earlier build- 
mgs. In this substratum many pieces of 



^ _ Ll Ul I l^l^S. 1-11 Min.j J i 

Ci^onVhich in" otherplaces absorbed it. It is , archaic sculpture and architecture, and many 
necessary to distinguish the Pelasgian Wall from inscriptions, have been found. To the same 
rh ne\cL<ryiK}>u or U^KapyMhv (Thuc. ii. 117 ; Cunonian period belongs the great bronze 
Aristoph Av. 851), which was a space of ground statue of Athene Promachos, armed with spear 
beneath the Acropohs at the SW., perhaps and hehnet, which dominated the city and was 




The Acropolis restored. 



extending from Pan's cave to the Asclepiacum, 
a space which was to be left vacant, since, as 
was said, a curse was laid upon its occupation. 
Probably the origin of its being considered 
unlucky was that for military reasons it had 
been held advisable from ' Pelasgian ' times to 
keep this ground clear from buildings which 
might shelter an approaching foe ; the cause in 
all probability of the similar prohibition against 
building on the Roman pomerium [Diet. Ant. 
8,v.] On the Acropolis the early chiefs and 
kings of Athens had their palace, the founda- 
tions of which have been recently found near 
the Erechtheum, as well as traces of stairs in 
the rock leading thence into the plain at the 
NE. corner. It is known from inscriptions 
that a temple of Athene called the Hecatom- 
pedon stood on the Acropolis before the Persian 
invasion, and of this the foundations have been 
found just S. of the Erechtheum. It had two 
treasuries behind the cella, one probably for 
Athene and the other for the other deities there 
yporshipped. It is probable that there was also 
in the time of Peisistrates an earlier Parthenon 
and an earlier Erechtheum occupying part of 
the sites of the later temples ; indued fragments 



seen far out to sea. — Acropolis in the Time of 
Pericles. The greatest works were carried out 
under Pericles. For the ax^proach to the 
Acropolis the plan of Cimon was set aside, 
which gave only a narrow and defensible gate- 
way (defence being less necessary since the 
fortification of the whole city was completed), 
and the magnificent Propylaea were designed 
by Mnesicles in B.C. 437. In the marble wall 
there were five gateways, the central being the 
largest, and admitting a sloping caiTiage-way ; 
the two gates on each side were reached by five 
steps ; beyond was a portico, and rising above 
tliis another portico. On each side of the 
entrance were wings, each intended to have a 
small outer and a large inner hall (in the 
smaller northern hall were paintings by Poly- 
gnotus, whence it was sometimes called the 
Pinakotheke) ; but the plan of making the wing 
on the right or south side symmetrical in size 
and form with the left wing was not carried 
out, probably because it would have encroached 
on sacred ground ; for in this part of the Amo- 
polis were the temple of Nike Apteros (Athene- 
Nike) and the sanctuary of Artemis Brauronia 
beyond it. To the right of the entrance to the 




27. As each one passed tlirongh the upper 
portico of Uie Propylaea ho kiiw the great 
statue of Athene Promachos towering above 
his head ; to the right-front of tliis the Par- 



ship of Athene wns that of Artemis Brauioiiin, 
wliose sanctuary wos noted above as staniling 
next to tlie temple of Nike Apteros just to the 
south-east of the Propylaea, and whose rites 



ACROPOLIS 

were probably the survival of an older religion 
in this place than that of Athene. [Abtemis.] 
No remains of any temple of Artemis are dis- 
coverable, nor have we any warrant for assum- 
ing its existence : the steps leading up to the 
sacred precinct are still visible. Between this 
precinct and the Parthenon are the foundations 




Temple of Niie Apteros (tho Wingless Victory), on the AoropoUs at Athens. 

of a building, not a temple, and a portico ; this 
was probably the Chalcotheke, a building in 
which was stored all that was required for the 
service of Athene {C.I.A. ii. 61) ; some have 
imagined the remains to belong to a temple of 
Athene Ergane; but we have no reason to 
suppose that there was any such temple. E. of 
the Parthenon, a little NW. of the modern 
museums, are the foundations of the small 
temple of Rome and Augustus, of which the 
fragment of the epistyle has been found with 
the dedication to the emperor under the title 
^(^aa-TOs, which he assumed in B.C. 27 {C.I.A. 
iii. 63). NE. of this, about 150 yards E. of the 
great statue and visible from it (if we assume 
that the old temple between the Ereohtheum 
and the Parthenon was not rebuilt), stood in 
the open air the great altar of Athene, of 
which the base is visible cut in the rock. To 
the N. of the Parthenon, midway between it 
and the foundations of the old temple is visible 
cut in the rock the inscription for the base on 
which stood the statue of ' Earth praying Zeus 
to send rain' (Pans. i. 24); another base 
remams to give us a fixed point— the base of 
the statue of Athene Hygieia, which is found 
by the southernmost column of the eastern 
portico of the Propylaea. This statue was 
dedicated by Pericles to commemorate the reco- 
very of a mason who fell from the Propylaea ; 
near it once stood the bronze lioness in honour 
of the mistress of Aristogeiton, the statue of 
Aphrodite by Calamis, of Diitrephes (of which 
tlie base has been found not in situ), and of 
Perseus by Myron. About 200 feet west of the 
N porch of the Erechtlieum are the remains in 
the rock of the steps leading down from the 
Acropolis to the cave of Aobaulos, in the 
temenos of which the oaths of the Ephebi were 
taken [Diet. Ant. s. v. Ephebi.] It lay near 
the base of the northern rocks of the Acropolis 
known as 'the long rocks ' {MaKpai). The well 
called the Clepsydra (Aristoph. Li/s. 911) has 
been identified at the NW. angle of the Acro- 
polis outside the Cimouian walls. It was 



ACTAEON IS 

walled in by the Greek commander Odysseus 
in 1822 to secure his water supply. This ' Bas- 
tion of Odysseus ' is now removed. A little to 
the east of this, in the side of the northern 
rocks, are the two caves of Apollo and Pan (Eur. 
Ion, 492; Paus. i. 2b, 4). The sculptures of 
the Gigatitomachia, which Attains sent, and 
from which a figure of Dionysus fell 
during a storm into the Theatre 
(Paus. i. 25, 2 ; Plut. Ant. 60), must 
have been on the south wall near 
the site of the modern museums. 

Acrorea (r; 'AKpwpeia : 'AKpupuol) 
a,- mountainous tract of country in 
the north of Elis. (Diod. xiv. 17 
Xen. Hell. iii. 2, 30, vii. 4, 14). 

Acrotatus {'AKpdraros). 1. Son 
of Cleomenes II. king of Sparta, 
went to Sicily in 814 to assist the 
Agi-igentines against Agathocles of 
Syracuse. But at Agrigeiitum he 
acted with such cruelty that the in- 
habitants rose against huu. He re- 
turned to Sparta, and died m 309 
before his father, leaving a son, 
Areus, who succeeded Cleomenes 
(Diod. XV. 70 ; Paus. iii. 6, 1 ; Plut. 
Agis, 3). — 2. Grandson of the pre- 
ceding, and son of Areus I. king of 
Sparta, bravely defended Sparta 
against Pjrrrhus m 272 ; succeeded 
his father in 2G5, but was killed in 
the same year in battle against Aristodemus, 
tyrant of Megalopolis (Plut. Pyrrh. 26-28; 
Agis,Z; Paus. iii. 6, 3). 

Acrothoum or Acrothoi AicpdSccov , 'AKp6- 
00)01 : 'AKpdBaios, ' AKpoOwTrits : Lavra), a town 
near the extremity of the peninsula of Athos 
(Hdt. vii. 22; Thuc. iv. 109 ; Strab. p. 331). 

Actaea ('AKraia), daughter of Nereus and 
Doris [II. xviii. 41 ; Hes. Theog. 249). 

Actaeon ['AKTaiuv). I. Son of Aristaeus 
andAutonoe, a daughter of Cadmus, a celebrated 




Actaeon. (British Museum.) 

huntsman, trained by the centaur Chiron. He 
was changed into a stag by Artemis (Diana), and 
torn to pieces by his fifty dogs on Mount Cithra- 
ron, because he had seen tie goddess bathing 



14 ACTAEUS 

with her njnnplig, or because he had boasted that 
he excelled her in hunting. After the dogs had 
devoured him, they went whining in search of 
their master, till they came to the cave of 
Chiron, who appeased them by making an image 
of Actaeon (Ov. M. i. 131 seq.; Callim. H.in' 
Pallad. 107 seq.; Eurip. Bacch. 880; ApoUod. 
iii. 4, i). According to several modern writers 
the fifty hounds of Actaeon are the fifty dog- 
days, and the myth represents the plant-life 
destroyed by the heat of the dog-days ; for 
Actaeon was the son of the protector of plants 
(see Aeistaeus). It is difficult, however, to ex- 
plain upon this theory why they were his own 
hounds. — 2. An Argive, son of Melissus, and 
grandson of Abron. He was a beautiful youth, 
whom Archias endeavoured to carry off ; but in 
the struggle which ensued Actaeon was killed 
(Pint. jya7T. Avi. 2). [Abchias.] 

Actaeus ('A/craTos), son of Erisichthon, the 
earliest king of Attica, derived his name from 
Acte, the ancient name of Attica (Paus. i. 2, 6). 
He had three daughters, Agraulos, Herse, and 
Pandrosus, and was succeeded by Cecrops, 
who married Agraulos. 

Acte ('A«Trj), properly a piece of landrumiing 
into the sea, and attached to another larger piece 
of land, but not necessarily by a narrow neck. 
1. An ancient name of Attica, used especially by 
the poets (Eur. Hel. 1674 ; Strab. p. 391). Hence 
'Aktoios, Actaeus, adj., Attic, Athenian (Ov. 
M. ii. 720, ex Pont. iv. 1, 31, Her. xviii. 42). 
Also Actias, adis, a female Athenian, i.e. Ori- 
thyia, daughter of Erechtheus, king of Athens 
(Verg. G. iv. 463) : also called Actaea (Ov. M. vi. 
711). — 2. The eastern coast of Peloponnesus near 
Troezen and Epidaurus (Pol. v. 91, 8 ; Diod. xv. 
31). — 3, The peninsula between the Strymonic 
and Singitic gulfs, on which Mount Athos is 
(Thuc. iv. 109). — 4. The concubine of Nero, 
originally a slave from Asia Minor (Tac. A7m. 
xiii. 12, 46). 

Actiacus. [AcTiuM.] 

Actmm ("ArtTioi/ : Eth. "Aktios, Actius ; 
Adj. 'AKTtaKos, Actiacus, also 'Aktjoj, Actius: 
La Punta, not Azio), a promontory in Acarnania 
at the entrance of the Ambraciot Gulf (G^df of 
Arta) off which Augustus gained his celebrated 
victory over Antony and Cleopatra, September 




Plan of Actlum. 
1. Ruins of Prevem ; 2. C. La Scara ; .S. Prom. Actium. Ln 
Punta : 4. C. Madonna ; 0. Templo of Apollo. Fort La 
Punta : 0. Azio: P. Ban of Pretesa. 



2nd B.C. 81. There was a temple of Apollo on 
this promontoi-y (Thuc. i. 29; Strab. p. 32.';), 
whence Apollo was called Actius and Actiacus 
(Ov. M. xiii. 715; Verg. Aen. viii. 704; Prop, 
iv. 0, 67). There was an ancient festival named 
Actia celebrated here in honour of the god, 
Augustus after his victory enlarged the temple, 
and revived the ancient festival, which was 
henceforth celebrated once in four years {ludi 



^ ADHEEBAL 

quinquennalcs), at Nicopolir on the opposite 
coast, which Augustus founded in commemora- 
tion of his victory (Dio Cass. li. 1 ; Suet. Auij. 
18, Tib. 6 ; Verg. Aen. iii. 280 ; Hor. Ep. i. 18, 
61 Ov. Ser. xv. 106), Statius (S. iii. 2, 120) 
gives the epithet of Actias to Cleopatra, because 
she was conquered at Actium, The annexed 
map shows the site of Actium, which has been 
the subject of dispute, Tlie promontory of 
Actium was at La Punta (3), opposite Prevesa 
(1), near the site of the ancient Nicopolis, 
Others erroneously place it at C. Madonna (4), 
misled by the modern name Azio. The fleet of 
Antony was stationed in the Bay of Prevesa (P), 
and sailed out tlu-ough the strait between 1 
and 3 into the open sea, where the battle was 
fought, not in the Bay of Prevesa, as some 
suppose. 

Actias. [Acte ; Actium,] 

Actisanes ('Aktio-oj'tjs), king of Ethiopia, 
conquered Egypt (Diod, i, 60 ; Strab. p. 759). 

Actius. [Attius.] 

Actor ("AKTwp). 1. Father of Menoetius, and 
grandfather of Patroclus {II. xi, 785; Piud, 
01. ix, 104), — 2. Father of Eurytus and 
Cteatus (Apollod. ii. 7, 2 ; Paus. v. 1, 11). — 
3. An Orchomenian, father of Astyoche (JZ. ii. 
513 ; Paus, ix, 37, 6), — 4. A companion of 
Aeneas (Verg, Aen. ix. 500). — 5. An Auruncan, 
of whose conquered lance Tumus made a boast 
(Verg. Aen. xii. 94, Juv. ii. 100). — Hence 
Actorides ('A/cTopfS7js), a descendant of Actor : 
Patroclus (Ov. M. xih. 273, Tr. i. 9, 29 ; F. ii. 
39) : Erithos (Ov. M. v. 79) : Echecles {II. xvi. 
189) : Eurj-tus and Cteatus (Ov. M. viii. 308). 
Also, Actorion {' hKropiwv), a descendant of 
Actor: Eurytus and Cteatus (JZ. ii. 621, xi. 750). 

Aouleo. 1. C, Furius, quaestor b.c. 187 (Liv. 
xxxviii. 55). — 2. C, an eminent Eoman lawyer, 
who married the sister of Helvia, the mother of 
Cicero, was a friend of the orator L, Licinius 
Crassus (Cic. de Or. i, 43, 191 ; ii, 1, 2 ; Brut. 
76, 264), 

Aciisilaus 'AKovalXaos), of Argos, an early 
Greek logographer, about b,c, 525, wrote in the 
Ionic dialect tlu-ee books of Genealogies, chiefly 
a translation of Hesiod into prose. The frag- 
ments are published by Sturtz, Lips, 1824, and 
in Miiller, Fragm. Hist. Graec. i, p. 100, 

Ada {"ASa), sister of Maussolus, king of 
Caria, married her brother Idrieus, on whose 
death (B.C. 344) she succeeded to the throne of 
Caria, but was expelled by her brother Pixoda- 
rus in 340. "\Mien Alexander entered Caria in 
834, Ada, who was m possession of the fortress 
of Alinda, surrendered this place to him. After 
taking Halicarnassus, Alexander conunitted the 
government of Caria to her (Arr. An. i. 23; 
Diod. xvi. 42, 74 ; Plut. Alex. 10, 22). 

Adaniantea. [Am.u.thea]. 

Adamantius ("ASa^ni'Tios), a Greek physi- 
cian, about A.D. 415, the author of a treatise on 
Physiognomy, borrowed from Polemo. Edited 
bv Franzius, in Scrijit. Phys. Vet. 1780, 8vo. 

"Addua (Adda), a river of Gallia Cisalpina, 
rising in the Rhaetian Alps near Bormio, and 
flowing through the Lacus Larius {L. di Como) 
into the Po, about 8 miles above Cremona 
(Pol.ii.32; SU-ab. pp. 192, 204 ; Tac. if/sMi. 40). 

Adherbal {'Arip&as). 1. A Carthaginian 
commaiider ui the 1st Punic war defeated the 
Eoman consul P, Claudius in a sea-fight ofi 
Drepana, b,c, 249 (Pol, i, 49-52).— 2. A Car- 
thaginian commander in the 2iul Punic war ; 
was defeated in a sea-fight off Carteia by C. 
Laelius in 200 (Liv. xxviii. 30). — 3. Son of 
Micipsa, naid gi-nndson of Masinissa, had the 



ADIABENE 

kingdom of Nuniidia left to him by his father 
in conjunction with his brother Hiempsal and 
Jucurtha, 118. After the murder of his brother 
bv Ju^urtha, Adherbal fled to Rome, and was 
restored to his sliare of the kingdom by the 
Romans in 117. But he was agam stripped of 
his dominions by Jugurtha and besieged m 
Cirta where he was treacherously kdled by 
Ju.^urtha in 112 (Sail. Jug. 5, 13, 14, 24, 25, 26) 

Adiabene {'Mia^rivh, 'ASiaBvvos) a district 
of Assyria, E. of the Tigi-is, between the river 
Lycus,' called ZabatuB by Xeuophon, and the 
Caprus, both being branches of the Tigi-is. In 
the Christian era it was a separate kingdom, 
tributary to the Parthians (Strab. pp. 505, 745). 

AdimiantUS {'ASflnavros). 1. Coimnander of 
the Corinthian fleet, when Xerxes invaded 
Greece (b.c. 480), opposed the advice of The- 
mistocles to give battle to the Persians (Hdt. 
viii. 5, 56, Sec). — 2. An Athenian, one of the 
commanders at the battle of Aegospotami, B.C. 
405; was accused of treachery in this battle, 
and' is ridiculed by Aristophanes in the ' Frogs ' 
(Xen. Hell. i. 7, l,ii. 1, 30; Arist.iJaw. 1513).— 
3. Brother of Plato {Apol. p. 34 ; Sep. ii. p. 367). 

Admete ('AS/uriTij). 1. Daughter of Oceauus 
and Thetys (Hes. Th. 349).— 2. Daughter of 
Eurystheus, for whom Heracles fetched the 
girdle of Ares, which was worn by Hippolyte, 
queen of the Amazons (ApoUod. ii. 5, 9). 

Admetus ("AS/xiitos). 1. Son of Pheres, 
king of Pherae in Thessaly, took part in the 
Calydonian hunt and in the expedition of the 
Argonauts. Pelias promised him his daughter 
Alcestis (11. ii. 715), if he came to her m a 
chariot dra-svn by lions and boars. This Ad- 
metus performed by the assistance of Apollo. 
The god tended the 'flocks of Admetus when he 
was obliged to serve a mortal for a year for 
having slain the Cyclops. On the day of his 
marriage with Alcestis, Admetus neglected to 
offer a sacrifice to Artemis, but Apollo recon- 
ciled the goddess to him, and at the same time 



ADONIS 



15 



Adonis, -is, -idis, also Adon, -onis). 1. A 
beautiful youth, beloved by Aphrodite (Venus), 
a son of Cinyras, king of Paphos m Cyprus, 
and Myrrha (Smyrna). The gods changed 
Myrrha'into a myrtle-tree, to save her from the 
wrath of her father, for whom she had an 
unholy passion ; and from this tree Adonis was 
bom, the offspring of Myrrha and her father. 
Aphrodite, chai-med with the beauty of the in- 
fant, concealed him in a chest, which she en- 
trusted to Persephone ; but the latter refused to 
<^ive it up. Zeus decided the dispute by declar- 
mg that Adonis should have a third of the year to 




Heracles and Alcestis. 
(From a Bas-relief at Florence.) 

induced the Moirae to grant him deliverance 
from death if his father, mother, or wife would 
die for him. Alcestis died in his stead, but was 
brought back by Heracles from the lower world 
(Apollod. i. 9, 15 ; Eurip. Ale.).— 2. King of the 
Molossians, to whom Themistocles fled tor 
protection when pursued as a party to the trea- 
son of Pausanias (Thuc. i. 136 ; 'Plut. Them. 
24 ; Nop. Them. 8). 

Adonis ("ASaim, -iSos, "ASuv, -louos : Lat. 




Death of Adonis. 
(A Painting found at Pompeii.) 

himself, should belong to Persephone for another 
third, and to Aphrodite for the remaining third. 
Adonis, however, preferring to live with Ajihro- 
dite, also spent with her the four months over 
which he had control. Having offended Ar- 
temis, he was killed during the chase. The 
spot on wliich his blood fell was sprinkled with 
nectar by Aphrodite, and from this sprang 
the anemone, as well as other flowers. So 
great was the grief of the goddess, that the 
gods of the lower world allowed him to spend 
six months of every year with her upon the 
earth (Apollod. iii. 14, 3 ; Ov. M. x. 298 seq. ; 
A. A. i. 75, 512 ; Verg. E. x. 18). The worship 
of Adonis, which in later times was spread over 
nearly all the countries round the Mediterranean 
was of Phoenician or Syrian origin, in which 
language Adon signifies lord. In the Homeric 
.poems no trace of the worship occurs, and the 
later Greek poets changed the original symbolic 
account of Adonis into a poetical story. In the 
Asiatic religions Aphrodite was the fructifying 
principle of nature, and Adonis appears to 
have reference to the death of nature in winter 
and its revival in spring — hence he spends six 
months in the lower and six in the upper world. 
His death and his return to life were celebrated 
in annual festivals {Ado7iia) at Byblos, Alex- 
andria in Egypt, Athens, and other places. A 
special feature in this worship was the ' Adonis 
garden ' {'ASiiviSos /c^iroi), or bowers of plants 
in flower surrounding his image to show the 
revival of plant life, soon to die again. The 
Idyll of Theocritus called Adoniazitsae de- 
scribes the celebration of this festival at A lex- 
andria. — 2. (Nahr el Ibrahim.) A small river 
of Syria, rising in Mount Libanus, which, after 
a sudden fall of rain, is tinged of a deep red by 
the soil of the hills. Hence some have sought 
to explain the myth of Adonis (Strab. p. 755 ; 
Luciau, Dea Syr. (i ; Plin. v. § 78). 



10 ADEAMYTTIUM 

Adramyttium {'ASfyanvTreiou or 'ASpafivT- 
Tlov -.'khpaixuTT-nvdsy Adrainytteuus ; Aclratiiijti, 
or Edreiidt), a town of Mysia on the gulf of 
Adramyttium, opposite to the island of Lesbos, 
was a colony of the Athenians, and a seaport 
of some note (Hdt. vii. 42 ; Thuc. v. 1, viii. 108 ; 
Strab.jj. GOG ; Liv. xxxvii. 19 ; Act. Ap. xxvii. 2). 

Adrana [Eder), a river of Germany, flowing 
into the Fulda near Cassel (Tac. Ann. i. 5G). 

Adranum or Hadranum Chhpavov, "ASpavov ; 
'ASpavlrris, HadranituniiB, Plin. iii. § 91 : 
Adcrno), a town in Sicily, on the river Adranus, 
at the foot of M. Aetna, built by Dionysius, 
the seat of the worship of the god Adranus 
(Diod. xiv. 37, xvi. 08 ; Plut. Tim. 12 ; Sil. xiv. 
250). 

Adranus {'A^pav6s). [Adkanum.] 
Adrastia ('ASpao-reia : Lat. Adrastia, -ea). 1, 
Daughter of Zeus (Eur. Blies. 342), identified 
with N4fj.€cris, also used as an epithet of Ne- 
mesis. She derived her name, according to 
some, from Adrastus, the ruler of Adrastia in 
Mysia, who built her first sanctuary on the 
river Aesepus, near Cyzicus. Others derive her 
name from a-5pacai (fr. SiSpaffxto), the goddess 
whom none can escape (Strab. p. 588 ; II. ii. 
828, seq.; Aesch. Prom. 936; Verg. Cir. 239; 
Amm. xiv. 11, 25). She was probably originally 
a Phrj'giau goddess and the same as Rhea 
Cybele. — 2. A nymph, daughter of Melisseus, 
king of Crete, to whom and her sister Ida, 
Ehea gave the infant Zeus to be reared 
(Apollod. i. 1, 6; Callim. Htjm. in Jov. 47). 
Originally the same as No. 1. 

Adrastus {"ASpacrTos). 1. Son of Talaiis, 
king of Argos, was expelled from Argos by 
Amphiaraus, and fled to his grandfather Poly- 
bus, king of Sioyon, on whose death he became 
king of that city (II. ii. 578 ; Hdt. v. 67 ; Pind. 
Nem. ix. 9 seq.). Afterwards he was reconciled 
to Amphiaraus, gave him his sister Eriphyle in 
marriage, and returned to his kingdom of Argos. 
Wliile reigning there Tydeus of Galydon and 
Polynices of Thebes, botli fugitives from tlieir 
native countries, met at Argos before tlie palace 
of Adrastus. A quarrel arose between them. 




Adiastus and other heroes who fought against Thebes. 
(Gem found at Perugia.) 



and Adrastus, on hearing the noise, came forth 
and separated the combatants, in whom he 
recognised the two men who had been promised 
to him by an oracle as the future husbands of 
two of his daughters ; for one bore on his 
shield the figure of a boar, and the other that 
of a lion, ond the oracle had decliired that one 
of his daughters was to marry a boar and the 
other a lion. Adrastus therefore gave his 
daughter DeTpylo to Tydeus, and j^rgeia to 
Polynices, promising to restore each to his own 



X, ADKIA 

country. Adrastus first prepared for war 
agamst Thebes, although Amphiaraus, who 
was a soothsayer, foretold that all who engaged 
in it should perish, with the exception of 
Adrastus. Thus arose the celebrated war of 
the ' Seven against Thebes.' The seven heroes, 
according to Sophocles [Oed. Col. 1313 seq.) and 
Aeschylus {Theb. 377 seq.), were Amphiaraus, 
Tydeus, Eteoclus, Hippomedon, Capaneus.Par- 
thenopaeus, Poljmices. (Adrastus, who escaped, 
is not counted one of the Seven.) Euripides 
(Phoen. 1104 seq.) has the same list, except 
that Eteoclus is omitted and Adrastus substi- 
tuted. The preceding drawing from an early 
Etruscan gem represents, with the true feeling 
of archaic art, a council of five of the heroes 
who fought against Thebes. The names are 
a.Med: Phylnice (Polynices), Tide (Tydeus), 
Amplitiare (Amphiaraus), Atresthe (Adras- 
tus), and Parihanapaes (Parthenopueus). On 
arriving at Nemea, they founded the Nemean 
games in honour of Archemorus [Abchemo- 
Kus]. On approaching Thebes, they sent 
Tydeus to the citj' to demand from Eteocles 
the sovereignty for Polynices. In the palace of 
Eteocles he challenged several Thebans to com- 
bat and conquered them. In revenge they laid 
an ambush of fifty men on his return, but 
Tydeus slew them all, with one exception [11. 
iv. 384 seq., v. 802 seq.). The war ended as 
Amphiaraus had predicted ; sis of the Argive 
chiefs were slain, Poljaiices by his brother 
Eteocles ; and Adrastus alone was saved by the 
swiftness of his horse Arion, the gift of Heracles 
(Horn. II. xxiii. 346). Creon of Thebes re- 
fusing to allow the bodies of the six heroes 
to be buried, Adrastus fled to Athens, where 
he implored the assistance of Theseus, whc 
undertook an expedition against Thebes, took 
the citj', and delivered the bodies of the fallen 
heroes to their friends for burial (Aesch. Sept. 
c. Theb. ; Eur. Phocn. and SiqJJ}!- 1 Stat. 
Theb.) Ten years afterwards Adrastus, with 
the sons of the slain heroes, made a new expe- 
dition against Thebes. This is known as the war 
of the ' Epigoni ' {'Eiriyovoi) or descendants. 
Thebes was taken and razed to the ground. 
The only Argive hero that fell in this war was 
Aegialeus, the son of Adrastus : the latter died 
of grief at Megara on his return to Argos, and 
was buried in the former city. He was wor- 
shipped in several parts of Greece, as at 
Megara, at Sicyon, where his memory was cele- 
brated in tragic choruses, and in Attica 
(Apollod. iii. 7, 3-4; Hdt. v. 61; Strab. p. 
325; Paus. i. 43, 1). The legends about 
Adrastus and the two wars against Thebes 
furnished ample materials for the epic as well 
as tragic poets of Greece. — 2. Ruler of Adrastia 
in Mysia (Strab. p. 588). [Adr.\steu.]— 3. Son 
of Merope of Adrasteia, an ally of the Trojans, 
slain by Diomedes {II. ii. 828, xi. 3281.— 4. A 
Trojan, slain by Patroclus (I/, xvi. U94). — 5. 
A Trojan, taken by Menelaus, and killed by 
Agamemnon {II. vi. 37, 64).— 6. Son of the 
Phrygian king Gordius, having unintentionally 
killed his brother, fled to Crcesus, who received 
him kindly. While hunting he accidentally 
killed Atys, the son of Crcesus, and in despair 
put an end to his own life (Hdt. i. 34-45). 

Adria or Hadria. 1. {Adria), a town in 
Gallia Cisalpina, between the mouths of the Po 
and the Athesis (Adiflr), now 14 miles from the 
sea, but originally a sea-port of gi-eat celebrity, 
founded by the iEtruscans (Liv. v. 83 : totrab. 
p. 214).— 2. {Atri), a town of Picenum m Italy, 
probably an Etruscan town originally, after- 



ADBIA 

wards a Eoman colony, at which place the family 
of the emperor Hadi-ian lived {Vit. Hadr. \.). 

Adria (6 'A5p(os, Ion. & ASpf?)!, Hdt. iv. 83), 
or Mare Adriatioum, also Mare Superam, so 
called from the town Adria [No. 1], was in its 
widest signification the sea between Italy on 
the W., and Illyricum, Epirus, and Greece on 
the E. By the Greeks the name Adrias was 
only applied to the northern part of this sea, 
the southern part being called the Ionian Sea. 
The navigation of the Adriatic was much dreaded 
on account of the frequent and sudden storms 
to which it was subject : its evil character on 
this account is repeatedly alluded to by Horace 
[Od. i. 3, 15 ; 33, 15 ; ii. 14, 14 ; iii. 9, 23). 

Adrianus, [Hadbianus.] 

Adrianus i^A^piavSs), a Greek rhetorician, 
bom at Tyre in Phoenicia, was the pupil of He- 
rodes Atticus, and was invited by M. Antonius 
to Eome, where he died about a.d. 192. Three 
of his declamations are published by Walz in 
Bhet: Gr. vol. i. 1832. 

Adrujnetum. [Hadbusietum.] 

Aduatiica, a castle of the Eburones in Gaul 
(Caes. B. G. vi. 32), probably the same as the 
later Aduaca Tongrorum [Tongern). 

Aduatuci or Aduatici, a powerful people of 
Galha Belgica (Caes. B. G. ii. 29, 33), were the 
descendants of the Cimbri and Teutones. Their 
chief town, perhaps the modern Falaise, must 
not be confounded with Aduatuca. 

AdulaMons {5 'ASovAas), a group of the Alps 
about the passes of the Sjiliigeii and S. Ber- 
nardino, and at the head of the valley of the 
Einter Bhein (Strab. pp. 192, 204, 213). 

Adule or Adalis ('ASovKrj, "ASovMs : 'ASov- 
Mttis, Aduhtanus : Thulla or Zulla, Eu.), a 
maritime city of Aethiopia, on a bay of the 
Eed Sea, called Adulitanus Sinus ('ASouAiTiicbs 
/c(SA.iroi, Annesley Bay). It was founded by 
slaves who fled from Egypt, and afterwards was 
the seaport of the Auxumitae (Plin. vi. 172 
seq.). Cosmas Indicopleustes (a. d. 535) found 
here the Monumentum Adulitanum, a Greek 
inscription recounting the conquests of Ptolemy 

11. Euergetes in Asia and Thrace. 
Adyrmachidae ['ASvpfiaxi^a-i), a Libyan 

people, W. of Egypt, extending to the Cata- 
bathmus Major, but were afterwards pressed 
further inland. In their manners and customs 
they resembled the Egyptians {Hdt. iv. 168; 
Sil. iii. 278, ix. 223). 

Aea (Ala, Alairi), the name of two mythical 
islands in the east and the west : in the eastern 
dwelt Aeetes, in the western Circe. The eastern 
land was afterwards identified with Colchis (cf. 
Hdt. i. 2) ; the western with the Italian pro- 
montory Circeii. The connection of Aeetes and 
Circe with the sun explains the double land of 
Aia in east and west. Aeaea is naturally the 
epithet of Circe and of Medea : in Propert. iii. 

12. 31 it denotes Calypso. This is explained by 
the fact that Ogygia, the island of Calypso, was 
sometimes confused with Aea (Mela, ii. 120). 

Aeaoes (Aldic-qs). I. Father of Polycrates. — 
2. Son of Syloson and nephew of Polycrates. 
He was tyrant of Samos, but was deprived of 
his tyranny by Ai-istagoras, when the lonians 
revolted from tho Persians, b. c. 500. He then 
fled to the Persians, who restored him to the 
tyranny of Samos, B. c. 494 (Hdt. vi. 18). 

Aeaceum {aUk(iov). [Aegina.] 

Aeacldes {Afa/cf57)j), a patronymic of tho 
descendants of Aeacus, as Peleus, Telamon, and 
i'liocus, sons of Aeacus ; Achilles, son of Peleus 
°;"^.fandson of Aeacus; Pyrrhus, son of 
Achilles and groat-grandson of Aeacus; and 



AEDON 17 

1 Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, who claimed to be a 
descendant of Achilles. 

Aeacides, son of Arybas, or Arybbas, king of 
Epirus, succeeded to the throne on the death 
of his cousin Alexander, slain in Italy, b.c. 826. 
Aeacides married Phthia, by whom he had the 
celebrated Pyebhus. He took part in favour of 
Olympias against Cassander; but his subjects 
disUked the war, and di'ove him from the king- 
dom. He was recalled in B.C. 813 ; but Cassan- 
der sent an army against him under Philip, who 
slew him in battle (Paus. i. 11 ; Diod. xix. 11 ; 
Liv. viii. 24 ; Pint. Pyi-rh. 1, 2). 

Aeacus (Alfa/cos), son of Zeus and Aegina, a 
daughter of the river-god Asopus. He was born 
in the island of Oenone or Genopia, whither 
Aegina had been carried by Zeus [compare 
SiSYPmjs], and from whom this island was after- 
wards called Aegina. Some traditions related 
that at the birth of Aeacus, Aegina was not yet 
inhabited, and that Zeus changed the ants 
(^vp^Tj/ces) of the island into men (Myrmidones) 
over whom Aeacus ruled. [For other versions 
of the myth see Mybmidones.] His wife was 
Endeis, daughter of Sciron of Megara. Aeacus 
was renowned in all Greece for his justice and 
piety (Plut. Thes. 10), and was frequently 
called upon to settle disputes, not only among 
men, but even among the gods themselves, 
(Pind. Jsi/m. viii. 23 ; Paus. i. 39). Pindar alone 
relates that he helped ApoUo and Poseidon to 
build the walls of Troy {Nem. viii. 9). He was 
such a favourite with the gods that, when 
Greece was visited by a drought, rain was at 
length sent upon the earth in consequence of 
his prayers. (The earliest mention of this is in 
Isoor. Evag. § 14. It is noticeable as a pos- 
sible origin of the story that, according to Theo- 
phrastus irepl a'rjfj.eiwi', i. 24, a cloud appearing 
on the hill of Zeus Hellenios in Aegina was 
the recognised sign of coming rain.) Eespect- 
ing the temple which Aeacus erected to Zeus 
Panhellenius, and the Aeaceum, see Aegina. 
After his death Aeacus became one of the 
three judges in Hades [cf. Minos, Ehadaman- 
THUs]. This office is only ascribed to him by 
writers later than Pindar (see esp. Plat. Gorg. 
p. 528 e). He held the keys of Hades, and 
hence is called /cAeiSoCxos in an inscription (cf. 
Aristoph. Ban. 465). The Aeginetaus regarded 
liim as the tutelary deity of their island. They 
lent statues of Aeacus and the Aeaoidae to their 
allies as a protection in dangerous wars (Hdt. 
V. 81, viii. 64). 

Aeaea (Ai'ata). [See Ax.x, ad fin.] 

Aebiira {Cuerva), a town of the Carpetani 
in Hispania Tarraeonensis. 

Aebutia Gens, patrician, was distinguished 
in the early ages of the Eoman republic, when 
many of its members wfre consuls, viz. in B.C. 
499, 463, and 442. 

Aeca or Aecae (Aeciinus), a town of Apulia 
on the road from AquUonia in Samnium to 
Venusia. 

Aeculanum or Aeclanum, a town of the Hir- 
pini in Samnium, a few miles S. of Beneventum. 

Aedepsus (AlfSijif'os : AiSi)^ios : fipso), a town 
on the W. coast of Euboea, N. of Chalcis, with 
warm baths sacred to Heracles, a watering- 
place well Icnown to the Eomans (Plut. Sidl. 
26). 

Aedon ('AtiSwc), daughter of Pandareus of 
Miletus, wife of Zetlius king of Tliobes, and 
mother of Itylus. Envious of Niobe, the wife of 
her brother Amphion, who had six sons and six 
daughters, she resolved to kill Amaleus, the 
eldest of Niobe's sons, but by mistake slew her 

C 



18 AEDUI 

own son Itylus. Zeus relieved her grief by 
changing her into a nightingale, whose melan- 
choly notes are represented by the poets as 
Aedon's lamentations for her child. Such is 
the Homeric version [Od. xix. 518, and Schol. : 
of. Aesch. Ag. 1143 ; Soph. El. 107 ; Pans. ix. 
B, 9). A later version, though existing before 
the time of Pausanias, makes Aedon the wife of 
Polytechnus, an artist of Colophon. They 
quarrelled from rivah-y in work, and Polytech- 
nus outraged Chelidon the sister of Aedon. 
The two sisters revenged themselves by murder- 
ing Itys and serving his flesli as food to his 
father. Zeus, to stay the succession of horrors, 
turned all the family into birds — Polyteclmus 
into a woodpecker, Chelidon into a swallow, 
Aedon into a nightingale, her mother Harmo- 
thoe into a halcyon, her father Pandareus into 
an osprey, her brother into a hoopoe. For 
further illustration of these bird-myths see 
Tebeus. 

Aedui or Hedui, one of the most powerful 
people in Gaul, lived between the Liger [Loire) 
and the Arar {Saone). They were the first 
Gallic people who made an alliance with the 
Eomans, by whom they were called 'brothers 
and relations ' (Caes. B.G. i. 10, 16, 31 ; Cio. ad 
Fam. vii. 10). On Caesar's arrival in Gaul, B.C. 
58, they were subject to Ariovistus, but were 
restored by Caesar to their former power. In 
B.C. 52 they joined in the insurrection of Ver- 
cingetorix against the Romans, but were at tlie 
close of it treated leriiently by Caesar. Their 
principal town was Bibeacte. Their chief 
magistrate, elected annually by the priests, was 
called Vergobretus, i.e. Judge. 

Aeetes or Aeeta (Air)T')s)i son of Helios (the 
Sun) and Perseis, and brother of Circe, Pasi- 
phae, and Perses. His wife was Idyia, a 
daughter of Oceanus, by whom he had two 
daughters, Medea and Chalciope, and one son, 
Absyrtus. He was king of Colchis at the time 
when Plirixus brought thither the golden fleece. 
For the remainder of liis history, see Absyrtus, 
Argonautae, Jason, Medea. — Hence Aeetis, 
Aeetias, and Aeetine, patronymics of Medea, 
daughter of Aeetes. 

Aega {Atyri). [Amalthea.] 

Aegae {Alyai : Aiyaios). 1. A town in Aohaia 
en the Crathis, with a celebrated temple of 
Poseidon, was originally one of the twelve 
Achaean towns, but its inhabitants subse- 
quently removed to Aegira. — 2. A town in 
Ematliia in Macedonia, the burial-place of the 
Macedonian kings. — 3. A town in Euboea with 
a celebrated temple of Poseidon, who was hence 
called Aegaeus. — i. Also Aegaeae (Ai^oiai : 
Alysdrris), one of the twelve cities of Aeolis in 
Asia Minor, N. of Smyrna, on the river Hylhis : 
it suffered greatly fro(n an earthquake in the 
time of Tiberius (Tac. Ann. ii, 47).— 5. [Ayas), 
a seaport town of Cilicia. 

Aegaeon (Alyaicav), son of Ui-anus by Gaea. 
Aegaeon and his brotliers Gyges, or Gyes, and 
CottuB are known under the name of the Ura- 
nids, and are described as huge monsters with 
a hundred arms {(Kardyx^'P^s) and fifty heads. 
Most writers mention the third Uranid under 
the name of Briareus instead of Aegaeon, which 
is explained by Homer (II. i. 408), who says 
that men called him Aegaeon, but the gods 
Briareus. According to the most ancient tradi- 
tion Aegaeon and his brothers conquered the 
Titans when tliey made war upon tlie gods, and 
secured the victorj' to Zeus, who thrust the 
Titans into Tartarus, and placed Aegaeon and 
iuB brothers to guard them. Similarly in Homer 



V AEGEUS 
{II. i. 396 ff.), when the Olympian deities rebel 
agamst Zeus, Thetis calls Aegaeon to oppose 
them. Other legends represent Aegaeon as 
one of the giants who attacked Olympus ; and 
many writers represent Lim as a marine god 
hving in the Aegaean sea. Another, and 
probably later, story, followed by Virgil (Aen. 
X. 505), makes him the opponent of Zeus. Other 
stories again make him a deity or a monster 
of the sea. He is called by some the son of 
Gaea and Pontus ; by others of Poseidon. 
His name connects him alike with the Aegean 
sea and with notrtiSav Alyaios. In Hesiod (Th. 
811) he is married to the daughter of Poseidon. 
Aegaeon and his brothers must be regarded as 
personifications of the extraordinary powers of 
nature, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, 
and the like. Roscher suggests that his shape 
with a hundred arms may have been imagined 
from the polypus of the sea (cf. Ov. Met. ii. 10). 
[For further portions of the myth see Titanes, 
Urantjs.] 

Aegaeum Mare [rh Aiya'iov ire\ayos, d 
Aiycuos TTovTos), the ijart of the Mediterranean 
now called the Archipelaqo. It was bounded 
on the N. by Thrace and Macedonia, on the W. 
by Greece, and on the E. by Asia Minor. It 
contains in its southern part two groups of 
islands, the Cyclades, which were separated 
from the coasts of Attica and Peloponnesus by 
the Myrtoan sea, and the Sporades, lying off the 
coasts of Caria and Ionia. The part of the 
Aegaean which washed the Sporades was called 
the Icarian sea, from tlie island Icaria, one of 
the Sporades. The origin of the name of 
Aegaean is uncertain; some derive it from 
Aegeus, the king of Athens, who threw himself 
into it ; others from Aegaea, the queen of the 
Amazons, who perished there ; others from 
Aegae in Euboea ; others connect it with diVrco), 
cdyls, a squall, on account of its storms : others 
take it to be a Phoenician word. 

Aegaeus {Aiyaios). [Aegae, No. 3.] 

Aegaleos. 1. {Alya.?^fQ>s, rh AiydKfwv upos : 
Skarmanga), a mountam in Attica opposite 
Salamis, from which Xerxes saw the defeat of 
his fleet b.c. 480 (Hdt. viii. 90 ; Thuc. ii. 
19). — 2. High ground in the west of Messenia, 
above Pylus. 

Aegates, the goat islands, were three islands 
off the W. coast of Sicilj', Ijetween Drepanura 
and Lilybaeum, near which the Romans gained 
a naval victory over the Carthaginians, and 
thus brought the first Punic war to an end, B.C. 
241. The islands were Aegusa {Alyovaa-a) or 
Capriiria {Favignana), Phorbautia {Levanzo) 
and Hiera {Maretimo). 

Aegeria. [Egebia.] 

Aegestus. [Segesta.I 

Aegestus. [Acestes.J 

Aegeus {Alyds). 1. Son of Pandion and 
king of Atliens. He liad no children by his 
first two wives, but he afterwards begot Theseus 
by Aethra at Troezen. When Theseus had 
grown up to manhood, he went to Athens and 
defeated the 50 sons of his uncle Pallas, who 
had made war upon Aegeus and had deposed 
him. Aegeus was now restored. When Theseus 
went to Crete to deliver Athens from the 
tribute it had to pay to Blinos, he promised his 
father that on his return he would hoist white 
sails as a signal of his safety. On ap]n-oaching 
the coast of Attica he forgot his promise, and 
liis father, perceiving the black sail, thouglit 
that his son liad perished and threw hiinself 
into the sea, which according to some traditions 
received from this event the name of the 



AEGIAE 

Aecean Aegeus was one of the eponymous 
heroes of Attica; and one of the Attic tribes 
fAe^eis) derived its name from him. [For 
further details see Thesbus.]-2. The epony- 
mous hero of the phyle called the Aegidae at 
Sparta, son of Oeolycus, and grandson of 
Theras, the founder of the colony m Thera. 
All the Aegeids were believed to be Cadmeans, 
who formed a settlement at Sparta previous to 
the Dorian conquest.— Hence Aegides (Aiyei- 
5ns), a patronymic from Aegeus, especially his 
son Theseus. 

Aegiae (Aiyeiai', Aiyaiat), a small town m 
Laconia, not far from Gythium, the Auglae of 
Homer {II. ii. 583). ^ , 

Aegiale or Aegialea {Alyid\ri, AiytaKua,), 
daughter of Adrastus and Amphitheia, or of 
Aegialeus, the son of Adrastus, whence she is 
called Adrastine. She was married to Diomedes 
{II. v. 412), who, on his return from Troy, 
found her living in adultery with Cometes. The 
hero attributed this misfortune to the anger of 
Aphrodite, whom he had wounded in the war 
against Troy (Verg. Ae7i. xi. 277) : when Aegiale 
threatened his hfe, he fled to Italy. [Diomedes.] 

Aegialea, Aegialos. [AcmviA ; Sicyon.] 

Aegialeus {AiyiaKevs). 1. Son of Adrastus, 
the only one among the Epigoni that fell in the 
war against Thebes : a heroon, the AlyidAeiov, 
was consecrated to him at Pagae in Megaris 
(Pans. i. 44, 7). [Adr.4.stus.] — 2. Son of 
Inachus and the Oceanid Melia, from whom 
the part of Peloponnesus afterwards called 
Achaia derived its name Aegialea : he is said to 
have been the first king of Sicyon. — 3. Son of 
Aeiites, and brother of Medea, commonly called 
AbsyrtHs. [Absybtus.] 

Aegicoreus {Aiytic6peus), son of Ion, and 
eponym of the Attic tribe AiyiKope7s (but see 
'Tbibl'S, Diet, of Antiq.). 

Aegides. [Aegeus.] 

Aegila (to AtyiAa), a town of Laconia with a 
temple of Demeter. 

Aegilia (AiyiA/a : AZyiAieiij). 1. A demus of 
Attica belonging to the tribe Antiochis, cele- 
brated for its figs. — 2. {Cerigotto), an island 
between Crete and 
Cythera. — 3. Aji 
island W. of Euboea 
and opposite Attica. 

AegimluB {Aiyl- 
./JLios), the mythical 
ancestor of the Do- 
rians, whose king he 
was when they were 
yet inhabiting the 
northern parts of 
'Thessaly. Involved 
in a war with the 
Lapithae, he called 
Heracles to his as- 
sistance, and pro- 
mised him the third 
part of his terri- 
tory, if he delivered 
him frojn his ene- 
mies. The Lapithae 
were conquared. 
Heracles did not 
take the ten.itory 
for himself, buj left 
it to the king, who 
was to preserve it 



AEGINA 19 
the third branch derived its name from Hyllus 
(Hylleans), the son of Heracles, who had been 
adopted by Aegimius. Pindar {fr. 4) makes a 
Dorian army under Aegimius and Hyllus occupy 
Aegina. There existed in antiquity an epic 
poem called Aegimius, which described the war 
of Aegimius and Heracles against .the Lapithae 
(see Epic. Gr. Fr. ed. Kinkel, i. 82 ; cf. Athen. 
p. 503; CI. C?. 5984 c). 

Aegimurus (Ai7iVoupos, Aegimuri Arae, Plin., 
and probably the Arae of Verg. Aen. i. 108 ; 
Zowamour or Zemhra), a lofty island, surroun- 
ded by cliffs, off the Afi-ican coast, at the mouth 
of the Gulf of Carthage. 

Aegina {Atyiva. : Alyiunrrjs : E ghma), a 
rooky island in the middle of the Saronic gulf, 
about 200 stadia in circumference. It was 
originally called Oenone or Oenopia, and is said 
to have obtained the name of Aegina from 




Coin of Aegina- 
Rev., the Aeglnetan symbol of a tortoise ; ohv., a square, 
with a dolphin in one quarter and part of the name 

Aegina, the daughter of the river god Asopus, 
who was carried to the island by Zeus in the 
form of an eagle, or, according to Ov. {Met. vi 
113), of fire, and there bore him a son Aeacus. 
As the island had then no inhabitants, Zeus 
changed the ants into men [Mybmtdones], over 
whom Aeacus ruled. [Aeacus.] It was first 
colonised by Achaeans, and afterwards by 
Dorians from Epidaurus, whence the Doric 
dialect and customs prevailed in the island. It 
was at first closely connected with Epidaurus, 
and was subject to the Argive Phidon, who is 
said to have established a silver-mint in the 
island. [Phidon.] It early became a place of 





Temple of Athene at .\egina, restored. 



. . . - for the sons of Heracles. 

Aegimius had two sons, Dymas, and Pamphy- 
lus, who migrated to Peloponnesus, and were 
regarded as the ancestors of two branches of the 
Doric race (Dymanes and Pamphylians), while 



great commercial importance, and its silver 
coinage was the standard in most of the Dorian 
states. [Diet. Antiq. Ponbeha.] In the sixth 
century b.c. Aegina became independent, and 
for a century before the Persian war was a pro- 

c 2 



20 AEGINETA 
sperous and powerful state. After a period of 
war with Athens the two states were reconciled 
by the stress of the Persian war : the Aegine- 
tans fought with 30 ships against the fleet of 
Aerxes at the battle of Salamis, b.c. 480, and 
are allowed to have distinguished themselves 
above all the other Greeks by their bravery. 
After this time its power declined. In n.c. 451 
the island was reduced by the Athenians, who 
m B.C. 429 expelled its inhabitants. The Aegine- 
tans settled at Thja-ea, and though a portion of 
them was restored by Lysander in b.c. 404, the 
island never recovered its former prosperity. It 
belonged successively to the Achaean League, 
the Aetolian League, and finally to the Romans, 
who allowed the inhabitants a nominal self- 
governnient. In the NW. of the island there 
was a city of the same name, which contained 
the Aeaoeum or temple of Aeacus, and on a hill 
in the NE. of the island was the celebrated 
temple of Zeus Panhellenius, said to have been 
built by Aeacus, the ruins of which are still 
extant. The sculptures which occupied the 
tympana of the pediment of this temple were 
discovered in 1811, and are now preserved at 
Munich. In the half century preceding the 
Persian war, and for a few years afterwards, 
Aegina was the chief seat of Greek art; the 
most eminent artists of the Aeginetan school 
were Smilis, Gallon, Anaxagobas, Glaucias, 
Onatas, and Calliteles. 
Aegiaeta Paulus. [Patjlus Aegineta.] 
Aegimum {Aiyivtov : Alyiuievs : Stagus), a 
town of the Tymphaei in Thessaly on the con- 
fines of Athamania. 

Aegioclius (Ai'yfoxos), a surname of Zeus, be- 
cause he bore the Aegis. 
Aegipan (Kly'nrav). [Pan.] 
Aegiplanctus Mons {jh PdyiirKayKrov opos), 
a mountain in Megaris. 

Aegira {Atyeipa : Alyeipdrris), probably the 
Homeric Hyperesia {II. ii. 573), a town in 
Achaia on a steep hill, with a sea-port about 12 
stadia from the town. [Aegae, No. 1.] 

Aegiriissa [Aiyipdeaa'a, Aiyipov(Tffa), one of 
the 12 cities of Aeolis (only in Hdt. i. 149). 

Aegisteas (AlyiaTeas}, son of Midas, perhaps 
identical with Aeschurus, of whom a story like 
that of M. Curtius is told, that, when a chasm 
opened in Celaenae and the oracle told his father 
Midas that tlie most precious possession must 
be thrown in, he leapt in and the chasm closed. 
This may explain the proverbial use of Atyitrreou 
TrfiSrj/xa = Si bold action. 

Aegisthus (Ai'7iir0oy), son of Thyestes, who 
unwittingly begot him by his own daughter Pe- 
lopia. Immediately after his birth he was 
exposed, but was saved by shepherds and 
suckled by a goat (ai'l), whence his name. His 
uncle Atreus brought him up as his son. When 
Pelopia lay with her father, she took from him 
his sword, which she afterwards gave to Aegis- 
thus. This sword was the means of revealing 
the crime of Thyestes, and Pelopia thereupon 
put an end to her own life. Aegisthus murdered 
Atreus, because he had ordered him to slay his 
father Thyestes, and he placed Thyestes upon 
the throne, of which he had been deprived by 
Atreus. Homer appears to know nothing of 
these tragic events ; and we learn from him 
only that Aegisthus succeeded his father Thy- 
estes in a part of his possessions. We may 
suppose that the stoiy was developed by the 
later Epic poets and the Tragedians. Hyginus 
{Fab. 87), who relates it as above, seems to 
draw from the two dramas called Thyestes by 
Sophoolea and Euripides, of which we have few I 



AEGYPTUS 
fragments remaining; Aeschylus {Ag. 1583) 
speaks of Atreus as banishing liis brother Thv- 
estes with his youthful sou Aegisthus, but does 
not give details. According to Homer Aegisthus 
took-ho part in the Trojan war, and during the 
absence of Agamemnon, the son of Atreus 
Aegisthus seduced his wife Clytemnestra (Od 
1. 3o ui 263, iv. 517, xi. 409). Aegisthus mur- 
dered Agamemnon on his return home, and 
reigned 7 years over Mycenae. In the 8th Ores- 
tes, tlie son of Agamemnon, avenged the death 
ot his father by putting the adulterer to death 
'^Ag.uiemnon, Atbeus, Clytemnestra, Ores- 
tes.] 

Aegithallus {AiyleaWos ; C. di S. Teodoro) 
a promontory in Sicily, between Lilybaemn and 
Drepanum, near which was the town Aeei- 
thallmn. " 

Aegitium (Alylriov), a town in Aetolia, on 

the borders of Locris. 

Aegium [Alyiov : Alyievs : Vostitza), a town 
of Achaia, and the capital after the destruction 
of Helice. The meetings of the Achaean League 
were held at Aegium in a grove of Zeus called 
Homarium. 

Aegle {A'(y\n), that is "Brightness" or 
' Splendour,' is the name of several mytho- 
logical females, such as, 1, The daughter of 
Zeus and Neaera, the most beautiful of the 
Naiads ; she married Helios and became mother 
of the Charites ;— 2. a sister of Phaiiton ;— 3. 
one of the Hesperides ; — i. a nymph beloved 
by Theseus, for whom he forsook Ariadne ;— 5. 
one of the daughters of Asclepius. 

Aeglctes (AiVAi^ttjs), that is, the radiant god, 
a surname of Apollo. 

Aegocerus (AlyoK^pais), a surname of Pan, 
descriptive of his figure with the horns of a goat, 
but more commonly the name of one of the 
signs of the Zodiac, Capricornus. 

AegOS-Potami {Aiyhs iroTafioi), in Latm 
m-iters Aegos flumen, the " goat's-river," a 
small river, with a town of the same name on 
it, in the Thracian Chersonesus, flows into the 




Coin of AegoBpotami. 
Obv., Demeter ; rev., goat. 

Hellespont. Here the Athenians were defeated 
by Lysander, B.C. 405. 

Aegosthena {Aly6(r6eva : AlyoffO^veis, Alyo- 
crOevlrris), a town in Megaris on the borders of 
Boeotia, with a sanctuary of Melampus. 

Aegus and Roscillus, two chiefs of the AUo- 
broges, who had served Caesar with fidelity in 
the Gallic war, deserted to Pompey in Greece 
(B.C. 48). 
Aegiisa, [Aeg.a.tes.] 

Aegypsus or Aegysus, a town of Moesia on 
the Danube. 

Aegyptus (Atyvm-os), son of Belus and An- 
chiuoe or Anchiroe, and twin-brother of Dar.aus. 
Belus assigned Libya to Danaus, and Arabia to 
Aegyptus, but the latter subdued the country of 
the Melampodes, which he called Aegypt after 
his own name. Aegyptus by his several wives 
had 50 sons, and his brother Danaus 50 daugh- 
ters (the Danaides). Danaus liad reason to fear 
the sons of his brother, and, having by advice of 
Athene buUt the first fifty-oared sliip, fled with. 



his daughters to Argos in Peloponnesus. Thi- 
ther he WHS followed by the sons of Aegyptus, 
who demanded his daughters for their wives, 
and promised faithful alliance. Danaus pre- 
tended to forgive his wrongs, and distributed his 
daughters among them, but to each of them he 
gave a dagger, with which they were to kill their 
husbands in the bridal night. All the sons of 
Aegyptus were thus murdered, with the excep- 
tion of Lynceus, who was saved by Hyper- 
mnestra. [Lynceus.] The Danaids threw the 
heads of their murdered husbands into the 
marsh of Lerna, and buried their bodies outside 
the town. (Pausanias, ii. 24, reverses this order.) 
They were afterwards purified of their crime by 
Athene and Hermes at the command of Zeus. 
Plutarch (de Fluv. 10) tells that Aegyptus, by 
order of an oracle, in time of drought sacrificed 
his daughter Aganippe, and in grief threw him- 
self into the river Melas (the Nile), which 
thence took the name Aegyptus. In later wri- 
ters Aegyptus is identified with a historical 
king : in Manetho with Sethos, in Eusebius 
with Eameses or Ramses. 

Aegyptus Aiyvwros : Alyv-rrrios, Aegyptius : 
JEgypt), a country in the NE. corner of Africa, 
bounded on the N. by the Mediterranean, on 
the E. by Palestine, Arabia Petraea, and the Eed 
Sea, on the S. by Ethiopia, the division between 
the two countries being at the First or Little 
Cataract of the Nile, close to Syene {Assouan ; 
Lat. 24° 8'), and on the W. by the Great Libyan 
Desert. This is the extent usually assigned to 
the country ; but it would be more strictly cor- 
rect to define it as that part of the basin of the 
Nile which lies below the First Cataract. The 
native name for the country was Chemi or 
Eainit, ' the black land,' from the dark alluvial 
soU, by which it was distinguished from the 
neighbouring desert and from the ' red land ' of 
Arabia. The name AtyvTrros was given first by 
the Greeks to the Nile — such, at any rate, is its 
Homeric use (Od.iv. 477, &c.)— and afterwards to 
the country. The Semitic name was Mizir or 
Mizraim. — 1. Physical Description of Egypt. 
The river Nile, flowing from S. to N. through a 
narrow valley, encounters, in Lat. 24° 8', a 
natural ban-ier, composed of two islands (Philae 
and Elephantine) and between them a bed of 
sunken rocks, by which it is made to fall in a 
series of cataracts, or rather rapids (ra Kard- 
Soyva, 6 fiiKphs Karappa/cTTji, Catarrhactes 
Minor, comp. Catakbhactes), which have 
always been regarded as the southern limit 
assigned by nature to Egypt. The river flows 
due N. between two ranges of hills, so near each 
other as to leave scarcely any cultivable land, 
as far as Silsilis {lebel Seheleh), about 40 miles 
below Syene, where the valley is enlarged by 
tile W. range of hills retiring from the river. 
Thus the Nile flows for about 500 miles, through 
a valley whose average breadth is about 7 miles, 
between hiUs which in one place (W. of Thebes) 
attain the height of 1000 or 1200 feet above the 
sea, to a point some few miles below Memphis, 
where the W. range of hills runs to the NW., 
and the E. range strikes off to the E., and the 
nver divides into branches (seven in ancient 
time, but now only two), which flow through a 
low alluvial land, called, from its shape, the 
Velta, into the Mediterranean. To this valley 
and Delta must be added the country round 
^ke MoEiiis, called Nomos Arsinoites, lying 
JnW. of HeracleopoHs, and connected with the 
''fi.^ ^'^^ ti^eak in the W. range 

of hills. The whole district thus described is 
periodically laid under water by the overflowing 



AEGYPTUS 21 
of the Nile from April to October. The river 
in subsiding, leaves behind a rich deposit of fine 
mud, which forms the soil of Egypt. All beyond 
the reach of the inundation is rock or sand. 
Hence Egypt was called the ' Gift of the Nile. 
The extent of the cultivable land of Egypt is m 
the Delta about 4500 square miles, in the valley 
about 2255, in Fayum about 340, and in all 
about 7095 square miles. The outlying portions, 
included in the Egyptian nomes after the begin- 
ning of the Greek period under the Ptolemies, 
consisted of the Greater and Lesser Oases (cul- 
tivable valleys so called from the Egyptian Uah, 
' settlement '), in the midst of the Western or 
Libyan Desert, a valley in the W. range of hills 
on the W. of the Delta, called Nomos Nitriotes 
from the Natron Lakes which it contains, some 
settlements on the coast of the Red Sea and in 
the mountain passes between it and the Nile, 
and a strip of coast on the Mediterranean, ex- 
tending E. as far as Rhinocolura (El-Arish), and 
W. as far as the Catabathmus Minor, Long, 
about 25° ]0' E. (Strab. 798). The only river of 
Egypt is the Nile [Nilus]. A great artificial 
canal (Balir-Yussouf, i.e. Josejjh's Canal) runs 
parallel to the river, at the distance of about G 
miles, from Diospolis Parva in the Thebais to a 
point on the W. mouth of the river about half 
way between Memphis and the sea [see under 
MoEBis]. Many smaller canals were cut to 
regulate the irrigation of the country. A canal 
from the E. mouth of the Nile to the head of the 
Red Sea was commenced by kings of the 19th 
dynasty (about 1400 B.C.), resumed by Necho II. 
about 600 B.C., and was opened by Darius, son 
of Hystaspes. This canal communicated with 
the present head of the Red Sea through the 
' bitter Lakes.' It had so far sunk in the time 
of Aelius Gallus that it could only be used for 
floating wood down ; but it was deepened in 
Trajan's time, and was called Amnis Augustus. 
There were several lakes in the country, re- 
specting which see Moebis, Mabeotis, Butos, 
Tanis, Sibbonis, and Lacus Am,uii. — 2. Ancient 
History. At the earliest period to which our 
records reach back, Egypt was inhabited by a 
highly civilised agricultural people, under a 
settled monarchical government. The first 
dynasty begins with Mena, probably between 
5000 and 4000 B.C. ; but he sprang from a 
settled city, the ancient Thiiiis, which he 
inhabited before he founded Memphis. Some 
have imagined that the primitive seat of the 
Egyptian people was Ethiopia, and that their 
civilisation was imparted by priests from Meroii. 
Such was the Greek tradition : but the evidence 
from the relative antiquity of Egyptian archi- 
tectural monuments tends to show that, on the 
contrary, the earliest signs of a civilised race of 
builders is in lower Egypt, and that these arts 
were carried later southwards into Ethiopia. 
The kings, whose power was absolute, bore the 
title Per -aOf ' the Great House,' whence came 
the equivalent Pharaoh. The country was 
administered by a governor and a deputy, under 
whom worked a vast number of scribes, some 
of whom were, by the king's favour or their own 
merit, promoted into the ranks of the nobles. 
Ordinarily the caste of the nobles was derived 
from royal descent. They held by hereditary 
right large provincial estates, as well as court 
offices. By merit they obtained from the king 
further titles of honour. It cannot be doubted 
that, in spite of the high regard for justice 
evinced in Egyptian writings, the peasants suf- 
fered under heavy burdens and enforced labour. 
The priests, who were in possession of all the 



22 AEG'i 
literature and science of the country and all 
the employments based upon such knowledge, 
formed a powerful caste. At thoir head, at any 
rate in the po8t-Memj)hite dynasties (after 1700 
B.C.), was the high priest of Amen-Ea, or Amun. 
One of the priests seized the sovereignty about 
1150 B.C. and founded a dynasty. It must be 
observed that the supremacy of temples and of 
the various orders or dynasties of gods was 
changed by the accession of some of the 
dynasties of kings and with the shifting of the 
capital. The religion of Egypt, which was mainly 
derived fi'om sun-worship, but was also con- 
nected with a totemistic animal worship, cannot 
be discussed in this work. Those deities, how- 
ever, who are mentioned in Greek and Latin lite- 
rature will be noticed under their several names. 
Nor can Egjrptian art or its relation to Greek art 
be treated here : reference may be made to the 
Diet, of Antiquities s.vv. Pictura, Statuaria 
Ars, Templum and Vas. The Egyptian 
alphabet is probably the oldest known. It 
originated with the priests, and was first taught 
with other learning in their schools, of which 
the great university or seminary at On (Helio- 
POLis) was the development. This writing was 
first purely pictorial. Then an alphabet sprajig 
from the conventional figures, but the picture was 
added to the word. Prom this ' hieroglyphic ' 
writing a ' hieratic ' running hand was formed 
in very early times (written from right to left), 
and by the 9th century a still farther abridg- 
ment in the ' demotic ' writing common to the 
people. The Egyptians were mainly agricultu- 
rists, with little commercial enterprise, but they 
obtained foreign productions chiefly through 
the Phoenicians, and at a later period they 
engaged in maritime expeditions. The ancient 
history of Egypt may be divided for our pur- 
pose into 4 periods : — (1) Prom the earliest times 
to its conquest by Cambyses ; during wliicli it 
was ruled by a succession of native princes, 
into the difficulties of whose history this is not 
the place to inquire. Those named by Greek 
writers are treated separately. The- last of 
them, Psammenitus, was conquered and de- 
throned by Cambyses in B.C. 525, when Egypt 
became a province of the Persian empire. 
Until shortly before this date Egypt was but 
little known to the Greeks. It is a disputed 
point whether the inscriptions at Karnak of the 
time of Meneptah II. and Eamses III. (prob. 
about B.C. 1300) bear upon the question when 
Greeks first set foot in Egypt. Among the 
allies of the Libyan invaders appear the 
Aqauasha, Shardana, Shakalisha, Turisha, 
Liku, and, in the Hittite wars of Eamses II., 
the Masu, the Dardani and Danau. Some have 
read in these names the Acliaeans, Sardinians, 
Sicilians, Etruscans, Lycians, Mysians, Dar- 
danians and Danaans. Brugsch has pointed 
out that these are represented as circumcised 
tribes ; it is certainly unsafe to assume from a 
somewhat similar name that we are reading of 
Greeks or Sicilians. Still less is it as yet safe 
to accept the arguments of Mr. Petrie from the 
pottery which he has found, that Greek settle- 
ments in Egypt existed certainly in B.C. 1400, 
and possibly in 2000. Prom our present know- 
ledge, therefore, it can only be asserted that the 
Greeks knew something of Egypt in the 
Homeric age, and that their mariners at least 
touched upon its shores [Od. iv. 851, &c. ; cf. 
the Cyclic story of Helen), and that before the 
6th century B.C. Greeks were settled at Nau- 
cratis (see further under Naucbatis and 
Daphn^uc). In the latter part of the period 



learned men among the Greeks began to travel 
to Egyi)t for the sake of studying its institu- 
tions : among others it was visited by Pytha- 
goras).Thales, and Solon. (2) Prom the Persian 
conquest in B.C. 525, to the transference of their 
dominion to the Macedonians in b.c. 882. This 
period was one of almost constant struggles 
between tlie Egyptians and their conquerors, 
until B.C. 840, when Nectanebo II. (Nekt-neb-ef ), 
the last native ruler of Egypt, was defeated by 
Darius Ochus. It was during this period that 
the Greeks acquired a considerable knowledge 
of Egypt. In the wars between Egypt and 
Persia, the two leading states of Athens and 
Sparta at different times assisted the Egyptians, 
according to the state of their relations to each 
other and to Persia ; and, during the intervals 
of those wars, Egypt was visited by Greek his- 
torians and philosophers, such as Hellanicus, 
Herodotus, Anaxagoras, Plato, and others, who 
brought back to Greece the Imowledge of the 
country which they acquired from the priests 
and through personal observation. (8) The 
dynasty of Macedonian kings, from the acces- 
sion of Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, in B.C. 323, 
when Egypt became a Greek kingdom, do^vn to 
B.C. 30, when she became a province of the 
Eoman empire. When Alexander invaded 
EgjTpt in B.C. 332, the country submitted to 
him without a struggle ; and, while he left it 
beliind him to return to the conquest of Persia, 
he conferred upon it the greatest benefit that 
was in his power, by giving orders for the 
building of Alexandria. Jxi the partition of the 
empire of Alexander after his death in b.c. 323, 
Egypt fell to the share of Ptolemy, the son of 
Lagus, who assumed the title of king in B.C. 
300, and founded the dynasty of ihe Ptolemies, 
under whom the country greatly flourished, and 
became the chief seat of Greek learning. But 
soon came the period of decline. Wars with 
the adjacent kingdom of Syria, and the vices, 
weaknesses, and dissensions of the I'oyal family, 
wore out the state, till in b.c 81 the Eomans 
were called upon to intei-fere in the disputes for 
the crown, and in B.C. 55 the dynasty of the 
Ptolemies came to be entirely dependent on 
Eoman protection, and, at last, after the battle 
of Actium and the death of Cleopatra, who was 
the last of the Ptolemies, Egypt was made a. 
Eoman province, b.c. 30. (4) Egypt under the 
Eomans, down to its conquest by the Arabs in 
A.D. 638. As a Eoman province, Egypt was one 
of the most flourishing portions of the empire. 
The fertility of its soil, and its position between 
Europe and Arabia and India, together with the 
possession of such a port as Alexandria, gave 
it the full benefit of the two great sources of 
wealth, agriculture and commerce. Learning 
continued to flourish at Alexandria, and the 
patriarchs of the Christian Church in that city 
became so powerful as to contend for supremacy 
with those of Antioch, Constantinople, and 
Eome, while a succession of teachers, such as 
Origen and Clement of Alexandria, conferred 
real lustre on the ecclesiastical annals of the 
country. When the Arabs made their great 
inroad upon the Eastern empire, the geogra- 
phical position of Egypt naturally caused it to 
fall an immediate victim to that attack, which 
its wealth and the peaceful character of its in- 
habitants invited. It was conquered by Amrou, 
the lieutenant of the Caliph Omar, in a.d. 638. 
—3. Political Gcograplu/.—ln the earliest 
times the country was divided into the ' land of 
the South ' and ' the land of the North ' : tlie 
former extended as for as Memphis, but did 



AEGYS 

not include it, and was subdivided for adminis- 
tration into 2U uonios ; the latter contained 20 
nomas. But in G-reelc and Boman times the 
di-vasion was threefold : (1) the Delta or Lower 
Egypt (to AeAto, ri koto) x'^P") ! (2) the Hepta- 
nmuis or Middle Egypt; (3) the Thebais or 
Upper Egypt {t] avai x<^P°)' °^ which the chief 
town was Ptolemais. In Eoman times the 
whole land was governed by a procurator, styled 
tlie Praefectus Aegypti [see Diet. Ant. s.v.], in 
Greek iiyeficiy : each of the three great divisions 
was administered by an epistJ'Citegus {iirKTrpdr- 
Tjyos), who in Thebais was also called apa0- 
apXI^ from the gi'eater Arab admixture in 
the population ; the subdivision into nomes 
(uo/j.oi) was retained, but the total number was 
47 ; over each was a vofidpxv^i ™ t'^s Eoman 
period usually called crrpaTriySs. Each uome 
was further subdivided into TOTropX'o', f^id these 
again into Kuifiai and t6itol, who had their own 
officials Kafioypafxixarus and TOTrcypanuaTeis, 
being administered by villages, not by cantons. 
For the special government of Alexandria, see 
that article. The Doclecarchy of 12 kings, of 
Herodotus, iv. 147, refers to the partition of 
Egypt, as an Assyi'ian province, into twenty 
satrapies by Esarhaddon after he defeated Tir- 
hahal, B.C. 672. It is probable that the mis- 
taken number was derived from the 12 courts 
in tlie Labyrinth. 

Aegys {AJVuj, Alyvrris : nr. Ghiorgitza), a 
town of Laconia on the borders of Arcadia. 

Aelana {AXXava: Ai\av'nr\s), a town on the 
northern arm of the Bed Sea, near the Balir-el- 
Akaba, called by the Greeks Aelanites from 
the name of the town. It is the Elath of the 
Hebrews, and one of the seaports of which 
Solomon possessed himself. (Strab. p. 768; 
Joseph. A7it. viii. 5, 4.) 

Aelia Gens, plebeian, the members of which 
are given under their surnames, Gallus, Lamia, 
Paetus, Sejanus, Stelo, Tubebo. 

Aelia, a name given to Jerusalem after its 
restoration by the Eoman emperor Aelius 
Hadrianus. 

Aelianus, Claudius (" Sophista "), was born 
at Praeneste m Italy, and hved at Bome about 
the middle of the 3rd century of the Christian 
era. Though an Itahan, he wote in Greek. 
Two of his works have come down to us : one 
a collection of miscellaneous history (noiK^ATj 
lo-Topio) in 14 books, commonly called Varia 
Bistona ; and the other a work on the pecu- 
liarities of animals {Uepl Ziicov iSirfTrjTos) in 17 
books, commonly called De Animaliuvi Na- 
tura. The former work contains short narra- 
tions and anecdotes, historical, biogx-aphical 
antiquarian, &c., selected from various authors' 
generally without their names being given and 
on a great variety of subjects. The latter work 
18 partly collected from older writers, and partly 
the result of his own observations both in Italv 
and abroad. There are also attributed to him 
20 letters on husbandry {'AypoiKiKal 'E-KL<rro\al), 
wr t en m a rhetorical style and of no value — 
Lefps.°'i8i56. Teubner, 
Aelianus, Plautius, mentioned by Tac. Hist. 
IV. oS as Pontifex m a.d. 71, when the Capitol 
was restored. His full name appears in an 

he wa^'r ''I ^^'^"""^ SilvaiS^B Aelianus" 
ne was consul in a.d. 47 

Aelianus Tacticus, a Greek writer, who lived 

t?r«n'"'i'''°,*^ °« "^'^ Military Tac- 

tics of the Greeks {n.p! 2rpaTr,yiKS,. Trf^Jv 
^\\vyiHa^u), dedicated to the emperor Hadrian 
He also gives a brief account of the constitution 



AENEAS 



28 



of a Boman army at that time. — Editions. By 
Franciscus Bobortellus, Venice, 1552 ; Elzevir, 
Leyden, 1613; Kochly and Eiistow, 1855. 
Aello, one of the Harpies. [HjUJPYIAE.] 
Aemilia. 1. The 3rd daughter of L. Aemilius 
Paulus, who fell in the battle of Cannae, was 
the wife of Scipio Africanus I. and the mother 
of the celebrated Cornelia, the mother of the 
Gracchi. — 2. Aemiha Lepida. [Lepida.] — 3. A 
Vestal virgin, put to death B.C. 114. (Plut. Q. 
B.p. 284; Liv. Ep. 63.) 

Aemilia Gens, one of the most ancient patri- 
cian gentes at Eome, said to have been descended 
from Mamercus, who received the name of 
Aemilius traditionally on account of the per- 
suasiveness of his language (Si' ai/j.v\lav Adyov) 
(Plut. Aemil. 2). This Mamercus is represented 
by some as the son of Pythagoras, and by others 
as the son of Numa. The most distinguished 
members of the gens are given under their sur- 
names Babbula, Lepidus, Mameecus or Ma- 
MEBCiNus, Papds, Paulus, Eegillus, Scaubus. 

Aemilia Via, made by M. Aemihus Lepidus, 
cos. B.C. 187, continued the Via Flaminia from 
Ariminum, and traversed the heart of Cisalpine 
Gaul through Bononia, Mutina, Pai-ma, Pla- 
centia (where it crossed the Po) to Mediolanum. 
It was subsequently continued as far as Aquileia. 

Aemilianus. 1. The son of L. Aemilius 
Paulus Macedonicus, was adopted by P. Corne- 
lius Scipio, the son of P. Cornelius Scipio Afri- 
canus, and was thus called P. Cornelius Scipio 
Aemilianus Africanus. [Scipio.] — 2. The go- 
vernor of Pannonia and Moesia in the reign of 
Gallus, was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers 




Coin of Aemlllanua, Roman Emperor, a.d. 268 
Bev., laurel-crowned bust.with legend • Imperator AemiUa- 
nus Plus Felix Augustus • ; obv.. Peace with oUve-branoh. 

in A.D. 253, but was slain by them after reign- 
ing a few months.— 3. One of the 30 tyrants 
(A.D. 259—268), assumed the purple in Egypt, 
but was taken prisoner and strangled by order 
of Gallienus. 
Aemilius Probus. [Nepos, Cornelius.] 
Aemodae or Haemodae, probably the Shet- 
land islands. (PUn. H. N. iv. § 103 ; Mel. iii. 6 ) 
Aemona or Emona {Laibach), a fortified town 
m Pannonia, and an important Eoman colony 
said to have been built by the Argonauts. 

Aenaria, also called Pithecusa and Inarime 
(Verg. Aen. ix. 716), [Ischia] a volcanic island 
off the coast of Campania, at the entrance of 
the bay of Naples, under which the Eoman poet 
represented Typhoeus as lying. The form of 
the name m VirgQ is probably due' to a mis- 
conception of Hom. II. ii. 783. 

Aenea (Alf»'6<a: AiVeiezJy, Aluiidrvs), a town 
m Chalcidice, on the Thermaic gulf, said to have 
been founded by Aeneas (Hdt. vii. 123 ; Liv 
xl. 4, xliv. 10). See coin under Aeneas, p. 25 " 
Aeneades (Ai««£S„s), a patronymic from 
Aeneas given to his son Ascaniua or lulua 
and to thosa who were believed to be descended 
!n generai.'" <'^^ Eomana 

Aeneas [Ahnas), the son of Anohises and 



24 



AENEAS 



Aphrodite, born on Mount Ida. On hia father's 
side he was a great-great-grandson of TroH, and 
thus a cousin of Priam, who was great-grandKon 
of Tro8(Hom. II. xx. 280 f.) The story with wliich 
we are most famiHar, adopted by Virgil from 
various sources, represents that Aeneas, after 
the fall of Troy, escaped witli his father, his wife, 
and his son lulus, and, liaviiig gathered some 
followers, migrated westward, reacliing Epirus, 
Sicily and Africa, and eventually setthng in 
Latium, where he became the heroic founder of 
the Romans. [Droo; Latinus; Turnus.] But 
this is the outcome of many different accounts, 
and it is necessary in treating of a character so 
important in legend to trace the development 
of the story. — 1. Homeric Story. He was 
brought up in the house of Alcathous, the 
husband of his sister [Xenophon, De Venat. 
1, 2, strangely makes him a pupil of Chiron]. 
He took no part in the Trojan war until Achilles 
attacked him on Mount Ida, drove away his 
cattle and captured Lyrnessus. Then he led the 
Dardanians to battle, and ranked thenceforth 
next to Hector as the bulwark of the Trojans. 



Aegean, Crete, the west coast of Greece and 
Epn-us, feicily [Acestes], Carthage [Dmol. 
H rom Carthage he returned to Sicily, and after 
cclebmtmg there the funeral games in honour 
of Anchisos, sailed to Cumae in Italy, wliere he 
consulted the Sibyl. Tlience he went to Latiura 
and was received into alliance by King Latinus, 
whose daughter, Lavinia, he married. The 
Aeneid closes witli the defeat and death of 
iurnus kmg of the Eutulians, which leaves 
Aeneas free to reign over the native races of La- 
tium and the Trojans united as one people.— 
Account in other post-Homeric writers. From 
*'i^/^yclic poets we gather a different tradition 
of Aeneas in Asia Minor. Arctinus, in tolling 
the story of Laocoon says, that Aeneas then 
(before the capture of Troy) withdrew witii his 
family to Moimt Ida [according to Dionys. i. 48 
the same story appeared in the Laocoon of 
Sophocles]. Quintus Smymaeus gives us from 
the Cyclic poets many details of the battles 
after Hector's death, including the narrative 
which is apparently the source of Verg. Aen. ii. 
440-476. He names the wife of Aeneas as 




IValkcr &■ Boulall s 

j\Iap of the "Wanderings of Aeneas. (From Sir C. Bowen's Translation of the Acncid.) 



It is noticeable that Philostratus [Her. 13) calls 
Hector the Hand, Aeneas the Mind of the 
Trojans ; and in the Homeric battles we never 
find Aeneas escaping dangers by his own 
strength of arm, but by the intervention of the 
gods. Thus Aphrodite carried him off when 
he was wounded by Diomede {II. y. 320), and 
Poseidon saved him in his combat with Achilles 
(II. XX. 75-352). It should be observed that 
this latter- passage is one of the so-called 
" greater interpolations," which are now gener- 
ally assigned to some date between 750 and 
600 B.C. It follows, therefore, that not only does 
Homer make no allusion to the westward migra- 
tion, but that even the story of Aeneas reign- 
ing over the Trojans after the capture of Troy 
by the Greeks, as stated prophetically in II. xx. 
307 (cf. line 180 and Hymn. v. 190), is (accord- 
ing to the majority of Homeric scholars) of a 
comparatively late origin. We learn nothing of 
Aeneas from the Odyssey. — Viryilian Account. 
Virgil (for whose agreement with and diver- 
gence from other writers see below), makes 
Aeneas with his companions wander for seven 
years after the capture of Troy, by Thrace, the 



' Eurydice ' (cf. Paus. x. 26 ; Enn. a]). Cic. Div. 
i. 20, 40). Creusa first appears in Dionys. i. 
69. There is a curious statement m Dionys. 

1. 48, that he betrayed Troy and was therefore 
left as a ruler by the Greeks, which looks like 
an attempt to explain the Homeric tradition 
that he was to reign there m later times. Tlie 
oldest source for his migration westwards is in 
the Iliu Persis of Stesichorus (b.c. G30-550). 
The Tabula Iliaca shows Aeneas embarking at 
Sigeum, leading Ascanius and carrying Anchises 
with the images of the gods ; Miseiuis the 
trumpeter is behind. Dionysius and Virgil 
agree mainly in the story of his visit to Thrace : 
by these and other writers he is brought to 
Aenea on the Thermaic gulf (Liv. xl. 4), to 
Samothrace and the Cabiri, to Delos, Crete, 
Cythera (Paus. viii. 12, 8; iii. 22, 11), Zacyn- 
thus, Leucas, Actiuin, Ambraeia (Virgil omits 
Leucas and Ambracia), Epirus, Sicily (cf. Cic. 
Fe?T. ii. 4, 7). Dionysius, however, says nothing 
of Africa or Dido ; and, according to Macrob. v. 

2, 4, Virgil is here following Naevius. As to 
the landing in Italy, Virgil agrees with Diony- 
sius, except in the consultation of the Sibyl, 




AENEAS 

■which Beems to come from Naevius. The 
journey to Etruria is not in Dionysius or 
Naevius, but appears in Lycopliron of Alex- 
andria (n.c. 285-247). Pausanias (x. 17) takes 
■ fii-m to Sardinia. It should be noted that the 
Trojan settlement in 
Latium is unliuovvn 
to Stesichorus and 
first appears in Ce- 
phalon (4th cent, 
u.c), who makes Ro- 
nius, a son of Aeneas, 
the founder of Eome 
(Dionys. i. 72). The 
death or disappear- 
ance of Aeneas takes 
place in the fourth 
year after the death 
Coin of Aenea. vnth the legend of Turnus and Lati- 
nus, durmg a war be- 
tween his subjects and the Eutulians, aided by 
Mezentius : in one story he is taken up to the 
gods ; in another he is drowned in the river Nu- 
micius. (See Liv. i. 2.) He becomes according 
to Livy the Jupiter ludigee ; according to Dio- 
nysius 6ebs x^^'"-°^- — ^ '^o"' °^ Aenea [Aenea], 
which belongs to the middle of the sixth cen- 
tury B.C., re^jresents Aeneas flying from Troy, 
caiTying his father Anchises on his shoulders, 
and accompanied by his wife, who holds 
Ascanius by the hand. This subject is also 
frequently represented on Greek vases. 

Aeneas Gazaeus, so called from Gaza, liis 
birthplace, hved in the latter half of the 5th 
century a.d. He was at first a Platonist and a 
Sophist, but afterwards became a Clu'istian, 
when he composed a dialogue, on the Im- 
mortality of the Soul, called Theophrastus. — 
Editions. By Bartliius, Lips. 1655 ; by Bois- 
sonade, Par. 1836. 

Aeneas Tacticus, a Greek writer of the 
middle of the 4th century B.C. Casaubon 
supposes him to be the same as Aeneas of 
Stymphalus, the general of the Arcadians, B.C. 
362 (Xen. Hell. vii. 3 § 1). He wrote a work on 
the art of war, of which a portion only is pre- 
served, commonly called Commentarius Polior- 
ceticus, showing how a siege should be resisted. 
An epitome of the whole book was made by 
Cineas. (Cic. ad Fain. ix. 25.) — Editions. By 
Ernesti, Lips. 1763 ; by Orelli, Lips. 1818 : by 
Hug, 1874._ 

Aenesidemus {Aivria-lSiinos), 1. a celebrated 
sceptic, bom at Cnossus in Crete, probably 
lived a little later than Cicero. He differed on 
many points from the ordinary sceptics. The 
grand peculiarity of his system was the attempt 
to unite scepticism with the earlier philosophy, 
to raise a positive foundation for it by account- 
ing from the nature of thhigs for the never- 
ceasing changes both in the material and 
spiritual world. None of the works of Aenesi- 
demus have come down to us. To them Sextus 
Empiricus was indebted for a considerable part 
of his work. Prom him we learn the eight 
methods by which Aenesidemus shows fallacy 
m all a priori reasoning, as all arguments what- 
ever were confuted by the 5eVa rpdiroi [Pyrrho], 
VIZ. (1) Either the cause given is unseen and 
not proven by things seen. (2) Or if the cause 
18 seen it cannot be shown to exclude other 
hypotheses. (8) A regular and constant effect 
attributed to an irregular and fitful cause : e.n 
the motions of planets to a sudden impulse. (4) 
In arguing from the seen to the unseen it is 
assumed that the laws are the same. (5) 
Causes' only mean oijinion of causes, in 



AEOLIS 



25 



conflict with other opinions. (6) Equally prob- 
able causes are accepted or rejected as the 
theory requires. (7) The causes given are at 
variance with phenomena. (8) Pi-inciples are 
luicertain because the facts from which they 
proceed are uncertain. — 2. [TiiEnoN.] 

Aeneus, son of Apollo and Stilbe, husband 
of Aenete and father of Cyzicus. 

Aenianes (AiViSj/cj, Ion. 'EviTjves), an ancient 
Greek race, originally near Ossa, afterwards in 
southern Thessaly (Horn. II. ii. 749 ; Hdt. vii. 
198), between Geta and Othrys, on the banks of 
the Spercheus. Chief town Hypata. 

Aenus. 1. {Ahos : Atuios, AifiaTris : Eno), 
an ancient town in Thrace, near the mouth of 
the Hebrus, mentioned in Horn. II. iv. 520. It 
was colonised by the Aeolians of Asia Minor. 
Virgil (4 e?i. iii. 18) supposes Aenos to have been 
built by Aeneas, but he confounds it with 
Aenea in Chalcidice. Under the Eomana 
Aenos was a free town, and a place of import- 
ance. — 2. A town in Aetolia. — 3. Mountain in 
Cephallenia. 

Aenus (Inn), a river in Rhaetia, the boundary 
between Rhaetia and Noricum. (Tac. Mist. iii. 5.) 

Aeoles or Aeolii [AloMh)'. One of the three 
great divisions of the Greeks at one time dwell- 
ing in the Thessalian country south of the 
Peneus. [For their mythical origin see Aeolus.] 
In the colonisation of Asia Minor from Greece 
the Aeolians as a mixed body, uniting Locrians, 
Magnetes, Boeotians and Achaeans, started 
from Aulis. They were, however, mainly de- 
scendants of the Achaeans. Traditionally they 
were led first by Orestes, and after his death by 
his son Penthilus as far as Thrace, and thence 
by Arclielaus son of Penthilus to Dascyleum 
in the country of Cyzicus, whence Gras son of 
Arclielaus first advanced to the Granicus and 
then retired and occupied Lesbos. A second 
detachment under Cleuas and Melaus, de- 
scendants also of Agamemnon, founded Cyme 
(Strab. p. 582). It seems probable that the Aeo- 
lians first occupied Lesbos, that thence a second 
migi-ation colonised Cyme and that from Cyme 
and Lesbos the Aeolian cities of the northern 
part of Asia Minor were founded [Aeolis.] 
Cyzicus was first colonised by the Milesians in 
756 B.C. [For AeoMan poets, see Alcaeus, 

S.APPHO.] 

Aeoliae Insiilae [al Al6\ov vfia-oi : Lipari 
Islands), a group of islands NE. of Sicily, 
where Aeolus, the god of the winds, reigned. 
Homer {Od. x. 1) mentions only one Aeolian 
island, and Virgil {Aen. i. 52) accordingly speaks 
of only one Aeolia (sc. insula), where Aeolus 
reigned, supposed to be Strongyle (Strab. p. 
276) or Lipara (Diod. v. 9). These islands 
were also called Hephaestiddes or Vulcuniae, 
because Hephaestus or Vulcan was supposed 
to have had his workshop in one of them called 
Hiera (Verg. Aen. viii. 415 seq.). They were 
also named Liptirenses, from Lipara, the 
largest of them. The names of these islands 
were, Lipara (Lipari); Hiera (Volcano): 
Strongyle (Stromboli) ; Phoenicusa (Felicudi) ; 
Ericusa (Alicudi) ; Euonymus (Panaria); 
Didyme (Salina); Hicesia (Lisca Bianca); 
Basilidm (Basilizzo) ; Osteodes (Ustica). 

AeSlides (Ai'o v/Stjs), a patronymic given to the 
sons of Aeolus, as Athamas, Cretheus, Sisy- 
phus, Salmoneus, etc., and to his grandsons, as 
Cephalus, Ulysses and Phrixus. Aeolis is the 
patronymic of the female descendants of Aeolus, 
given to his daughters Canace and Alcyone. 

Aeolis (AioAis) or Aeolia, a district of Mysia 
m Asia Minor, was peopled by Aeolian Greeks, 



2B AEOLUS 

whose cities extended from the Troad along the 
shores of the Aegaean to the river Hornius. 
The northern group conipritied tlie islands of 
Tenedos and Lesbos with its six cities, the 
southern group was formed into a league of 
twelve cities with a common religious festival 
(Punaeoliuin), viz. Cyme, Larissae, Neon- 
tlchos, Temnus, Cilia, Notium, Aegirusa, 
Pitane, Aegaeae, Myrina, Grynea, and Smyrna ; 
but Smyrna subsequently became a member 
of the Ionian confederacy. (Hdt. i. 149 seq.) 
These cities were subdued by Croesus, and 
were incorporated in the Persian empire on the 
conquest of Croesus by Cyrus. Magnesia {q. 
V.) on the Maeander is said to have also been 
founded by the Aeolians. 

Aeolus {AtoKos). 1. Son of Hellen and the 
nymph Orseis, and brother of Dorus and 
Xuthus. He was the ruler of Thessaly, and the 
founder of the Aeohc branch of the Greek nation. 
His children are said to have been very 
numei'ous ; but the most ancient story men- 
tioned only four sons, viz., Sisyphus, Athamas, 
Cretheus, and Sahnoneus : others represent him 
as the father also of Mimas and Macareus and 
of five daughters, one of whom, Canace, was 
seduced by her brother Macareus and slain for 
that reason by her father (Ov. Her. 11). 
Another daughter was Arne. The great extent 
of country which this race occupied probably 
gave rise to the varying accounts about the 
number of his children. — 2. Son of Poseidon 
and Arne, and grandson of the previous Aeolus. 
His story probably refers to the emigration of a 
branch of the Aeolians to the west. His mother 
was carried to Metapontum in Italy, where she 
gave birth to Aeolus and his brother Boeotus. 
It is this Aeolus who figures in the story which 
supplies the plots for the two plays of Euripides 
called Melanippe. — 3. Aeolus, son of Hippotes, 
represented in the Odyssey as friend of the 
gods, dwelling in the floating western island 
Aeolia. Here he reigned as a just and pious 
king, taught the natives the use of sails for 
ships, and foretold them the nature of the 
winds that were to rise. In Homer [Od. x. 1 
seq.) Aeolus, the son of Hippotes, is neither the 
god nor the father of the winds, but merely the 
happy ruler of the Aeolian island, to whom 
Zeus had given dominion over the winds, which 
he might soothe or excite according to his 
pleasure ; wherefore he gives Odysseus a bag 
confining the unfavourable winds — a myth 
which is identical in the folk-lore of other 
nations, e.g. the Laplanders. This statement 
of Homer led to Aeolus being regarded in later 
times as the god and king of the winds, which 
he kept enclosed in a mountain (Ov. Met. 
xiv. 223; Verg. Aen. i. 52). It is therefore to 
him that Juno applies when she wishes to 
destroy the fleet of the Trojans. The Aeolian 
island of Homer was in later times believed to 
be Lipara or Strongyle, and was accordingly 
regarded as the place in which the god of the 
winds dwelt. [Aeoliae Inst;lae.] The above 
distinction is by no means invariable, and we 
find the 2nd and the 8rd Aeolus m some authors 
confused. Diodorus (iv. 67, v. 7) connects the 
three by a regular genealogy : Munas son of 
Aeolus I., Hippotes son of Mimas, Aeolus 11. 
son of Hippotes, Arne daughter of Aeolus II. 
and mother of Aeolus IV. 

Aepea (ArTrem : A/ircctTTiy). 1. A town m 
Messenia on the sea-coast, afterwards Thubia. 
— 2. A town in Cyprus, afterwards Soli. 

Aepy (ATttu), a town in Elis, situated on a 
height, as its name indicates. 



AESAB 

AepytuB (Ai-TUTOS). 1. A mythical king of- 
Arcadia, from whom a part of the counti-y was 
called Aepytis. He died from the bite of a 
snakexiind was buried near Cyllene. fiis grave 
IS mentioned in Horn. II. ii. COS. His father 
was ElatoB (Pind. 01. vi. 83) and his daughter 
was EvADNE.— 2. Youngest son of the Heraclid 
Cresphontes, king of Messenia, and of Merope, 
daughter of the Arcadian king Cypselus. When 
his father and brothers were murdered during 
an insurrection, Aepytus alone, who was with 
his grandfather Cypselus, escaped the danger. 
The throne of Cresphontes was in the mean- 
time occupied by the Heraclid Polyphontes, 
who also forced Merope to become his wife. 
When Aepytus had grown to manhood, he 
returned to his kingdom, and put Polyphontes 
to death. Prom him the kings of Blessenia were 
called Aepytids instead of the more general 
name Heraclids. — 3. Son of Hippothous, king 
of Arcadia, and great-grandson of the Aepytua 
mentioned first. He was father of Cypselus 
(Paus. viii. 5, 5). 

Aequi, Aequicoli, Aequicolae, Aequioiilaiu, 
an ancient warlike people of Italy, dweUing in 
the upper valley of the Anio in the mountains 
forming the eastern boundary of Latium, and 
between the Latini, Sabini, Hernici, and Marsi. 
In conjunction with the Volsoi, who were of the 
same Oscan race, they carried on constant 
hostilities with Rome, but their resistance 
became feebler at the end of the 6th century 
B.C., and though they joined the Samnite coali- 
tion they were completely brought under the 
Roman power in 804 B.C. Their chief towns 
were Alba Fucens and C.iBSEOLi. 

Aequi Falisci. [FAiEiin.] 

Aequimaelium. [Maelitjs.] 

Aerope ("AeprfTn]). 1. Daughter of Catreus,king 
of Crete, and granddaughter of Minos. Her 
father, who had received an oracle that he should 
lose his hfe by one of his children, gave her and 
her sister Clymene to Nauplius, who was to sell 
them in a foreign land. Aerope married Pli- 
sthenes, the son of Atreus, and became by him 
the mother of Agamemnon and Menelaus. After 
the death of Plistlienes Aerope married Atreus ; 
and her two sons, who were educated by Atreus, 
were generally believed to be his sons. Aerope 
was faithless to Atreus, being seduced by Thy- 
estes, and according to some was thereupon 
thrown into the sea. Soph. Aj. 1297 may either 
refer to this or to the story followed by Euri- 
pides in the Kprjcro-ai, that she was seduced by a 
slave of her father's. In the latter play, how- 
ever, she is not drowned but is delivered by 
Catreus to Nauplius to be drowned and is spared 
by him, marrying Atreus afterwards. [Atkeus ; 
Agamemnon.] — 2. Daughter of Cepheus and 
mother of Aeropos by Ares (Paus. viii. 44. 7). 

Aesacus (httraKoi), son of Priam and Arisbe 
(Apoll. iii. 12. 5), or Alexirrho'e (Ov. Met. xi. 763). 
He lived far from his father's court in the soli- 
tude of mountain forests. Hesperia, however, 
the daughter of Cebren, kindled love in his 
heart, and on one occasion while he was pur- 
suing her, she was bitten by a viper and died. 
Aesacus in his grief threw himself into the sea 
and was changed by Thetis into an aquatic 
bird. Apollodorus tells that Aesacus, having 
learnt the interpretation of dreams from his 
gi-audfather Merops, prophesied to Priam the 
evils which Paris would cause. 

Aesar, the name of a deity among the 
Etruscans. 

Aesar or Aesarus [Esaro], a river near Crotou 
in Bruttii, in southern Italy. 



AESCHINKS 

Aesohines (AliTxi^Vs)- 1. The Atlionian ora- 
tor born D.c. 889, was the son of Atrouietus and 
Gliuicotlien. According to Demosthenes, his 
pohticul antagonist, his parents were of dis- 
reputable character and not even citizens of 
Athens; but Aeschiues himself says that his 
father was descended from an honourable 
family, and lost his property during the Pelo- 
ponnesian war. In his youtli Aesohines appears 
to have assisted his father in liis school ; he next 
acted as secretary to Aristophon, and afterwards 
to Eubulus ; he subsequently tried his fortune 
as an actor, but was unsuccessful; and at 
length, after serving with distinction in the 
army at the battle of Tamyuae (Aesch. F. L. 
§ 169), came for^vard as a public speaker and 
soon acquired great reputation. In 347 he was 
sent along with Demosthenes as one of the 10 
ambassadors to negotiate a peace with Philip : 
from this time he api^ears as the friend of the 
Macedonian jiarty and as the opponent of 
Demosthenes. Shortly afterwards Aeschines 
formed one of the second embassy sent to Philip 
to receive the oath of Philip to the treaty which 
had been concluded with the Athenians ; but 
as the delay of the ambassadors in obtaining 
the ratification had been favourable to the in- 
terests of Pliilip, Aesohines on his return to 
Athens was accused by Timarchus. He evaded 
the danger by bringing forward a counter-accu- 
sation against Timarchus (345), and by showing 
that the moral conduct of his accuser was such 
that he had no right to speak before the people. 
The speech in which Aeschines attacked Tim- 
archus is still extant : Timarchus was condemned 
and Aeschines gained a brilliant triumph. It can 
hardly be doubted, however, that Aeschines had 
corruptly played into the hands of PhOip, andhad 
purposely misled his own countrymen. In 343 
Demosthenes renewed the charge against Aes- 
chines of treachei-y during his second embassy 
to Philip. This charge of Demosthenes {irfpl 
■Kapairpea^eiai) was not spoken, but published 
as a memorial, and Aeschines answered it in a 
simUar memorial on the embassy {irfpi wapa- 
irpftr/Semj), which was likewise published. 
Shortly after the battle of Chaeronea in 338, 
■which gave Philip the supremacy in Greece, 
Ctesiphon proposed that Demosthenes should 
be rewarded for his services with a golden 
crown in the theatre at the great Dionysia. 
Aeschines in consequence accused Ctesiphon ; 
but he did not prosecute the charge till 8 years 
later, 330. The speech which he delivered on 
the occasion is extant, and was answered by 
Demosthenes in his celebrated oration on the 
crown (wepl arfcpdvou). Aeschines was defeated, 
and, being condemned to pay the fine of 1000 
drachmae, withdrew from Athens. He went to 
Asia Minor, and at length established a school 
of eloquence at Rhodes. On one occasion he 
read to his audience in Rhodes his speech 
against Ctesiphon, and also the reply of Demo- 
sthenes : when his hearers expressed their ad- 
miration he said : ' Your admiration would be 
greater if you heard Demosthenes deliver his 
wn speech ' (Cic. cle Orat. iii. 56, '213 ; Plin. 
S.N. yn. §110). Aeschines was undoubtedly 
not only a fluent, but a brilliant orator (he 
prided himself as needing less study than De- 
mosthenes) : but among the points in which his 
speeches rank far below those of Demosthenes 
may be noticed a want of that nobility in mind 
and purpose which add force and inspiration to 
the oratory of his rival. From Rhodes he went 
to Sarnos, where he died in 314. Besides the 
8 orations extant, we also possess 12 letters 



AKSCHYLUS 



27 



which are ascribed to Aeschines, but are the 
work of late sophists, — Editions. In the edi- 
tions of the Attic orators [Demosthenes], and- 
by Bremi, Zurich, 1823 ; Franke, 1878 ; Sohultz, 
1865. — 2. An Athenian [ hilosopher and rhe- 
torician, and a disciple of Socrates. After the 
death of his master he seems (Hermod. ap. Diog. 
Laert. ii. 106, iii. 6) to have stayed with Euclid 
in Megara in company with Plato and others ; 
thence he went to Syracuse, but returned to 
Athens after the expulsion of Dionysius, and 
supported himself, receiving money for his in- 
structions. He wrote several dialogues, but the 
tliree which have come down to us under hia 
name are not genuine [TrepX 'Aperrjs, Axiochus 
and Eryxias : see Hermann, de Aeschinis 
reliq. 1850). — Editions. By Fischer, Lips. 1786 ; 
by Bcickh, Heidel. 1810 ; and in many editions 
of Plato. — 3. Of Neapolis, a Peripatetic philo- 
sopher, who was at the head of the Academy at 
Athens, together wath Charmades and Clito- 
machusabout B.C. 109 (Cic. de Orat. i. 11). — 4. Of 
Miletus, a contemporary of Cicero, and a dis- 
tinguished orator in the Asiatic style of elo-' 
quence (Cic. Brut. 95 ; Diog. ii. 64). 

Aesohrion (AtVxp''"'!'). 1. Of Syracuse, whose 
wife Pippa was one of the mistresses of Verres, 
and who was liimself one of the scandalous 
instruments of Verres. — 2. An iambic poet, a 
native of Samos. There was an epic poet of 
the same name, who was a native of Mytilene 
and a pupil of Aristotle, and who accompanied 
Alexander on some of his expeditions. He may 
perhaps be the same person as the San^ian. 
(What remains of his poems is printed in 
Bergk's Poetae Lyrici, 1866.) — 3. A native of 
Pergamum, and a physician in the second 
century after Christ, was one of Galen's tutors. 

Aeschylus (AjVxuAos). 1. The great tragic 
poet, was born at Eleusis in Attica, B.C. 525, 
so that he was thirty-five years of age at the 
time of the battle of Marathon, aad contempo- 
rary with Simonides and Pindar. His father 
Euphorion was 
probably connec- 
ted with the wor- 
ship of Demeter, 
and Aeschylus 
himself was, ac- 
cording to some 
authorities, initia- 
ted in the mys- 
teries of this god- 
dess. At the age 
of twenty-five (b.c. 
499), he made his 
first appearance as 
a competitor for 
the prize of tra- 
gedy against Pra- 
tinas, without be. 

ing successful. His chief rival at this period 
was Phrynichus. He fought, with his brothers 
CynaegiruB and Aminias, at the battle of Ma- 
rathon (490), and also at those of Salamis (480) 
and Plataea (479). In 485 he first gained the 
prize ; and in 472 he gained the prize with the 
trilogy of which the Persae, the earliest of liia ex- 
tant dramas, was one piece. About this time, as ia 
generallysupposed, he went to the courtof Hiero, 
and produced his play Aetneae to inaugurate the 
city Aetna [Catana], which Hiero had founded. 
It 18 said that the Persae was reproduced there 
He remained in Sicily about three years and 
returned to Athens before the death of Hiero • 
m ^"^^^ '"^ P^'^y was defeated by the 

Tnptolemus of Sophocles. At the same time 




Bust of Aeschylus. 



28 



AESCHYLUS 




tliere are i-eaBons which may incline us to think 
that the first visit to Sicily was earlier. The 
city of Aetna, in honour of which he wrote his 
play, was actually founded in B.C. 470. Again, 
the subject of the play Glaucus Pontms, which 
formed part of the trilogy, is such as would 
more naturally be suggested after a visit to 
Sicily. Lastly, the tradition, though improbable 
in itself, that lie went to Sicily because he was 
jealous of Simonides, is not likely to have 
arisen unless it was known that he quitted 
Athens before Simonides, i.e. before 477. On 
the whole we are met with fewer difficulties if 
we place the first visit between 479 and 472, and 
suppose that he returned to Athens in or 
shortly before the year in which he produced 
the Persae, which we shall then date after the 
Aetneae. In the year 477 he was victorious 
with the Septem c. Thebas. At some time 
later, probably after his victory with the Ore- 
steia in B.C. 458, he returned to Sicily, and died 
at Gela in 456, at the age of sixty-nine. Various 
traditions are preserved as to the cause of his 
quitting Athens for Sicily. Some said it was 
fcom mortification at a defeat by Sophocles. It 
may be remarked that the most probable dates 
for his two journeys to Sicily do not follow a 
defeat. Others said it was because he had been 
defeated by Simonides in an elegy on those 
■who died at Marathon. Tf this was so, it is 
strange that he should have gone to the court 
of Hiero only to meet 
Simonides there after 
all. Others said that 
it was because he 
had divulged the mys- 
teries ; others (and 
this, at any rate, must 
refer to his second 
visit to Sicily) because i 
the alarm caused to j 
women and children 
by the chorus of Fu- ; 
ries had raised bad 
feeling against him. 
"Wliatever may have \ 
been the cause of liis 
earlier visit to Hiero, 
the most likely account of his final departure 
from Athens is that he was disheartened by 
the failure of his attempt to support the power of 
the Areopagus by his Eumenides, and uneasy 
at the growing power of the democracy, whose 
leaders, moreover, must have regarded him 
with ill will. The well-known story of his 
death, that an eagle, mistaking the poet's 
bald head for a stone, dropped a tortoise on 
it to break the shell, is represented on a gem, 
which Baumeister thinks was copied from a 
relief, and suggests that the story came from 
the relief and was fitted on to Aeschylus. 
It was held to fulfil an oracle by which Aes- 
chylus was to die by a blow from heaven. 
— Aeschylus so changed the system of the 
tragic stage that he has more claim than 
anyone else to be regarded as the founder 
of Tragedy. His great change consisted in 
introducing a second actor, which was done 
certainly before the Persae. Before this there 
can have been little real dramatic action and 
a dialogue merely between the single actor 
and the chorus was of far less importance 
than the classic odes. Aeschylus first made 
the dialogue more important than the chorus. 
He improved the masks and the costumes 
generally (see Diet. Antiq. s.v. Tragoedia) : 
it was said (Athen. p. 21, e.) that he in some 



AeBoliylus. (From a gem 



AESIS 

degree imitated the splendid dress of the 
hierophant in the Eleusinian mysteries. It is 
stated by Vitruvius that Aeschylus first em- 
ployed* Agatharchus to paint scenes : it is not 
quite easy to reconcile this with Aristotle, Poe«. 
4, IG, where (rKTivoypa<pia is mentioned as in- 
troduced by Sophocles. It is possible that 
Aeschylus first used it in a still ruder form, and 
that Sophocles so far developed it as to make it 
his own. The characteristics of the plays of 
Aeschylus are a sublimity and grandeur of 
feeling and expression, witli less of the pathos 
which we find in Sophocles and Euripides. 
Prometheus is his most pathetic play, but 
we are made to feel that Prometheus is a 
deity and removed above mere human pity. 
The poet brings before us more forcibly, and 
more terribly, than the other tragedians the 
unseen powers working out the doctrine of re- 
tributive justice, and the mysteries of laws 
which control even the gods themselves. Not 
only are his hearers no men of common life, 
but behind all their actions and sufferings we 
are made to feel the supernatural power work- 
ing out the punishment of presumption. And 
the diction has been suited to the subject, so 
that Aeschylus is above all poets magniloquent, 
sometimes to a degree which in a lesser man 
would be called turgid, abounding in sonorous 
words and daring metaphors. It has been sug- 
gested, not without reason, that the apparent 
infiuence of the philosophy of Pythagoras, as 
well as some remarkable Doric forms, may 
have been due to the poet's prolonged stay in 
Sicily on his first visit. We are told that 
Aeschylus wrote 70 tragedies besides satyric 
dramas. The 'fable trilogy,' i.e. a succession 
of three plays working out the successive chap- 
ters of some legend, belongs especially to 
Aeschylus. The trilogies of Sophocles more 
frequently, though not always, were discon- 
nected in story. Of the plays of Aeschj'lus 
seven only remain : 1. The Persae, produced in 
472, of the trilogy Phineus, Persae, Glaucus 
Pontius ; '2. the Septem c. Thebas (b.c. 468) of 
the series Laius, Oedipus, Septem, forming 
with the satyric drama Spihinx a tetralogy ; 3. 
the Sup2}lices (b.c. 462), the middle play be- 
tween the Egyptians and the Danaids ; 4. the 
Provietheus Vinctus (of uncertain date), the 
middle play between UpoiJ.T]9evs Trvp<p6pos and 
Up. Avofievos, and lastly (B.C. 458), the three plays 
Agamemnon, Choephoroe, and Eumenides, 
which form the trilogy of the Oresteia.— Edi- 
tions. Dindorf ; Paley ; Weil; Hartung : of sepn^ 
rate plays, especially Miiller'sSMJJiemrfes, and 
Sidgwick's Oresteia, Prickard's Prometheus. 
Aesciilapius. [Asclepius.] 
Aesepus (Alfo-Tjiros), a river which rises m 
Ida, and flows by a NE. course into the Pro- 
pontis, which it enters W. of Cyzicus and E. of 
the Granicus. The river god was the son of 
Oceanus and Tethys (Hes. Theog. 342). 

Aesernia [Isernia), a town m Samnuim, 
made a Eoman colony in the first Punic war 
(Liv. xxvii. 10 ; Cic. ad Att. ^^ii. H)- 

Aeserninus. 1. A surname of Mabcellus, 
who was taken prisoner at Aesernia (Liv. Ep. 
Ixxiii. .— 2. A Samnite gladiator of great strength, 

whence the proverb "Pacideianus cum Aeser- 
nino," for skill against brute force (Cic. ad Q. 
F. iii. 4), Pacideianus being the most skilful 
gladiator of his day. . 

Aesis (Esino or Fiinncsino), a river which 
formed the boundary between Picenom and 
Umbria, was anciently the S. boundary of the 
Senones.and the NE. boundary of Italy proper. 



AESIS 

Aesis or Aesium fAesTims: Jcsi), a town and 
a Konum colony in Umbria on the river Aesis, 
celebrated for its cheese, Aeshias caseiis. 

Aeson (Aro-wv), son of Cretheus, the founder 
of lolcus, and of Tyro, the daughter of Salino- 
neus, and father of Jason and Promaohus. He 
WHS excluded from the throne by his half-brother 
Pelias, who endeavoured to keep the kingdom 
to hiinself by sending Jason away with the 
Ai-t'onauts. Pelias subsequently attempted to 
get" rid of Aeson by force, but the latter put an 
end to his own life. According to Ovid (Met. 
vii. 1(3'2 seq.), Aeson survived the return of the 
Argonauts, and was made young again by 
Medea. His mother's name in Ov. Her. vi. 105 
is Alcimede. . 

Aesopus (Aiffuiiros). 1. The traditionary au- 
thor of Greek Fables. According to Herodotus 
ii. 134, he lived about B.C. 570. He was origin- 
ally a slave, and received his freedom from his 
master, ladmon the Samian. Upon this he 
visited Croesus, who sent him to Delphi, to 
distribute among the citizens 4 minae apiece ; 
but in consequence of some dispute on the sub- 
ject, he refused to give any money at all, upon 
which the enraged Delphians threw him from 
a precipice (of. Aristoph. Vesp. 1446). Plagues 
were sent upon tliem from the gods for the 
offence, and they proclaimed their willingness 
to give a compensation for his death to anyone 
who could claim it. At length ladmon, the 
grandson of his old master, received the com- 
pensation, since no nearer connexion could be 
found. A life of Aesop is prefixed to a book of 
fables purporting to be his, and collected by 
Maximus Planudes, a monk of the 14th century, 
who rejiresents Aesop as a monster of ugliness. 
It is clear that the Greeks even of the time of 
Herodotus Icuew little about Aesop's history; 
but it is probable that he was a real personage, 
and later traditions of his date agree with that 
given by Herodotus (cf. Plut. Sept. Sap. Conv. 
p. 152, c). The tendency to ascribe all fables 
to him appears from many passages (Aristoph. 
Pax, 127, Av. 471, G51 ; Plat. Phaed. p. 60, &c.). 
It was shown by Bentley that the fables which 
bear his name are spurious. They were, in fact, 
later prose versions of metrical fables. (See 
further under Babeius, Ph.vedeus.) — 2. See 
Julius V.iLERrus. 

Aesopus, Claudius, or Clodius, was the 
greatest tragic actor at Rome, and a contempo- 
rary of Eoscius, the greatest comic actor ; and 
both of them lived on intmiate terms with 
Cicero (Cic. de Div. i. 37, 80 ; j?;ro Sest. 58, 123 ; 
ad Q. F. i. 2). Aesopus appeared for the last 
time on the stage at an advanced age at the 
dedication of the theatre of Pompey (B.C. 55), 
when his voice failed him, and he could not 
go through the speech (Cic. ad Fam. vii. 1). 
Aesopus realised an immense fortune by liis 
profession, which was squandered by his son, 
a foolish spendthrift. It is said, for instance, 
that he dissolved in vinegar and drank a pearl 
worth about 8000Z., which he took from the ear- 
ring of Caecilia Metella (Hor. Sat. ii. 3, 239 ; 
VaL Max. ix. 1. 2 ; Plin. ix. § 122). 

Aestii, Aestyi, or Aestui', a people dwelling 
on the sea-coast, in the NE. of Germany, prob- 
ably in the modern Knrland, who collected 
amber, which they called glesswn. Their cus- 
toms, says Tacitus (Germ. 45), resembled the 
Suevic, and their language the British. They 
were probably a Sarmatian or Slavonic race, 
and not a Germanic. 

Aesiila (Aesillanus), a town of the Aequi on a 
mountain between Praeneste and Tibur. " Ae- 



AETHIOPIA 



29 



sulao decUve arvum," Hor. Od. in. 21); Liv. 

xxvi. 9.) 

Aesymnetes, [Eukypylus.] 

Aethalia (Ai0oA.Ia, AiSixXt)), called Ilva (Elba) 
by the Romans, a small island in the Tuscan 
sea, opposite the town of Populonia, celebrated 
for 'its iron mines. It had on the NE. a good 
harbour, "Argons Portus " (Porto Ferraio), in 
which the Argonaut Jason is said to have landed. 

Aethalldes (AidaKiSTjs), son of Hermes and 
Eupolemia, the herald of the Argonauts. He 
had received from his father the faculty of 
remembering every thing, even in Hades, and 
was allowed to reside alteniately in the upper 
and in the lower world. His soul, after many 
migrations, at length took possession of the 
body of Pythagoras, in which it stiU recollected 
its former migrations. (ApoU. Rh. i. 640 ; 
Hygin. Fab. 14.) 

Aether (Aleip), a personified idea of the 
mythical cosmogonies, in which Aether was con- 
sidered as one of the elementary substances out 
of which the Universe was formed. Aether was 
regarded by the poets as the pure upper air, 
the residence of the gods, and Zeus as the Lord 
of the Aether, or Aether itself personified. 
(Cic. N. D. iii. 44, 53 ; Lucret. v. 498.) Hesiod, 
Th. 124, makes Aether son of Erebus and Nyx, 
and brother of Hemera. Verg. Georg. ii. 325, 
Lucr. i. 251, seem to identify him with Zeus and 
make him wedded to the Earth. 

Aethices (AWixres), a Thessaliau or Epirot 
peoijle, near M. Pindus. 

AetMcus, Hister or Ister, a Roman writer 
of the 7th century after Christ, a native of Istria, 
the author of a geograi^hical work, called Aethici 
Cosmographia. Edited by Gronovius, in his 
edition of Pomponius Mela, Leyden, 1722 ; 
Wuttke, Leips. 1854. 

Aethilla (AWiWa or AWvWa), daughter of 
Laomedon and sister of Priam, is said to have 
become after the fall of Troy the prisoner of 
Protesilaus, with whose history, however, this 
does not agi-ee. 

Aethiopes (AlOioires, said to be from alBai and 
cijij/, but perhaps really a foreign name corrupted), 
was a name applied (1) most generally to all 
black or dark races of men ; (2) to the inhabit- 
ants of all the regions S. of those with which 
the early Greeks were well acquainted, extend- 
ing even as far N. as Cyprus and Phoenicia ; 
(3) to all the inliabitants of Inner Africa, S. of 
Mauretania, the Great Desert, and Egypt, from 
the Atlantic to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, 
and to some of the dark races of Asia ; and (4) 
most specifically to the inhabitants of the land 
S. of Egypt, which was called Aethiopia. The 
Aethiopes in Homer are the most distant of 
people (II. i. 423, Od. i. 22); in Hesiod, Th. 
985, their king bears the apparently Egyptian 
name of Memnon. 

Aethiopia (AlBLoma, Al9. iirip Alyvirrav : Ai- 
fli'oij/, AiBioirevs, Horn., fem. AIBiottIs, Aethiops : 
Nubia, Kordofan, Sennaar, Abyssinia), a 
country of Africa, S. of Egypt, the boundary of 
the countries being at Syene (Assouan) and the 
Smaller Cataract of the Nile, and extending on 
the E. to the Red Sea, and to the S. and SW. 
indefinitely, as far apiJarently as the knowledge 
of the ancients extended. The Egyptians knew 
it as the land of Cusli. In its most exact politi- 
cal sense the word Aethiopia seems to have 
denoted the kingdom of MEBoij ; but in its 
wider sense it included also the kingdom of the 
AxomiTjVE, besides several other peoples, such 
as the Troglodytes and the IchthyophJlgi on the 
Red Sea, the Blemmyes and Megabari and 



80 AETHLIUS 
Nubae in the interior. The country was wa- 
tered by the Nile and its tributaries, the Asta- 
pus [Bahr-el-Azrck or Blice Nile) and the Asta- 
boras [Athara or Tacazze). Monuments are 
found in the country closely resembling those 
of Egypt, but of an inferior style, and the 
evidence from them is against the view that the 
Egyptians derived their civilisation from Meroii. 
[Aeoyptus.] ■ The kings of the 12tli dynasty 
made successful expeditions against them and 
checked their encroachments by fortresses, but 
without permanent occupation, beyond Semneh 
at the 2nd Cataract, within which the ' Viceroys 
of Cush ' administered. But about 750 B.C. 
tlie Ethiopians not only recovered complete in- 
dependence, but gained possession of Thebes 
and established the 25th dynasty, which lasted 
till the defeat of Tirhakah by the Assyrians in 
G72. Under the Ptolemies Graeco-Egyptian 
colonies established themselves in Ethiopia, and 
Greek manners and philosophy had a consider- 
able influence on the upper classes; but the 
country was never subdued. The Eomans 
failed to extend their emjjire over Ethiopia, 
though they made expeditious into the country, 
in one of which C. Petronius, prefect of Egypt 
under Augustus, advanced as far as Napata, 
and defeated the warrior queen Candace (b.c. 
22). The submission of the country was, how- 
ever, nominal, at any rate south of Premis, where, 
as at Pselchis, there were Roman garrisons 
under Diocletian. 

Aethlius {'AiBXios), first king of Elis, father 
,of Endymion, was son of Zeus and Protogenia, 
daughter of Deucalion, or son of Aeolus. 

Aethra (AiSpa). 1. Daughter of Pittheus of 
Troezen, was mother of Theseus by Aegeus. 
[Theseus.] She afterwards lived in Attica, 
irom whence she was cai-ried off to Lacedaemon 
by Castor and Pollux, and became a slave of 
Helen, with whom she was taken to Troy 
(II. iii. 144). At the capture of Troy she was 
restored to liberty by her grandson Acamas or 
Demophon. — 2. Daughter of Oceanus, by whom 
Atlas begot the 12 Hyades and a son Hyas. 

Aetion ('AeTi'cof). 1. A sculptor of Amphipolis 
about the middle of the 3rd century B.C. — 2. A 
celebrated painter, whose best picture repre- 
sented the marriage of Alexander and Eoxana. 
It is probable that he lived in the time of Alex- 
ander the Great ; though some argue from 
Lucian, Herod. 4, that he lived about the time 
of Hadrian and the Antonines. 

Aetius. 1. A celebrated Roman general and 
patrician, defended the Western empire against 
the barbarians during the reign of Valentinian 
HI. In A.D. 451 he gained, in conjunction with 
Theodoric, a great victory over Attila, near 
Chalons in Gaul, by which he saved the empire ; 
but he was treacherously murdered by Valen- 
tinian in 454. [See also Bonifacius.] — 2. A 
Greek medical writer, born at Amida in Meso- 
potamia, lived at the end of the 5th or the be- 
ginning of the Cth century after Christ. His 
work BijSAi'a iarptKa (KKaiSeKa, ' Sixteen Books 
on Medicine,' is one of the most valuable medi- 
cal remains of antiquity, as being a judicious 
■compilation from many authors whose works are 
lost. The whole of it has never appeared in 
the original Greek, butparts are edited in Anecd. 
Gr. Venice, 181G ; Hebenstreit, Lips. 1757 ; and 
a Latin translation in Stephens, Medicae Artis 
Principes, Paris, 15(')7. 

Aetna (AIVvtj). 1. (Now Mongino = '!>lonte 
Gibino, the original name being displaced by a 
mixture of two Latin and Arabic words, both 
meaning " the mountain ") a volcanic mountain 



AETOLIA 

in the NE. of Sicily between Tauromenium and 
Catana. It is said to have derived its name 
from Aetna, a Sicilian nymph, a daughter of 
Ura^jiB and Gaea, or of Briareus. Zeus buried 
under it Typhon or Enceladus ; and in its in- 
terior Hephaestus and tlie Cyclopes forged the 
thunderbolts for Zeus. There were several 
eruptions of M. Aetna in antiquity. One oc- 
curred in n.c. 475, to which Aeschylus (Prom. 
3G8 IT.) and Pindar (Ol.. iv. 10) probably allude, 
and another in n.c. 425, which Thucydides says 
(iii. 11(5) was the third on record since the 
Greeks had settled in Sicily. The form of the 
mountain seems to have been much the same in 
antiquity as it is at present. Its base covers 
an area of nearly 90 miles in circumference, and 
its highest point is 10,874 feet above the level 
of the sea. The circumference of the crater is 
variously estimated from 2i to 4 miles, and the 
depth from 600 to 800 feet.— 2. (Aetnenses: 
S. Maria di Licodia), a town at the foot of M. 
Aetna, on the road to Catana, formerly called 
Inessa or Innesa. It was founded in B.C. 461, 
by the inliabitants of Catana, who had been ex- 
pelled from their own town by the Siculi. They 
gave the name of Aetna to Inessa, because 
Catana had been called Aetna by Hiero I. 

Aetnaeus (AiTvaios), an epithet of gods and 
mythical beings connected with Aetna — of 
Zeus, to whom a festival was celebrated there, 
called Aetnea ; of Hephaestus ; and of the Cy- 
clopes. 

AetSlia {AhaiXla : AItco\6s), a division of 
Greece, was bounded on the W. by Acarnauia, 
from which it was separated by the river Ache- 
lous, on the N. by Epirus and Thessaly, on the 
E. by the Ozolian Loorians, and on the S. by the 
entrance to the Corintliian gulf. It was divided 
into two parts, Old Aetolia from the Achelous 
to the Evenus and Calydon, and New Aetolia, 
or the Acquired (imKTtiros), from the Evenus 
and Calydon to the Ozolian Locrians. On the 
coast the country is level and fruitful, but in the 
interior mountainous and unproductive. The 
mountains contained many wild beasts, and 
were celebrated . in mythology for the hunt of 
the Calydouian boar. The country was origi- 
nally inhabited by Curetes and Leleges, but was 
at an early period colonised by Greeks from 
Elis, led by the mythical Aetolus. The Aeto- 
lians took part in the Trojan war, under their 
king Thoas. They continued for a long time a 
rude and uncivilised people, living in \-illages 
without a settled town, and to a great extent by 
robbery ; and even in the time of Thucydides 
(B.C. 410) many of their tribes spoke a language 
which was not Greek, and were in the habit of 
eating raw flesh (Thuc. iii. 94-98). Like the 
other Greeks, they abolished at an early time 
the monarchical form of government, and lived 
under a democracy. They were, perhaps, loosely 
united by a religious tie centring in the temple at 
Thermou (IZ. ii. 638, xiii. 217) ; but the first po- 
litical league was formed against Macedon after 
the battle of Chaeronea. It did not acquire 
much importance till after the death of Alexan- 
der, and somewhat later became a formidable 
rival to the Macedonian monarchs and to the 
Achaean League, from which it differed in being 
a league of tribes, not of towns : it had much 
less stability and coherence. The Aetolian 
League at one time included, not only Aetolia 
Proper, but Acarnania, part of Thessaly, Locris, 
and the island of Ceiihallenia ; and it also had 
close alliances with Elis and several towns in 
the Peloponnesus, and likewise with Cius on the 
Propontis. Its annual meetings, coUod Pan- 



AETOLUS 

aetoUca, were held in the autumn at Thermon, 
and at tiaem were chosen a General {(TTpaTvyish 
who was at the head of the League, an Hipp- 
archuB or Master of the Horse, a Secretary, and 
a select committee called Apocleti (dir<J/c-\T)TOi). 
Ihe Aetohans took the side of Antiochus III. 
acaiust the Romans, and on the defeat of 
that monarch B.C. Ib9, they became virtually 
the subjects of Bome. On the conquest oi 
the Achaeaus, B.C. 146, Aetolia was mcluded 
in the Eoman province of Achaia. After the 
battle of Actium, B.C. 31, a considerable part 
of the population of Aetolia was transplanted to 
the city of NicopoLls, which Augustus built in 
commemoration of his victory. 

Aetolus (AiTtoX<Ss) sou of Endymion and 
Neis, or Iphianassa, man-ied Pronoll, by whom 
he had two sons, Pleuron and Calydon. His 
father made liim run a race at Olympia with 
his brother Epeius for the succession to the 
throne ; he was defeated, but, after the death 
of Epeius, became king of Elis. Afterwards 
he was obliged to leave Peloponnesus, because 
he had slain Apis, the son of Jason or Sal- 
moneus. He went to the country near the 
Achelous, which was called Aetolia after him 
(Paus. V. 1, 2; Strab. p. 357).— 2. Son of 
Oxylus and Pieria, and brother of Laius. He 
died young, and was buried at the gate of Elis 
(Paus. V. 4, 4). 

Aexone {Ai^wvii and Ai'^aii/Tjij : Al^auevs), an 
Attic demus of the tribe Cecropis or Pandionis. 

Afer, Domitius, of Nemausus (Nismes) in 
Gaul, was the teacher of Quintilian, and one of 
the most distinguished orators in the reigns of 
Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero, but he 
sacrificed his character by conducting accusa- 
tions for the government (Tac. Ann. iv. 52, 
66, xiv. 19 ; Dio Cass. lix. 19). He was consul 
sufEectus in A. D. 39, and died in 60. Quintilian 
mentions several works of his on oratory, which 
are all lost (viii. 5, 16, ix. 2, 20, x. 1, 118.) 

Afranius. 1. L. A Roman comic poet, 
flourished about B. c. 100. He was the prin- 
cipal poet of the national comedy [Comoedia 
tofjata), which did not borrow from the Greek 
but dealt with Italian scenes and manners. 
His subjects were greatly taken from the life of 
the middle and lower classes [Com. taber- 
nariae), and from the skill with which he 
described Roman life he was regarded as the 
Roman Menander (Hor. Ep. ii. 1, 57). He is 
praised by Cicero {Brut. 45, 105), and by Quin- 
tilian (x. 1, 10), but with a reservation on 
account of the immorality of his plots. The 
titles of more than forty plays are preserved. 
Fragments are edited by Ribbeck, Com. 1873. 
— 2. L. an adherent of Pompey, under whom 
he served against Sertorius and Mithridates, 
and was, through his influence, made consul 
B. c. 60. When Pompey obtained tlie pro- 
vinces of the two Spains in his second con- 
sulship (b. c. 55), he sent Afranius and Petreius 
to govern Hither Spain, while he himself re- 
mained in Rome. In B. c. 49, Afranius and 
PetreiuB were defeated by Caesar in Spain. 
Afranius therefore passed over to Pompey in 
Greece ; was present at the battle of Pharsalia, 
B. c. 48; and subsaquently at the battle of 
Thapsus in Africa, B. c. 46. He then attempted 
to fly into Mauretania, but was taken prisoner 
by P. Sittius, and killed. 

Africa ('AlfpiVT; : Africanus), or Libya (Ai$vr)), 
was used by the ancients in two senses, (1) for 
the whole continent of Africa, and (2) for the 
portion of N. Africa which constituted the 
territory of Carthage, and which the Romans 



AFRICA 



81 



erected into a province, under the name of 
Africa Propria.^ — 1. In the more general sense 
the name was not used by the Greek writers ; 
and its use by the Romans arose from the 
extension to the whole continent of the name of 
a part of it. The proper Greek name for the 
continent is Libya (Ai/3u7)). (Strab. 824-839.) 
Considerably before the historical period of 
Greece begins, the Phoenicians extended their 
commerce over the Mediterranean, and founded 
several colonies on the N. coast of Africa, of 
which Carthage was the chief. [Caethaqo.] 
The Greeks knew very little of the country 
until the foundation of the Dorian colony of 
Cykene (b. c. 620) [as regards the intercourse 
of Greeks with Egypt see Aegyptus], and even 
then their knowledge of all but the part near 
Cyrene was derived from the Egyptians and 
Phoenicians, who sent out some remarkable ex- 
peditions to explore the country. A Phoeni- 
cian fleet sent by the Egyptian king Pharaoh 
Necho (about b. c. 600) sailed from the Red Sea, 
round Africa, and so into the Mediterranean 
(Hdt. iv. 42) : : the authenticity of this story has 
been doubted without reason, not only by Strabo 
(p. 98), but by some modern writers. We still 
possess an authentic account of another expedi- 
tion, which the Carthaginians desx^atched under 
Hanno (about B. c. 510), and which reached a 
point on the W. coast nearly, if not quite as far 
as lat. 10° N. On the opposite side of the 
continent, the coast appears to have been 
very little known beyond the S. boundary of 
Egypt, till the time of the Ptolemies. In the 
interior, the Great Desert {Sahara) interposed a 
formidable obstacle to discovery; but even 
before the time of Herodotus the people on the 
northern coast told of individuals who had 
crossed the Desert and had reached a great 
river flowing towards the E., with crocodiles in 
it, and black men living on its banks ; which, if 
the story be true, was probably the Niger in its 
upper course, near Timbuctoq. That the 
Cai-thaginians had considerable intercourse 
with the regions S. of the Sahara, has been 
inferred from the abundance of elephants they 
kept. Later expeditions and inquiries extended 
the knowledge which the ancients possessed of 
the E. coast to about 10° S. lat., and gave them, 
as it seems, some further acquaintance with the 
interior, about Lake Tchad, but the southern 
part of the continent was so totally unknown, 
that Ptolemy, who finally fixed the Hmits of 
ancient geographical science, recurred to the 
old notion, which seems to have prevailed before 
the time of Herodotus, that the S. parts of 
Africa met the SE. part of Asia, and that the 
Indian Ocean was a vast lake. The greatest 
geographers who lived before Ptolemy — namely, 
Eratosthenes and Strabo — had accepted the 
tradition that Africa was circumiiavigable. 
The shape of the continent they conceived to 
be that of a right-angled triangle, having for 
its hypotenuse a line drawn from the Pillars 
of Hercules to the S. of the Red Sea : and, as 
to its extent, they did not suppose it to reach 
nearly so far as the Equator. Ptolemy supposed 
the W. coast to stretch N. and S. from the 
Pillars of Hercules, and he gave the continent 
an indefinite extent towards the S. There were 
also great differences of opinion as to the 
boundaries of the continent. Some divided tlie 
whole world into only two parts, Europe and 
Asia, and they were not agreed to which of 
these two Libya {i.e. Africa) belonged; and 
those who recognised three divisions differed 
again in placing the boundary between Libya 



82 AFEICA 

and Asia either on the W. of Egyjit, or along 
the Nile, or at the isthmus of Suez and the Ked 
Sea : the last opinion gradually prevailed. As 
to the subdivision of the country itself, Hero- 
dotus distributes it into Aegyptus, Aethiopia 
(i.e. all the regions S. of Egypt and the 
Sahara), and Libya, properly so-called; and 
he subdivides Libya into three parts, according 
to their physical distinctions — namely, (1) the 
Inhabited Country along the Mediterranean, 
in which dwelt the Nomad Libyans (oi 
irapa6aKd(T(noi ruv vofidScov At^voii' : the Bar- 
harij States); (2) the County of "Wild Beasts 
(r) BripiwSTis), S. of the former : that is, the 
region between the Little and Great Atlas, 
which still abounds in wild beasts, but takes its 
name from its prevailing vegetation [Beled-el- 
Jerid, i. e. the Country of Palms) ; and (3) the 
Sandy Desert {ri v|/a/i^ios : the Sahara), that is, 
the table land bounded by the Atlas on the N. 
and the margin of the Nile-valley on the E., 
which is a vast tract of sand broken only by a 
few habitable islands, called Oases. As to the 
people, Herodotus distinguishes four races — two 
native, namely, the Libyans and Ethiopians, 
and two foreign, namely, the Phoenicians and 
the Greeks. The Libyans, however, were a 
Caucasian race : the Ethiopians of Herodotus 
correspond to our Negro races. The Phoeni- 
cian colonies were planted chiefly along, and to 
the W. of, the great recess in the middle of the 
N. coast, which formed the two Syetes, by far 
the most important of them being Carthage ; 
and the Greek colonies were fixed on the coast 
along and beyond the E. side of the Syrtes ; 
the chief of them was Cyeene, and the region 
was called Cyrenai'ca. Between this and Egypt 
were Libyan tribes, and the whole region 
between the Carthaginian dominions and 
Egypt, including Cyrenai'ca, was called by the 
same name as the whole continent, Libya, 
The chief native tribes of this region were the 
Adyemachidai;, Mabmabibae, Psylli, and 
Nasamones. The last extended into the Car- 
thaginian territory. To the W. of the Carthagi- 
nian possessions, the country was called by the 
general names of Numtdia and Mauhetania, 
and was possessed partly by Carthaginian 
colonies on the coast, and partly by Libyan 
tribes under various names, the chief of which 
were the Nuiud.u;, Massylii, MASSAESYi.n, 
and Mauri, and to the S. of them the G.aetuli. 
The whole of this northern region fell succes- 
sively under the power of Eome, and was finally 
divided into provinces as follows : 1. Aegyptus ; 
(2) Cybenaica (for the changes in this province, 
see that article) ; (3) Africa Propria, the former 
empire of Cai-thage (see below. No. 2) ; (4) 
Nujiidia; (5) Maueetania, divided into (a) 
Sitifensis, (&) Caesariensis, (c) Tingitana: 
these, with (6) Aethiopia, make up the whole 
of Africa, according to the divisions recognised 
by the latest of the ancient geographers. The 
northern district was better kjiown to the 
Eomans than it is to us, and was extremely 
populous and flourishing; and, if we may judge 
by the list of tribes in Ptolemy, the interior of 
the country, especially between the Little and 
Great Atlas, must have supported many more 
inhabitants than it does at present. Further 
information respecting the several portions of 
the country will be found in the separate 
articles.— 2. Africa Propria or Provincia, or 
simply Africa, was the name under which the 
Bomans, after the Third Punic War (b. c. 146), 
erected into a province the whole of the former 
territory of Carthage. It extended from the 



AGAMEDES 
river Tusca, on the W., which divided it from 
Numidia, to the bottom of the Syrtis Minor, on 
the SE. It was divided under Diocletian into 
three^istricts (regiones) : namely, (1) Zeugis or 
Zeugitana, the district round Cartilage and 
Hippo, called also Africa proconsularis; (2) 
Byzacium or Byzacena, S. of Zeugitana, as far 
as the bottom of the Syrtis Minor— tlie former 
dioecesis of Hadrumetum ; (3) Tripolitana, the 
district of Tacapae, under a praeses. The 
province was full of flourishing towns, and was 
extremely fertile, especially Byzacena: it fur- 
nished Rome with its chief supplies of corn. 
With Africa Numidia was joined under a pro- 
consul from the time of Augustus until that of 
Septimius Severus, when Numidia was placed 
under the separate government of an imperial 
procurator. 

Africanus. 1. Sex. Caecilius, a Roman juris- 
consult, lived under Antoninus Pius (a.d. 138- 
161), and wrote Libri IX. Questionum, from 
which many extracts are made in the Digest 
(Gell. XX. 1). He was noted for the difficulty of 
his definitions, whence the proverb ' Africani 
lex ' for anything hard to understand. The 
fragments are collected by Hommel, Paling. 
Xjp. 3-26. — 2. Julius, a celebrated orator in the 
reign of Nero, is much pi-aised by QuintUian, 
who speaks of him and Domitius Ater as the 
best orators of then- time (x. 1. 118). He was 
probably son of Julius Africanus of Santoni in 
Gaul, whom Tacitus mentions as condemned 
to death a.d. 32 {Ann. vi. 7). — 3. An orator, 
grandson of No. 2 (VMn.Ep. vii. 6. 11). — 4. Sex. 
Julius, a learned Christian writer at the be- 
giiming of the third century, passed the greater 
part of his hfe at Emmaus in Palestine, and 
afterwards lived at Alexandria. His principal 
work was a Chronicon in five books, from the 
creation of the world, which he placed in 5499 
B.C., to a.d. 221. This work is lost, but part of 
it is extracted by Eusebius in his Chronicon, 
and many fragments of it are preserved by 
Georgius Sjoicellus, Cedrenus, and in the Pas- 
chale Chronicon. There was another work 
attributed to Africanus, entitled Cesti {Kearo'i), 
that is, embroidered girdles, so called from the 
celebrated Cestus of Aplu-odite (Venus). It 
treated of a vast variety of subjects — medicine, 
agriculture, natural history, the military art, 
&c. The work itself is lost, but some extracts 
from it are published in the Mathematici Vc- 
teres, Paris, 1693, and also in the Geoponica. 

Africus (Aiv(/ by the Greeks), the SW. or 
WSW. wind (between Auster and Favonius), 
so called because it blew from Africa, fre- 
quently brought storms with it {creherque pro- 
cellis Africus, Verg. Aen. i. 85 ; Hor. Od. i. 15 ; 
Sen. Q. N. v. 16. 6). 

Agamede {'Ayafi^Sri), daughter of Angelas 
and wife of Mulius. According to Homer {II. 
xi. 739), she was acquainted with the healing 
powers of all the plants that grow upon the 
earth. She is probably the same as Perimede 
(Theocr. ii. 16 ; Schol. ad Propert. ii. 48). 

Agamedes {' Ay a/xiiSiis), commonly called son 
of Erginus, Idiig of Orchomenus, and brother of 
Trophonius (Schol. ad Aristoph. Nub. 500). 
According to Pausanias, however, he was son of 
Stymphalus (viii. 4. 8). Agamedes and Tro- 
phonius distinguished themselves as architects : 
they built a temple of Apollo at Delphi, and a 
treasury of Hyrieus, king of Hyria m Boeotia 
(Pans. ix. 37,' 8; Strab. p. 421). The story 
about this treasury resembles the one which 
Herodotus (ii. 121) relates of the treasury of the 
Egyptian king Rhampsinitus. In the con- 



AGAMEMNON 



89 



in return visited tlie Greek anny with a pesti- 
lence, and produced a calm which prevented 
the Greeks from leaving the port. In order to 
appease her wrath, Agamemnon consented to 
sacrifice his daughter Iphigenia; but at the 
moment she was to be sacrificed, she was car- 
ried off by Artemis herself to Tauris and 
another victim was substituted in her place. 
The Tragedians follow this account, and so do 
the Eoman Tragedians (Eibbeck, Bom. Trag. 
94, 104, 344). The calm now ceased, and the 
army sailed to the coast of Troy. Agamemnon 
alone hod 100 ships, independent of 60 which 
he had lent to the Arcadians. In the tenth 
year of the siege of Troy we find Agamemnon 
involved in a quarrel with Achilles respecting 
the possession of Brisei's, whom Achilles was 
obliged to give up to Agamemnon. Achilles with- 
drew from the field of battle, and the Greeks were 
visited by successive disasters. The danger of 
the Greeks at last induced Patroclus, the friend 
of Achilles, to take part in the battle, and his 
fall led to the reconciliation of Acliilles and 
Agamemnon. [Achilles.] Agamemnon, al- 
though the chief commander of the Greeks, is 



struction of the treasury of Hyrieus, Agamedes and in the second gathering at Aulis Agamemnon 
and Trophonius contrived to place one stone in killed a stag whicli was sacred to Aitemis, who 
such a manner that it could bo taken away out- f i,» „,.,n,r wifi, a „<.=f;_ 

side, and thus formed an entrance to the trea- 
sury, without anybody perceiving it. Agamedes 
and Trophonius now constantly robbed the 
treasury; and the king, seeing that looks and 
seals were uninjured while his treasures were 
constantly decreasing, set traps to catch the 
thief. Agamedes was thus ensnared, and Tro- 
phonius cut off his head to avert the discovery. 
After this Trophonius was immediately swal- 
lowed up by the earth. On this spot there was 
afterwards, in the grove of Lebadea, the cave of 
Agamedes with a column by the side of it. 
Here also was the oracle of Trophonius, and 
those who consulted it fii-st offered a ram to 
Agamedes and invoked him. A tradition men- 
tioned by Plato [Axioch. p. 3G7 o.) and Cicero 
[Tiisc. i. 47, 114) states that Agamedes and 
Trophonius, after building the temple of Apollo 
at Delphi, prayed to the god to grant them in 
reward for their labour what was best for men. 
The god promised to do so on a certain day, 
and when the day came the two brothers died. 

Agamemnon i^kyatxifivaiv), son of Plisthenes 
and Aerope or Eriphyle, and grandson of Atreus, 
king of Mycenae : but Homer 
and others call him a son of 
Atreus and grandson of Pelops. 
Agamemnon and his brother 
Menelaus were brought up to- 
gether with Aegisthus and Thy- 
estes, in the house of Atreus. 
After the murder of Atreus by 
Aegisthus and Thyestes, who 
succeeded Atreus in the king- 
dom of Mycenae [Aegisthus], 
Agamemnon and Menelaus 
went to Sparta, where Aga- 
memnon married Clytemnestra, 
the daughter of Tyndareus, by 
whom he became the father of 
Iphianassa (Iphigenia), Chryso- 
themis, Laodice (Electra), and 
Orestes. The manner in which 
Agamemnon obtained the king- 
dom of Mycenae is differently 
related. Prom Homer [II. ii. 
107) it appears that he had 
peaceably succeeded Thyestes, 
while, according to others, he 
expelled Thyestes, and usurped 
his throne. He now became 
the most powerful prince in 
Greece. In the above passage 
of Homer he is said to reign 
over 'all Argos,' but in the 
catalogue of ships [11. ii. 50!) ff.) 
he rules Mycenae, Corinth, 
Sicyon, Cleonae, and cities of 

in chivalxons 




Agamemnon. (From a bas-teliot.) 



ir^r^jil T 1V^'^r'o";''^''^°''.F""y'?'' °f the Iliad, and m cniva™ 

dhcr~v Jh^^y^'^^.^ (1. 9) reconciles the spirit, bravery, and character is altogether in- 
discrepancy by supposmg that Agamemnon , ferior to Achilles. But he nevertheless rise, 
r 3^7?f ' Tlf;^°' ^'^"^"^^ >/• ^^"^^ »'«eks by his dT^Ty power, and 

TmleLrtL'^V'^-'''""""'''''''*!-^^ ^-^j^^'y^ head are likened to 

iragedians, who make hun reign sometimes at , those of Zeus, his girdle to that of Ai-es and 
mycenae, sometimes at Areos. Stesichorus. Ri- V,;>. 



Argos. Stesichorus, Si 
momdes, and Pindar (Nem. viii. 12), place him 
at Sparta. When Helen, the wife of Menelaus, 
was -« i -i-> ■ n „ . . - ' 

resol 

memnon was chosen theii" commander-in-chref. 
After two years of preparation, the Greek army 
and fleet assembled in the port of Aulis in 
aoeotia. According to the Cypria there was 
Jirst an unsuccessful expedition [see Telephus] 



his breast to that of Poseidon. The emblem of 
his power is a sceptre, the work of Hephaestus, 



;.ir„a. w nen iielen, the wife of Menelaus, which Zeus had once given to Hermes and 
carried off by Paris, and the Greek chiefs Hermes to Pelops! frL^Xm it descTd'ed to 

nnn w 'if "K"'"^^' ^S'^" ^ Agamemnon. At the capturT of Troy he re° 
non was chosen their commn.ndRr.in.^V,;«>f „„:„„j r^ _ x, l^^uif oi xioy ne re- 



ceived Cassandra, the daughter of Priam, as 
hi8 prize. On his return home he was murdered 
by Aegisthus, who had seduced Clytemnestra 
during the absence of her husband. Pindar 
and the tragic poets make Clytemnestra murder 



S4 



AMEMNONIDES 



Agamemnon with her own hand, and instead of 
tlio murder being at the banquet, as in the epic 
poets and in Livius Audronicus (Eibbeck, li. 
Tr. 28), the Greek Tragedians describe the 
murder in the bath. Her motive is in Aeschy- 
lus her jealousy of Cassandra, in Sophocles and 
Euripides her wrath at the death of Iphigonia. 
His tomb is said to be at Mycenae in Paus. ii. 
16. 6 ; but at Amyclae (Paus. iii. 19, (i) there 
was also a /xvrjfia in a temple of Alexandra, who 
is said to be the same as Cassandra. He seems 
to have been worshipped not merely as a hero 
but in some places to have been a representa- 
tive of Zeis. In Sparta a Zeus 'Ayaixf/xvaiv was 
worshipped (Lycophr. 885, 1128, 1369, Tsetz). 
In art he appears as a bearded man as in the 
above drawing from a very ancient bas-relief 
from Samothrace, which represents Agamem- 
non seated, with his two heralds Talthybius and 
Epeus standing behind him. 

Agamemaonides {'Aya/xefivovlSris), the son of 
Agamemnon, i.e. Orestes. 

Aganippe {'Ayaulinnf), daughter of the river 
god Permessos (Paus. ix. 29 ; Verg. lEcl. x. 12). 
A nymph of the well of the same name at the 
foot of Mount Helicon, in Boeotia, which was 
considered sacred to the Muses (who were hence 
called Aganippides), and which was believed to 
have the power of inspiring those who drank of 
it. The fountain of Hippocrene has the epithet 
Aganippis (Ov. Fast. v. 7), from its being sacred 
to the Muses, like that of Aganipije. 

Agapenor {'Pi.yairi)voip), son of Ancaeus king 
of the Arcadians, received 60 ships from Aga- 
memnon, in which he led his Arcadians to Troy 
{II. ii. 609). On his return from Troy he was 
cast by a storm on the coast of Cyprus, where 
he founded the town of Paphos, and in it the 
famous temple of Aplnrodite (Paus. viii. 5, 2). 

Agarista {' Ay apia-Tri). 1. Daughter of Cli- 
sthenes, tyrant of Sicyon, wife of Megacles, and 
mother of Cllsthenes, the Athenian statesman, 
and Hippocrates. — 2. Daughter of the above- 
mentioned Hippocrates, grand-daughter of No. 
1, wife of Xanthippus, and mother of Pericles. 

Agasias {'Ayaalas), son of Dositheus, a sculp- 
tor of Ephesus (about B.C. 100), sculptured the 




The so-called ' Dorgliese Gladiator,' by Agaelaa. 

statue known by the name of the 'Borghese 
Gladiator,' which is still preserved in the gallery 



AGATHINUS 

°l Louvre, and is a marvel of anatomical 
study. This statue, as well as the Apollo Bel- 
videro, was discovered among the ruins of a 
palao« ot the Roman emperors on the site of the 
ancient Antium {Capo d'Anzo). From the 
attitude of the figure it is clear that the statue 
represents, not a gladiator, but a warrior con- 
tending with a mounted combatant. In style 
tins sculptor, like Menephilus and Dositheus 
seems to follow the Greek traditions handed 
down from Lysippus to the so-called Hellenistic 
school, though in date he is contemporary with 
the Graeco-Roman schools (see Diet. Ant. s v 
Sculptura). 

Agasicles, Agesicles, orHegesiclea {'Ayain- 
K\ris, 'Ayria-iicKris, 'Hyi)(TiK\ris), king of Sparta, 
succeeded his father Archidamus I., about B c 
600 or 590. 

Agasthenes {'AyacrQzvns), son of Angelas and 
father of Polyxenus, king of Ehs (Paus. v. 3, 
4 ; Horn. II. ii. 624). 

AgatharcMdes {' AyaQapxi^-ns) or Agathar- 
ohus {' Ayadapxos), a Greek grammarian, bom 
at Cnidos, lived at Alexandria, probably about 
B.C. 130. He wrote a considerable number of 
geographical and historical works ; but we have 
only an epitome of a portion of his work on the 
Erythraean sea, which was made by Photius 
(printed in Hudson's Geogr. Script. Gr. Mi- 
nores), and some fragments (edited by C. MiiUer). 

Agatharchus {' Ayadapxas), an artist, native 
of Samos, said to have invented scene-painting, 
in the time of Aeschylus. It was probably not 
till towards the end of Aeschylus's career that 
scene-painting was introduced, and not tiU the 
time of Sophocles that it was generally made 
use of ; which may account for Aristotle's as- 
sertion {Poet. iv. 16) that scene-painting was 
introduced by Sophocles (see Diet. Ant. s.v. 
Theatrum). Some have asserted that it must 
be a different Agatharchus whom Alcibiades 
kept by force to work in his house, and who is 
mentioned as alive in the time of Zeuxis (Pint. 
Ale. 16 ; Andoc. in Ale. § 17) : but there is no 
difficulty in supposing the same man to have 
painted as early as B.C. 460 and as late as B.C. 
415. 

Agathemerus {'Ayadii/xepos). 1. The author 
of 'A Sketch of Geography in Epitome' (ttjs 
yeoiypa<plas inroTvircitreLS iv iTriTOfj.fi), probably 
lived about the begiimtng of the Srd century 
after Christ. The work consists chiefly of 
extracts from Ptolemy and other earlier writers. 
It is printed in Hudson's Geogr. Script. Gr. 
Minores. — 2. A physician in the 1st cent, after 
Christ, bom at Lacedaemon and a pupil of Cor- 
nutus, in whose house he became acquainted with 
Persius about a.d. 50. 

AgatMas {'AyaQlas), a Byzantine writer, bom 
about A.D. 536 at Myrina in Aeolia, practised as 
an advocate at Constantinople, whence he ob- 
tained his sarname Scholasticus (which word 
signified an advocate in his time), and died about 
A.D. 582. He wrote many epigrams (see Antho- 
logia Graeca), but his principal work was his 
History in five books, which is also extant, and 
is of considerable value. It contains the his- 
tory from A.D. 553-558, a period remarkable for 
important events, such as the conquest of Italy 
by Narses and the exploits of Belisarius over 
the Goths and Bulgarians.— iScZiito?^. By Nie- 
buhr, Bonn, 1828 ; Dindorf, 1871. 

AgatMnus, a Greek physician in the 1st 
cent. A.D., bom at Sparta. He was tutor of 
Archigenes. He founded a medical school 
called the Eclectici: Wliat remains of his 
writings is printed in Kuhn's Additamenta. 



. AGATHOCLEA 

Aeathoclea {'Ayae6ic\eta), mistress of Pto- 
lemv IV., king of Egypt, and sister of Ins min- 
ister A"-athooles. She and her brother were put 
to death on tlie death of Ptolemy (b.c. 205). 

AeAthbclBB {' Ay aSoicAvs)- 1. A Sicdian, raised 
himself from a hmnble station to be tyrant oi 
Syracuse and ruler of Sicily, by his abiUty m 
handling mercenary troops and making them 
serve his purpose. Born at Thermae, a town of 
Sicily subject to Carthage, he is said to have 
been exposed when an infant, by his father, 
Garcinus of Rhegium, in consequence of a suc- 
cession of troublesome dreams, portending that 
he would be a source of much evil to SioUy. 
His mother, however, secretly preserved his 
life, and at 7 years old he was restored to his 
father, who had long repented of his conduct to 
the child. By him he was taken to Syracuse 
and brought up as a potter. His strength and 
personal beauty, and his prowess in military 
service, recommended him to Damas, a noble 
Syracusan, who drew him from obscurity, and 
on whose death he married his rich widow, and 
so became one of the wealthiest citizens in 
Syracuse. His ambitious schemes then deve- 
loped themselves, and he was driven into exile. 
After several changes of fortune, he collected 
an army which overawed the Syracusans, 
favoured as he was by Hamilcar and the Car- 
thaginians, and was restored under an oath that 
lie woiild not interfere with the democracy, 
which oath he kept by murdering 4000 and 
banishing 6000 citirens. He was immediately 
•declared sovereign of Syracuse, under the title 
of Autocrator, B.C. 817. In the course of a few 
years the whole of Sicily which was not under 
the dominion of Carthage submitted to him. 
In B.C. 310 he was defeated at Himera by the 
Carthaginians, under Hamilcar, who straight- 
way laid siege to Syracuse; whereupon he 
formed the bold design of averting the ruin 
which threatened him, by carrying the war into 
Africa. He landed and burnt his ships. His 
successes were most brilliant and rapid. He 
constantly defeated the troops of Carthage, but 
was at length summoned from Africa by the 
affairs of Sicily, where many cities had revolted 
from him, B.C. 307. These he reduced, after 
making a treaty with the Carthaginians. He 
bad previously assumed the title of king of 
Sicily. He afterwards plundered the Lipari 
isles, and also carried his arms into Italy, in 
order to attack the Bruttii. But his last days 
were embittered by family misfortunes. His 
grandson Archagathus murdered his son Aga- 
thocles, for the sake of succeeding to the crown, 
and the old king feared that the rest of his 
family would share his fate. He accordingly sent 
bis wife Texena and her two children to Egypt, 
lier native country ; and his own death followed 
almost immediately, e.c. 289, after a reign of 28 
years, and in the 72nd year of his age. [For his 
mercenaries, the Mamertini, see Messana.] 
Other authors speak of his being poisoned by 
Maeuo, an associate of Archagathus. The 
poison, we are told, was concealed in a quill 
which he used as a toothpick. (Died, xix.-xxi. ; 
Justin, xxii. 1 ff.)— 2. Of Pella, father of Lysi- 
machus. — 3. Son of Lysimachus, was defeated 
and taken prisoner by Dromichaetis, king of 
the Getae, about b.c. 292, but was sent back to 
ms father with presents. In 287 he defeated 
Demetrius Poliorcetes. At the instigation of 
his stepmother, Arsinoe, Lysunachus cast him 
mto prison, where he was murdered (284) by 
Ptolemaens Ceraunus. (Plut. Demetr. 39 ff.)— 4 
Brother of Agathoclba.— 5. A Greek historian, 



AGAVE 



35 



of uncertain date, wrote the Cyzicus, which was 
extensively read in antiquity, and is referred to 
in Cic. cle Div. i. 24, 50 ; Athen. pp. 375, 515. 

Agathodaemon {'AyadoSal/J-wu or 'AyaOhs 
0e6sj. 1. The ' Good Deity ' or Genius, the im- 
personation of prosperity ; especially of natural 
fruitfulness, called by the Romans 'Bonus 
Eventus ' (Plin. H. N. xxxvi. § 23), and in Greece 
sometimes identified with Dionysus, as particu- 
larly giving increase of vineyards. Hence pro- 
bably the honour paid to him at banquets, 
where at the end of the banquet a libation of 
pure wine was poured for him, followed by the 
paean (Aristoph. Eq. IOC ; Athen. pp. 675, 692). 
Hence, too, he was represented as holding a 
patera in one hand and (as connected with 
Demeter) com and poppies in the other (Plin. 
H. N. xxxiv. § 77) : or with the horn of Amal- 
thea (Paus. vi. 25, 4). It is noteworthy that his 
oldest symbol was a snake (Serv. ad Georg. iii. 
417 ; Lamprid. Elagah. 28). — 2. Of Alexandria, 
the designer of some maps to accompany 
Ptolemy's Geography. Copies of these maps 
are found appended to several MSS. of Ptolemy. 

Agathon ('A7ae£oi'), an Athenian tragic poet, 
born about b.c 447, of a rich and respectable 
family, was a friend of Euripides and Plato, and 
a follower of Gorgias, by whom he was probably 
mfiuenced in the rhetoric of his dramas. He 
gained his first victory in 417 : in honour of 
which Plato represents the Symposium to have 
been given, which he has made the occasion of 
his dialogue so called. In 407, he visited the 
court of Archelaus, king of Macedonia, where 
his friend Euripides was also a guest at the 
same tune. He died about 400, at the age of 
47. The poetic merits of Agathon were con- 
siderable, and in reputation he came next to the 
three great Tragedians, but his poetry was cha- 
racterised by prettiness rather than force or 
sublimity. Aristophanes represents him as 
effeminate {Eccles. 100 £E.). His innovations in 
Tragedy were (1) that he composed ohoric odes 
unconnected with the subject which could be 
sung as orchestral interludes in any play 
{ifi/36\ifia) ; (2) that he departed from the ex- 
hausted mythical subjects, and invented plots 
of his own, as in his play called "Avdos (Arist. 
Poiit. 9, § 7 ; 18, §§ 17, 22). In the Tliesmo- 
phoriazusae of Aristophanes he is ridiculed for 
his effeminacy, being brought on the stage in 
female dress. 

Agathyrna, Agathyrnum {'AyaOvpua, -op: 
' AyaQvpuaios : Agatha), a Sikel town on the N. 
coast of Sicily. 

Agathyrsi [' AyaOvpffoi), apeople in European 
Sarmatia, with a mythical founder Agathyrsus, 
son of Heracles (Hdt. iv. 10), on the river 
Mai-is (Marosch) in Transylvania. From their 
practice of staining their 
skin with a blue dye they 
are called by Virgil (Aen. 
iv. 146) picti Agathyrsi. 
(Cf . Plin. H. N. iv. § 88 ; 
Geloni.) 

Agave Ay avi)), daugh- 
ter of Cadmus, wife of 
Bchion, and mother of 
Pentheus. She is said to 
have accused her sister 
Semele of falsely repre- 
senting Zeus as the father 
of her child; whence the 
subsequent revenge of Dio- 
nysus. When Pentheus 
attempted to prevent the women from celebrat- 
ing the Dionysiac festivals on mount Cithaeron, 

D 2 




Agavo with head of 
JPontheuB. (Gem from 
British Museum.) 



3G 



AGBATANA 



. he was torn to pieces there by Agave, wljo in 
her frenzy beheved hiin to be a wild beast. 
(Ov. M. iii. 7-25.) [Pentiieus.]— One of the 
Aereids, one of the Danaids, and one of the 
Amazons, were also called Agavae. 

Agbatana. [Ecbatana.] 

Agdistis ('AySi'iTTtj), an androgynous deity, 
tlie offspring of Zeus and Earth, connected with 
a Phrygian worship of Attes or Attis. [See 
further under Attis and Cvhele.] 

Agedincum or Agedicuin (Sens), the chief 
town of the Senones in Gallia Lugdunensis. 

Ageladas ('AyeA.dSos), an eminent statuary of 
ArgoSjthe instructor of the three great masters, 
Phidias, Myron, and Polycletus. He seems to 
have worked from the end of the Gth century 
B.C. to the middle of the 5th. (See Did. Antiq. 
s.v. Sculptura.) 

Agelaus {'AyeAaos). 1. Son of Heracles and 
Omphale, and founder of the house oi Croesus. 
— 2. Son of Damastor and one of the suitors 
of Penelope, slain by Ulysses. — 3. A slave of 
Priam, who exposed tlie infant Paris on mount 
Ida, in consequence of a dream of his mother. 
— 4. Brother of Meleager. 

Agenor ('A77)i'a>p). 1. Son of Poseidon and 
Libya, founder of the Phoenician race, twin- 
brother of Belus, and father of Cadmus, Phoenix, 
Cilix, Thasus, Phineus, and according to some 
of Europa also. The settlement of various 
nations is figured in the myth that these sons 
being sent in pursuit of their sister, when Zeus 
carried her off, settled down in the various 
lands which they reached. {II. xii. 93, xxi. 590.) 
Virgil (Ae7i. i. 338) calls Carthage the city of 
Agenor. — 2. Son of lasus, and father of Argus 
Panoptes, kmg of Argos. — 3. Son and successor 
of Triopas, in the kingdom of Argos. — 4. Son of 
Pleuron and Xanthippe, and grandson of Aeto- 
lus. — 5. Son of Phegeus, king of Psophis, in 
Arcadia. He and his brother Pronous slew 
Alcmaeon, when he wanted to give the cele- 
brated necklace and peplus of Harmonia to his 
second wife Callirrhoii. [Phegeus ] The two 
brothers were afterwards killed by Amphoterus 
and Acarnan, the sons of Alcmaeon and Callk- 
rhoe. — 6. Son of the Trojan Antenor and The- 
ano, one of the bravest among the Trojans, was 
wounded by Achilles, but rescued by Apollo. 

Agenorides {'AynvoplSris), a descendant of an 
Agenor, such as Cadmus, Pliineus, and Perseus. 

Agesander, a sculptor of Rhodes in the 2nd 
century B.C., who, in conjunction with Poly- 
dorus and Athenodorus, sculptured the group of 
Laocoon. This celebrated gi'oup was discovered 
in the year 1506, near the baths of Titus on the 
Esquiline hill : it is now preserved in the mu- 
seum of the Vatican. [Laocoon.] 

Agesilaus {'Ayna-lKaos), king of Sparta. 1. 
Son of Doryssus, reigned 44 years, and died 
about B.C. 886. He was contemporary with the 
legislation of Lycurgus (Pans. iii. 2, 8). — 2. Son 
of Archidamus II., succeeded his half-brother 
Agis II., B.C. 398, excluding, on the ground of 
spurious birth, and by the interest of Lysander, 
his nephew Leotychides. From 396 to 394 he 
carried on the war in Asia Minor with success, 
and was preparing to advance into the heart of 
the Persian empire, when he was summoned 
home to defend his country against Thebes, 
Corinth, and Argos, which had been induced by 
Artaxerxes to take up arms against Sparta. 
Though full of disappointment, he promptly 
obeyed ; and in the course of the same year 
(394), he met and defeated at Coronea in Boeotia 
the allied forces (Xen. Hell. iv. 8). During the 
next four years he regained for his country 



AGIS 

much of its former supremacy, till at length the 
fatal battle of Leuctra, 871, overthi-ew for ever 
the power of Sparta, and gave the supremacy 
for a Tnno to Thebes. For the next few years 
Sparta had almost to struggle for its existence 
amid dangers without ami within, and it was 
chiefly owing to tlie skill, courage, and presence 
of mind of Agesilaus that she weathered the 
storm. In 861 he crossed with a body of Lace- 
daemonian mercenaries into Egypt to assist 
Tachos against Persia. When Nectanebis rose 
against Tachos, he gained the throne chiefly by 
the help of Agesilaus, whom he rewarded by a 
gift of 230 talents. But Agesilaus died, while 
preparing for his voyage home, in the winter of 
861-360, after a life of above 80 years and a 
reign of 88. His body was embalmed in wax, 
and buried at Sparta. In person Agesilaus was 
small, mean-looking, and lame, on which last 
ground objection had been made to liis acces- 
sion, an oracle, curiously fulfilled, having warned 
Sparta of evils awaiting her under a ' lame 
sovereignty.' In his reign, indeed, her fall took 
place, but not through him, for he was one of 
the best citizens and generals that Sparta ever 
had. His life is written by Plutarch and Cor- 
nelius Nepos. 

Agesipolis ('A77)(rl7roA.iy), king of Sparta. 1. 
Succeeded his father Pausanias, while yet a 
minor, in B.C. 894, and leigned 14 years. As 
soon as his minority ceased, he took an active 
part in the wars in which Sparta was then 
engaged with the other states of Greece. In 
390 he invaded Argolis with success ; in 385 he 
took the city of Mantinea ; in 881 he went to the 
assistance of Acanthus and Apollonia against 
the Olynthians, and died in 380 during this war 
in the peninsula of Pallene, — 2. Son of Cleom- 
brotus, reigned one year, B.C. 371. — 3. Succeeded 
Cleomenes in B.C. 220, but was soon deposed by 
his colleague Lycurgus : he afterwards took 
refuge with the Eomans. 

Aggenus TJrblcus, a writer on the science of 
the Agrimensores, may perhaps have lived at the 
latter part of the 4th centni-y of our era. His 
works ai-e printed in Goesius, Bei Agrariae 
Auctores ; Scriptores Gro)«niici, ed.Laclimann. 

Aggrammes or Xandrames (HovSpa/iijs), the 
ruler of the Gangaridae and IPrasii in India, 
when Alexander invaded India, B.C. 327. 

Agias ['Aylas), one of the so-called Cyclic; 
poets, who wrote probably before B.C. 700. Hft 
was a native of Troezen, and wrote the N($crTOj, 
or return of the Greeks. Proclus gives a srmi- 
mary of the poem, which described the ad- 
ventures of Agamemnon and Menelaus after 
the fall of Troy, and the wanderings of other 
heroes. 

Aginnum [Ageri), the chief town of the Nitio- 
briges in Gallia Aquitanica. 

Agis {"Ayis), kings of Sparta. 1. Son of 
Eurysthenes, the founder of the family of the 
Agidae. — 2, Son of Archidamus XL, reigned B.C. 
427-398. He took an active part in the Pelo- 
ponnesian war, and invaded Attica several 
times. (Thuc. iv. 2 ; Xen. Sell. i. 1, 2.) mile 
Alcibiades was at Sparta he was the guest of 
Agis, and is said to have seduced his wife 
Timaea ; in consequence of which Leotychides, 
the son of Agis, was excluded from the throne 
as illegitimate. — 3. Son of Archidamus III., 
reigned n.c. 888-880, attempted to overthrow" 
the Macedonian power in Europe, while Alex- 
ander tho Great was in Asia, but was defeated 
and killed in battle by Antipater in 880.— 4. 
Son of Eudamidas II., reigned B.C. 244-240. 
He attempted to re-estabUsh the institutions of 



a poet of Argos, a flatterer 
- ■ ■ ■■■ 5 ; Arnan, /Iwao. V. 9). 

One of the Chabites 
or Gkacks.— i'wlfe of Claaropus and mottier 



AGIS 

Tvr,ir«is and to effect a thorough refoi-m in • 
Jtl^SoTi state ; but he was resisted by Ins 
colleague Leonidas II. and the wealthy was 
tCwn into prison, and was thei-e put to death 
by cwnmand of the epliors, a ong witli Ins 
mothei Agesistrata, .uad his grandmother Ai-chi- 

^ A^is, a poet of Argos. a flatterer of Alexan. 
derthe Great (Curt. vni. 

-i Wife o: - - , -, . a- 
of Nireus, who came from the island of Sime 
against Troy {B. ii- 071). 
Aglaopheme. [Sieenes.] , ^ . , , 
Allaophon {'AyAao<pS>u). 1. Pamter of 
Thalos, father and i^^tructor of Polygnotus 
and Ai-istophon, hved about b. C. 500 (Plat. 
Gorg. p. 448 b).— 2. Painter, lived about b. c. 
420, probably grandson of No. 1. 

Afflauros C Ay \avpos)— less correctly Agrau- 
los —1 Daughter of Aotaeus 1st king of Athens, 
wife of Cecrops and mother of Erysiclithon, 
Aelauros 2, Herse and Pandrosos.— 2. Daughter 
of Cecrops and Aglauros 1. The legends con- 
cerning' her must be carefully distinguished 
a Athene gave a chest in which was the child 
e'richtiionius to the three daughters of 
Cecrops— Aglauros, Pandrosos and Herse— to 
preserve unopened. Pandrosos obeyed, but her 
two sisters opened the chest and saw the child 
with a snake twined round it. As a punish- 
ment, according to some they were kUled by 
the serpent, according to others, they were 
driven mad and tlirew themselves from the 
rocks of the Acropolis. (Pans. i. 18; Eur. 
Ion, 267; Apollod. iii. 14.) 6. According to 
Ovid, Met. ii. 710, no immediate punishment 
fell upon the sisters, but Athene filled Aglauros, 
as the more guilty, with jealousy, so that she 
prevented Hermes from visiting her sister 
Herse, and was by him turned into stone, c. 
Aglauros is wedded to Ares and is mother of 
Alcippe [see ILviiiERHOTHios]. cl. Aglauros 
was an Attic maiden who offered herself up as 
a sacrifice for the state in time of war : there- 
fore there was a temple to her on the Acropolis 
where the Ephebi on first assuming arms took 
an oath of loyal devotion to their country 
(Dem. F.L. p. 488, § 803 and Schol. ; Poll, viii 
105; Diet. Ant. s. v. Ephebus). The origin of 
the legend in a and h cannot be traced with any 
certainty ; it is suggested that it arose from the 
chest carried by the appri<p6poi or ip<ni<p6pot.'. As 
regards the legend in d, it must be observed 
that the three maidens represent the deities of 
dew fertilising the fields, and that they must 
have been at one time identified with Athene 
in her relations to the land of Attica. Hence 
•we find both Aglauros and Pandrosos used as 
actual surnames for Athene. The temple of 
the oath must have replaced a shrine of Athene 
Aglauros, the protectress of Athens in war ; and 
when the name Aglauros alone remained it 
was necessary to suppose that she was no un 
faitliful maiden, but one who had saved the 
country. The story of the sacrifice and also 
that of the fall from the rocks in all probability 
point to an old human sacrifice, such as was in 
fact made to Athene Aglauros in the Cyprian 
Salamis. The connexion of Athene 'and 
Aglauros appears also in the festival of Plyn 
teria. From the fact that Aglauros is joined 
with Ares as one of the IWopes (Poll. viii. lOG 
cf. Dem. p. 303) in whose names oaths were 
taken, it has been recently surmised that 
Aglauros was a transference "from the Theban 
cult of Erinys Tilphossa, wife of Ares, 



AGBICOLA 87 
Aglaus ('Ay>^a6s), a poor citizen cf Psophis 
in Arcadia, whom the Delphic oracle declai-ed 
happier than Gyges king of Lydia, on account 
of his contented disposition. Pausanias places 
him in the time of Croesus. (Plin. if. J^'. vii. 
S 151 ; Pans. viii. 38, 7.) 

Agnaptus, an architect who built the porcn 
called by his name in tlie Altis at Olyropia 
(Pans. 15, 4, vi. 20, 7). . 

Agnodlce {'AyvoSiicri), an Athenian maiden, 
was the first of her sex to learn midwifery, 
which a law of Athens forbade any woman to 
learn. Dressed as a man, she obtained instruc- 
tion fi-om a physician named Hierophilus, and 
afterwards practised her art with success. 
Summoned before the Areiopagus by the envy 
of the other practitioners, she was obliged to 
disclose her sex, and was not only acquitted, 
but obtained the repeal of the obnoxious law. 
This tale, though often repeated, does not 
deserve much credit, as it rests on the authority 
of Hyginus alone {Fab. 274). 

Agaonides ('Ayvoii'iSrii), an Athenian dem- 
agogue, induced the Athenians to sentence 
Phocion to death (b. c. 318), but was shortly 
afterwards put to death liimself by the Athe- 
nians. (Plut. Phoc.) Corn. Nepos caUs hun 
Agnon (Nep. Phoc). 

AgoraoritUB {'AyopaKpiros), a statuary of 
Paroa, flourished b. c. 440-428, and was the 
favourite pupil of Phidias (Paus. ix. 34). 
From a similarity of style and perhaps from 
direct help or partnership in work, it resulted 
that some statues were variously attributed to 
Phidias and to Agoracritus. Thus the Nemesis 
at Ehamnus is said by Pausanias (i. 33) to be 
the work of Phidias ; but by Pliny {H. N. xxxvi. 
§ 17) to be by Agoracritus. Pliny tells the hn- 
probable tale that this statue was first an Aphro- 
dite for Athens, and was turned into a Nemesis 
by its author and sent to Ehamnus because 
the Athenians favoured Alcamenes, his rival. 

Agoraea and Agoraeus {'Ayopala and 'Ayo- 
poLos), epithets of several divinities who were 
considered as the protectors of the assemblies 
of the people in the agora, such as Zeus, 
Athene, Artemis, and Hermes. 

Agraei ('A7paioi), a people of Aetolia on the 
Achelous (Thuc. iii. 106 ; Strab. p. 449). 

Agraule ('Aypav\ii and 'AypiXt] : ' AypvKevs), 
an Attic demus of the tribe Erechtheis, named 
after Aglaubos, No. 2. 
Agraulos. [Aglatjeos.] 
Agreus ('Aypeus), a hunter, a surname of 
Pan and Aristaeus. 

Agri Decumates, tithe lands, the name given 
by the Romans to a part of Germany, E. of the 
Rhine and N. of the Danube, which they took 
possession of when the Germans retired east- 
ward, and which they gave to Gauls and subse- 
quently to their own veterans on the payment 
of a tenth of the produce {decama). About .^.D. 
100 these lands were incorporated in the Roman 
empire. (Tao. Germ. 29.) 

Agricola, Cn. Jiilius, born June 13th, a. d. 
37, at Forum Julii {Frcjus in Provence), was 
the son of Julius Graecinus, who was executed 
by Caligula, and Julia Procilla. He received a 
careful education ; he first served in Britain, 
A. D. 60, under Suetonius Paulinus ; was quaes- 
tor in Asia in 63 ; was governor of Aquitania 
from 74 to 7G ; and was consul in 77, when he 
betrothed his daughter to the historian Tacitus, 
and in the following year gave h^r to liim in 
marriage. In 78 he received the government 
of Britain, which ho held for 7 years, during 
which time he subdued the whole of the country 



88 



AGRIGENTUM 



with the exception of the hifrhlands of Calodonia, 
and by liis wise administration introduced 
among the inhabitiinta the language and civili- 
sation of Rome. He was recalled in 85 through 
the jealousy of Domitian, and on his return 
hved in retirement till his death in 98, which 
according to some was occasioned by poison, 
administered by order of Domitian. His 
character is drawn in the brightest colours by 
his son-in-law Tacitus, whose Life of Agricola 
has come down to us. 

Agrigentum ('AKpdyas : 'AKpayavr'ivos, Agri- 
gentlnus : Girgenti), a town on the S. coast of 




ti'alkcr i3' noulatt sc. 



Map of Agrigentum. 

Sicily, about 2^ miles from the sea, between the 
Acragas (Fiuine di 8. Siagio), and Hypsas 
(Fiume JDrago). It was celebrated for its 
wealth and populousness, and till its destruc- 
tion by the Carthaginians (b. c. 405) was one of 
the most splendid cities of the ancient world. 
It was the birthplace of Empedocles. It was 
founded by a Doric colony from Gela, about 
B.C. 579, was under the government 
of the cruel tyrant Phalaris (about 
560), and subsequently under that 
of Theron (488-472), whose praises 
are celebrated by Pindar. After its 
destruction by the Carthaginians, 
B.C. 406, it was rebuilt by Timoleon, 
but it never regained its foi-mer 
greatness. After undergoing many 
vicissitudes it at length came into 
the power of the Romans (210), in 
whose hands it remained. There are 
still gigantic remains of the ancient 
city, especially of the Olympieum, 
or temple of the Olympian Zeus. 

Agrinium l^hypiviov), a town in Aetoha, per- 
haps near the sources of the Thermissus. 

Agrippa, Herodes. 1. Called ' Agrippa the 
Great,' son of Aristobulus and Berenice, and 
grandson of Herod the Great. He was educated 
at Rome with the future emperor Claudius, and 
Drusus the son of Tiberius. The cognomen 
Agrippa was given to him in comiiliment to 
M. Vipsanius Agrippa. Having given offence to 
Tiberius he was thrown into prison ; but Cali- 
gula, on his accession (a. d. 87), set him at 
liberty, and gave him the tetrarchies of Abilene, 



AGRIPPA 

Batanea, Trachonitis, and Auranitis. On the 
death of Caligula (41), Agrijjpa, who was at the 
time in Rome, assisted Claudius in gaming 
possession of the empire. As a reward for liis 
servicers, J udaea and Samaria were annexed to 
his dominions. By his wife Cypres he had a. 
son Agi-ippa, and three daughters, Berenice, 
Mariamne, and Drusilla. — 2. Son of Agrippa I., 
was educated at the court of Claudius, and- 
at the time of his father's death was 17 years 
old. Claudius kept liim at Rome, and sent 
Cuspius Fadus as procurator of the kingdom, 
which thus again became a Roman province. 
On the death of Herodes, king of Chalcis (48), his 
little principality was given to Agrippa, who 
subsequently received an accession of territory. 
Before the outbreak of the war with the 
Romans, Agrippa attempted in vain to dissuade 
the Jews from rebelling. He sided with the 
Romans in the war ; and after the capture of 
Jerusalem, he went with his sister Berenice to- 
Rome, and died in the 70th year of his age, 
A. n. 100. [For both of the above see further in 
Dictionary of the Bible.'] 

Agrippa, M, Vipsanius, born in b.c. 68, of an 
obscure family, studied with young Octavius. 
(afterwards the emperor Augustus) at Apollonia 
in Illyria ; and upon the murder of Caesar in 
44, was one of the friends of Octavius, who ad- 
vised him to proceed immediately to Rome. 
In the civil wars which followed, and which 
terminated in giving Augustus the sovereignty 
of the Roman world, Agrippa took an active 
part ; and his military abilities, combined with 
his promptitude and energy, contributed greatly 
to that result. In 41 Agrippa, who was then 
praetor, commanded part of the forces of Augus- 
tus in the Perusinian war. In 38 he obtained 
great success in Gaul and Germany ; in 37 he- 
was consul. For his naval campaign against- 
Sex. Pompeius he provided a harbour for his. 
ships in the course of the years 88 and 37 by- 
cutting through the strips of land which separ- 
ated the lake Lucrinus from the sea and the- 
lake Avernus from the Lucrinus, thus forming- 
the Portus Julius (Verg. Georg. ii. 161 ; Hor. 
A.P. 63 ; Veil. ii. 81 ; Dio Cass. xlix. 14 ; Plin. 
R.N. xvi. § 7.) Li B.C. 36 he defeated Sex. Pom- 
peius at Mylae and finally at Naulochus. lu 
i reward he received the naval crown. In 81 he 




Obv., 



Coin of Agrlppa's third Consulship. 
Agrippu. -n-oaring the naval ciovm ; rci:. Neptune. 

commanded the fleet of Augustus at the battle- 
of Actium ; was consul a second time in 28, and 
a third time in 27. His gi-eatness appears no- 
less in his public works from his aedileship in 88 
through a succession of years. Especially to be 
noticed are his restoration of aqueducts and 
sewers, the building of the Julian Aqueduct, 
the Porticus Neptuni in the Campus, his Ther- 
mae and the Pantheon, and in Gaul the mag- 
nificent aqueduct to supply Nemausus (Nimes) 
now called the Pout du Gard. He also comple- 
ted the survey of the Roman world begun by 



AGRIPPA 

Julius Caesar, from wliicli be formed the map 
engraved on marble and afterwards placed m 
the Portions PoUae. In 21 he married Julia, 
dauo-hter of Augustus. He had been married 
twice before, first to Pomponia, daughter of 
T. Pomponius Atticus, and next to Maroella, 
niece of Augustus. He continued to be em- 
ployed in various military commands in Gaul, 
Spain (where he subdued the CantabriansB.c. 18), 
SjTia (where he founded the colony of Berytus, 
Bmjrout), and Pannonia, till his death in B.C. 12. 
By his first wife Pomponia, Agrippa had Vip- 
saJiia, married to Tiberius, the successor of 
Augustus ; and by his third wife, Julia, he had 

2 daughters, JuHa, married to L. Aemilius Pau- 
lus, and Agrippina, married to Germanicus, and 

3 sons, Caius Caesar, Lucius Caesar [Caesab], 
and Agrippa Postumus, who was banished by 
Augustus to the island of Planasia, and was 
put to death by Tiberius at his accession, a.d. 14 
(Tac. Ann. i. 3, ii. 39, 40). In manner he is de- 
scribed as blunt, " vu- rusticitati propior quam 
deUciis " (Plin. H.N. xxxv. § 26), though of his 
good taste his works are sufficient proof. The 
" torvitas " is shown in the stern expression of 
his face as preserved to us in coins and busts. 

Agrippa, Postumus, [See above.] 
Agrippina. 1. Daughter of M. Vipsanius 
Agrippa and of Julia, the daughter of Augustus, 
married Germanicus, by whom she had nine 
children, among whom were the emperor Cali- 
gula, and Agrippina, the mother of Nero. She 
was distinguished for her virtues and heroism, 
and shared all the dangers of her husband's 
campaigns. On his death in a.d. 17 she returned 
to Italy ; but the favour with which she was re- 
ceived by the people increased the hatred and 
jealousy which Tiberius and his mother Livia 
had long entertained towards her. For some 
years Tiberius disguised his hatred, but at length 
under the pretext that she was forming am- 
bitious plans, he banished her to the island of 
Pandataria (a.d. 80), where she died 3 years 
afterwards, a.d, 38, probably by voluntary star- 
vation (Tac. Ann. i.-vi. ; Suet. Aug. 64, Tib. 53 ; 
Dio Cass. Iviii. 22). — 2. Daughter of Germanicus 
and Agrippina [No. 1.], and mother of the em- 
peror Nero, was born at Oppidum Ubiorum, 
afterwards called in honour of her Colonia 
Agrippina, now Cologne. She was beautiful 
and intelligent, but licentious, cruel, and am- 
bitious. She was first married to Cn. Domitius 
Ahenobarbus (a.d. 28), by whom she had a son, 
afterwards the emperor Nero ; next to Crispus 
Passienus ; and thirdly to the emperor Clau- 
dius (49), although she was his niece. In 50, 
she prevailed upon Claudius to adopt her son, 
to the prejudice of his own son Britaunicus ; 
and in order to secure the succession for her 
sou, she poisoned the emperor in 54. Upon 
the accession of Nero, who was then only 17 
years of age, she governed the Roman empire 
for a few years in his name. The young em- 
peror soon became tired of the ascendency of 
his mother, and after making several attempts 
to shake off her authority, he caused her to be 
assassinated in 59. (Tac. Ann. xii. xiii. xiv. ; Dio 
Cass, lix.-lxi. ; Suet. Claud. 43, 44 ; Ner. 5, 6.) 
Agrippinenses. [Colonia Agrippina.] 
Agrius ["Kyptos). 1. Son of Porthaon and 
Euryte, and brother of Oeneus, king of Calydon 
in Aetolia : his six sons, of whom one was 
Thersites, deprived Oeneus of his kingdom, and 
gave it to their father ; but Agrius and four of 
ms sons were afterwards slain by Diomedes, 
the grandson of Oeneus (II. xiv. 117 ; Paus. ii. 
25 ; Ov. Her. ix. 153 ; Hyg. Fab. 175).— 2. Son 



AHENOBARBUS 89 \ 

of Odysseus and Circe, according to a doubtful 
line iA Hes. Th. 1018. 

Agroecius or Agroetius, a Roman gramma- 
rian, probably lived in the 6th centui'y after 
Christ, and wi-ote an extant work De Ortho- 
graphia et Differentia Sermonis, which is 
printed in Putschius, Grammaticae Latinae 
Auotores Antiqui, pp. 2260-2275. 

Agron (^Kypoiv). 1. Son of Ninus, the first of , 
the Lydian dynasty of the Heraclldae. — 2. Son 1 
of Pleuratus, kmg of Illyria, died b.c. 231, and 1 
was succeeded by his wife Teuta, though he I 
left a son Pinnes or Pinneus by his first wife, 
Triteuta, whom he had divorced. (Dio Cass, 
xxxiv. 46, 151 ; Polyb. ii. 2.) 

Agrotera. [Artemis.] ^ 

Agryle. [Agbaule.] 

Agyieus i^kyviw), a surname of Apollo, as 
the protector of the streets and public places. 

Agylla {"AyvWd), the ancient Greek name of : 
the Etruscan town of Caeke. 

Agyrium {'kyvpiou : 'Ayvpivalos, Agyrinensis : 
S. Filip2'o d'Argiro), a town iu Sicily on the 
Cyamosorus, NW. of Centuripae and NE. of 
Enna, the birth-place of the historian Diodorus. 
The town was originally Sikel, but had adopted 
the special worship of Heracles, perhaps re- 
placing some native deity. 

AgyrrMus ('Ayvppios), an Athenian, after i 
being in prison many years for embezzlement j 
of public money, obtained about B.C. 395 the | 
restoration of the Theoricon, and also raised to I 
tliree obols the pay for attending the assembly. 
He was appointed to command the fleet in B.C. ' 
389. (Xen. Hell. iv. 8, 31 ; Dem. c. Timoc. p. 
742, § 134 ; Arist. 'A9. noA.. 41.) i 

Ahala, Servilius, the name of several distin- j 
guished Romans, who held various high offices i 
in the state from b.c. 478 to 342. Of these the ! 
best known is C. Servilius Aliala, magister 
equitum in 439 to the dictator L. Cincinnatus, | 
when he slew Sp. Maelius in the forum, because ^ 
he refused to appear before the dictator (Liv. i 
V. 9). Ahala was afterwards brought to trial, 
and only escaped condemnation by a voluntary j 
exile. M. Brutus claimed descent on the | 
mother's side from this Ahala (cf. Cic. Att. 
xiii. 40). ' 

Aharna, a town in Etruria, NE. of Volsinii i 
(Liv. X. 25). j 

Ahenobarbus, Domitius, the name of a dis- 
tinguished Roman family. They are said to i 
have obtained the surname of Ahenobarbus, i.e. : 
' Brazen-Beard ' or ' Red-Beard,' because the 
Dioscuri announced to one of their ancestors 
the victory of the Romans over the Latins at 
lake Regillus (b.c. 496), and, to confirm the ' 
truth of what they said, stroked his black hair I 
and beard, which immediately became red j 
(Suet. Ner. 1 ; Plut. Ae7nil. 25).— 1. Cn., ple- 
beian aedile B.C. 196, praetor 194, and consul 
192, when he fought against the Boii. — 2, Cn., 
son of No. 1, consul sufiectus in 162. — 3. Cn., 
son of No. 2, consul 122, conquered the Allo- 
broges in Gaul, in 121, at the confluence of the ! 
Sulga and Rhodanus. He was censor in 115 j 
with Caecilius Metellus. The Via Domitia in ' 
Gaul was made by him (Cic. Font. 4, 18 ; 12, 
86; Clu. 42, 119; Strab. iv. p. 191).— 4. Cn,, 
son of No. 8, tribune of the plebs 104, brought 
forward the law [Lex Domitia), by which the 
election of the priests was transferred from the 
collegia to the people. The people afterwards 
elected him Pontifex Maximus out of gratitude. 
He was consul in 96, and censor in 92, with 
Licmius Crassus, the orator. In his censorship 
he and his colleague shut up the sohools of the 



1 



40 AJAX 

Latm rhetoricians : but otherwise their censor- 
ship was marked by their violent disputes (Liv. 
Ep. Ivii. ; Cio.^ro Deiot. 11, 81).— 5, L., brother 
of No. 4, praetor in Sicily, probably in 9U, and 
consul in !)4, belonged to the party of Sulla, and 
was murdered at Rome in 82, by order of the 
younger Marius. His cruelty is noticed in Cic. 
Verr. v. 8. — 6, Cn., son of No. 4, married Cor- 
nelia, daughter of L. Cinna, consul in 87, and 
joined the Jlarian party. Ho was proscribed 
by Sulla in 82, and fled to Africa, where he was 
defeated and killed by Cn. Pompey in 81. — 
7. L. (the friend of Cicero), son of No. 4, married 
Porcia, the sister of M. Cato, and was a staunch 
and courageous supporter of the aristocratical 
party. He was aedile in Gl, praetor in 58, and 
consul in 54. On the breaking out of the civil 
war in 49 he threw himself into Corfinium, but 
was compelled by his own troops to surrender 
to Caesar. He next went to Massilia, and, after 
the surrender of that town, repaired to Pompey 
in Greece : he fell in the battle of Pharsalia 
(48), where he commanded the left wing, and, 
according to Cicero's assertion in the second 
Philippic (11, 27), by the hand of Antony (Caes. 
B. O. i. 6, 16; iii. 99; cf. index to Cicero's 
letters). — 8. Cn., son of No. 7, was taken with 
his father at Corfinium (49), was present at the 
battle of Pharsalia (48), and returned to Italy 
in 4ri, when he was pardoned by Caesar. After 
Caesar's death in 44, he commanded the repub- 
lican fleet in the Ionian sea. He afterwards 
became reconciled to Antony whom he accom- 
panied in his campaign against the Parthians 
in 86. He was consul in 32, and deserted to 
Augustus shortly before the battle of Actium. 
— 9. L., son of No. 8, married Antonia, the 
daughter of Antony by Octavia ; was aedile in 
22, and consul in 16 ; and, after his consulship, 
commanded the Roman army in Germany and 
crossed the Elbe (Tac. Ann. iv. 44). He died 
A.D. 25. — 10, Cn., son of No. 9, consul a.d. 32, 
married Agrippina, daughterof Germanicus, and 
was father of the emperor Nero. [Agbippina.] 
Ajax (Afo?). 1. Son of Telamon, king of 
Salamis, by Periboea or Eriboea, and grandson 
of Aeacus. In the Homeric legend, however, 
he is merely known as son of Telamon. There 
is no hmt of the descent from Aeacus, and 
therefore from Zeus, nor of his being a cousin 
of Acliilles. The assignment to him of the left 
wing in the fleet with his 12 Salaminian ships 
(while Achilles held the right) belongs to the 
later catalogue {II. ii. 557), and probably ori- 
ginated when Salamis was united to Athens. 
Homer calls him Ajax" the Telamonian, Aj-ax 
the Great, or simply Ajax, whereas the other 
Ajax, son of Oileus, is always distinguished from 
him by some epithet. He is represented in 
the Hiad as second only to Achilles in bravery, 
and as the hero most worthy, in the absence of 
Achilles, to contend mth Hector, as irvpyo? 
'Axalioy, especially sturdy and enduring in fight 
{II. ii. 708, vi. 5, v'ii. 182, xi. 545, xvii. 283) : but 
also wise in council (vii. 288), though a clumsy 
speaker (xiii. 824). There is no trace of the 
SPpis which later traditions attribute ; on the 
contrary, he appears as reverent in spirit and 
obedient to the gods (see especially II. vii. 194, 
xvi. 120, and his prayer, xvii. 64'5). Later than 
the Iliad came the story that in the contest for 
the arms of Achilles, which were to be given to 
the worthiest of the surviving Greeks, he was 
defeated by Odysseus. This is mentioned in 
the Odyssey (xi. 545). Further particulars are 
derived from later poets : that his defeat (upon 
the testimony of Trojan captives, who said that 



AIUS 

Odysseus had done tliem most harm) resulted 
in madness sent upon him by Athene, and that 
having slaughtered a flock of sheep, as though 
tliey ^ere his enemies among the Greeks, he 
slew himself with the sword which Hector had 
given him. This story is given in the Aethiopit 
of Arctinus and the Iliaa Minor of Lesehes (of 
which fragments are preserved), as well as in 
the Tragedians. From his blood sprang the 
purple flower (Iris?) marked with the letters 
AI (PauB. i. 35; Thooc. x. 28; Ov. Met. xiii. 
394 ; Verg. Bel. iv. 107 ; Euphorion, fr. 36). 
Among other versions of his story preserved in 
post-Homeric poets and in works of art may 
be noiiiced, that his mother Periboea was an 
Athenian ; that his wife Tecmessa was taken by 
him in the siege of a Phrygian town of which 
her father Teleutas was king (Soph. Aj. 20, 
487) ; that at his birth Heracles sought an 
omen for him to show that he would be as 
strong as the lion-skin which he himself wore, 
whereupon Zeus sent an eagle (Pind. lathm. v. 
87) : hence he was vulnerable only in the side 
uncovered by the lion-skin. Ajax was wor- 
shipped at Salamis, where he had a temple and 
a festival {Diet. Antiq. s.v. Aianteia). After 
the union of Salamis with Athens, the Athenians 
adopted the Salaminian hero as tiraSz'Ujuos for 
their own country. The tribe Aiantis was 
called after him ; he was summoned to the help 
of Athens before the battle of Salamis (Herod, 
viii. 64) ; his statue stood near the ^ov\evri)piov 
(Paus. i. 5) : he was regarded as ancestor of 
IPeisistratus, of Harmodius, of Miltiades, and of 
Alcibiades. — 2. Son of Oileus, king of the Lo- 
criaus, also called the lesser Ajax, sailed against 
Troy with 40 ships. He is descrilDed as small of 
stature, and wears a linen cuirass {AivoBwpri£), 
but is brave and intrepid, sldlled in throwing 
the spear, and, next to Achilles, the most swift- 
footed among the Greeks. On his return from 
Troy his vessel was wrecked on the Whirling 
Rocks {Fvpal ireVpai) ; he himself got safe upon 
a rock through the assistance of Poseidon ; but 
as he boasted that he would escape in defiance 
of the immortals, Poseidon split the rock with 
his trident, and Ajax was swallowed up by the 
sea. This is the account of Homer, but his 
death is related somewhat differently by Virgil 
and other writers, who tell us that the anger 
of Athene was excited against him, because, on 
the night of the capture of Troy, he violated 
Cassandra in the temple of the goddess, where 
she had taken refuge, and that, his vessel being 
wrecked on the Capharean rocks, he was killed 
by lightning {Aeii. i. 40). He was worshipped 
as a national hero both by the Opuntian and 
the Italian Locrians. 

Aides ('A/'Stjs). [H.vdes.] 

Aidoneus {'AiSoiveis). 1. A lengthened form 
of Aides. [ILs^DEs]. — 2. A mythical king of the 
Molossians in Epirus, husband of Persephone, 
and father of Core. "Wlien Theseus and Piri- 
thous attempted to carry off Core, Aidoneus had 
Pirithous killed by Cerberus, and kept Theseus 
in captivity till he was released by Heracles. 

Aius Lociitius or Loquens, a Roman divinity. 
A short time before the Gauls took Rome (b.c. 
390) a voice was heard at Rome in the Via Nova, 
during the silence of night, announcing that the 
Gauls were appronchii;g. No attention was at 
the time paid to the warning, but the Romans 
afterwards erected on the spot where the voice 
had been heard, an altar with a sacred enclosure 
around it, to Aius Locutius, or the ' Announ- 
cin.' Si)eaker.' (Liv. v. 32; Cic. Did. i. 45,101, 
ii. 82, 69 : GeU. xvi. 17.) 



ALABANDA 

Al&banda {v 'AAo^ovSa or to 'AKdfiavSa: 
'AXafiavSevs or 'AKcifiavSos: Arabissar), an in- 
land town of Coria, neiir the Marsyas, to the S. of 
the Maeander, was situated between two hills. 
Under the Romans it was the seat of a con- 
ventus juridieus. Pliny speaks of a lapis Ala- 
iandicus found here, fusible and used for glass- 
making (£". N. xxxvi. 62). 

Alabon {'AAaPdv) or Alabis, a river on the E. 
coast of Sicily, perhaps La Cantara (Diod. iv. 
78). It is probably the some as the Abolus of 
Plutarch (Tim. 8i). 

Alagonia {'A\ayovla), a town of the Eleu- 
thero-Laconians on the frontiers of Messenia. 

Alalcomenae AXakKOji^vai : 'AXaXKo/xsvaios, 
'A>^aXKOfi(Vievs : Sulinari), an ancient town 
of Boeotia, E. of Coronea, with a temple of 
Athena, who is said to have been brought up by 
its autochthonous founder Alalcomeneus (Paus. 
Lx. S3, 5; Horn. U. iv. 8; Strab. pp. 411, 
413), and who was hence called AlalcoDieiiiis 
('AAaKKOfjLfVTj'ts, ISos). 

Alalia. [AiEBiA.] 

Alander, [L.\iandus.] 

Alani {'AAavol, 'AKavvol, i.e. mountaineers, 
from the Sarmatian word ala), a great Asiatic 
people, included under the general name of Scy- 
thians, but ijrobably a branch of the Massagetae 
(A mm. Marc. xxii. 8, 30, xxxi. 2). They were a 
nation of warlike horsemen. They are first 
found about the E. part of the Caucasus, in the 
country called Albania, which appears to be 
only another form of the same name. In the 
reign of Vespasian they made incursions into 
Media and Armenia ; and at a later time they 
pressed into Europe, as far as the banks of the 
Lower Danube, where, towards the end of the 
6th century, they were routed by the Huns, 
who then compelled them to become their allies. 
In A.D. 406, some of the Alani took part with 
the Vandals in their irruption into Gaul and 
Spain, where they became incorporated in the 
kingdom of the Visigoths. 

Alaricus, in German Al-iic, i.e. ' All-rich,' 
elected king of the Visigoths in a.d. 308, had 
previously commanded the Gothic auxiliaries of 
Theodosius. He twice invaded Italy, first in 
A.D. 402-403, when he was defeated by Stilicho 
at the battle of PoUentia, and a second time in 
408-410; in his second invasion he took and 
plundered Rome, 24th of August, 410. He died 
shortly afterwards at Consentia in Bruttium, 
while preparing to invade Sicily, and was buried 
in the bed of the river Basentinus, a small tri- 
butary of the Crathis. (Jornand. de Beh. Get. 
80 ; Oros. vii. 29 ; Zosim. v. vi. ; Aug. Civ. 
Dei, i. 1 ; Procop. Sell. Vand. i. 2.) 

Alastor ("AAdo-Toip). 1. ' The scarer ' or 
driver': the avenging deity who follows up 
the sinner, and drives him to fresh crime, and 
so becomes an evil genius in his family after 
hun (Aesch. Ag. 1465 ; Soph. O. C. 788 ; Eur. 
Or. 1556) : hence sometimes the man who is 
thus driven (Aesch. Evm. 237).— 2. A surname 
of Zeus and of the Furies as Avengers. — 3. A 
Lycian, companion of Sai-pedon, slain by Odys- 
seus (II. v. 677).— 4. A Trojan name (II. iv. 295 
XX. 468). 

Alba Silvius. [Silvixis.] 

Alba. 1. (Ahla), a town of the Bastitani in 
Spam.— 2. (Ahvanna), a tovm of the Barduli in 
Spam.- 3. Augusta (Aidps), a town of the 
Jihcoci m Gallia Narbonensis.— 4. Fucentia 
°? (Albenses : Alba or Albi), a town 

Of the Marsi, and subsequently a Roman colony 
was situated on a lofty rock near tlie lake 
Jlucinus. It was a strong fortress, and was 



ALBINOVANUS 



41 



used by the Romans as a state prison (Strab. 
p. 240; Liv. xlv. 42). — 5. Longa (adj. Aibani), 
the most ancient town in Latium, is said to 
have been built by Aseanius, and to have 
founded Rome. It was called Loiiga, from its 
stretching in a long line down the Alban Mount 
towards the Alban Lake. Alba was regarded as 
the primitive Latin town. It was the religious 
head of the Latin confederate 30 cantons. 
Here the Latins assembled for their festival 
and offered sacrifice to Jupiter Latiaris. At 
some time (traditionally in the reign of Tullus 
Hostilius) Alba was destroyed, and its inhabi- 
tants became part of the Roman people ; but 
the Alban clans retained their family shrines, 
and the Alban Mount continued to be the place 
for tlie Latiar, or Feriae Latinae (see Diet. 
Antiq. s.v.). The surrounding country was 
studded with the viUas of the Roman ari- 
stocracy and emperors (Pompey's, Domitian's, 
(fee), each of which was called Albanum, and 
out of these a new town at length grew, also 
called Albanum (Albano), on the Appian road. 
— 6. Pompeia (Albenses Pompeiani : Alba), a 
town in Liguria, founded by Scipio Af ricanus I., 
and colonised by Pompeius Magnus, the birth- 
place of the emperor Pertinax. 

Albania ('AX/8ay/a : 'A\0ai'ol, Albani; Schir- 
wan and part of Daghestau, in the SE. part of 
Georgia), a country of Asia on tlie W. side of 
the Caspian, extending from the rivers Cyrus 
and Araxes on the S. to M. Ceraunius (the E. 
part of the Caucasus) on the N., and bounded 
on the W. by Iberia. It was a fertile plain, 
abounding in pasture and vineyards ; but the 
inhabitants were fierce and warlike. They were 
a Scythian tribe, probably a branch of the 
Massagetae, and identical with the Alani. The 
Romans fiist became acquainted with them at 
the time of the Mithridatic war, when they 
encountered Pompey. (Strab. p. 501.) 

Albanum. [Alba, No. 5.] 

Albanus Lacus (,Lago di Albano), a small 
lake about 5 miles in circumference, W. of the 
Mons Albanus between Bovillae and Alba 
Longa, is the crater of an extinct volcano, and 
is many hundred feet deep. The emissarium 
which the Romans bored through the solid rock 
(traditionally during the siege of Veii) in order 
to carry off the superfluous water of the lake, is 
extant at the present day (see Diet. Antiq. 
s.v. Emissariitiii). 

Albanus Mons (Monte Cavo or Albano), was, 
in its narrower signification, the mountain in 
Latium on whose declivity the town of Alba 
Longa was situated. It was the sacred moun- 
tain of the Latins, on which the religious 
festivals of the Latin League were celebrated 
(Latiar, or Feriae Latinae), and on its highest 
surnmit was the temple of Jupiter Latiaris, to 
which the Roman generals ascended in triumph, 
when this honour was denied them in Rome. 
The Mons Albanus in its wider signification 
included the Mons Algldus and the mountains 
about Tusculum. 

Albi Montes, a lofty range of mountains in 
the W. of Crete, 300 stadia in length, covered 
with snow the greater part of the year. 

Albici ('A\0ioLKoi, 'AX^ieis), a warlike Gallic 
peoi)le, inhabiting the mountains north of Mas- 
silia (Strab. p. 203 ; Caes. J3. C. i. 84). 

Albingaunum. [Albium Ing-vunum.] 

Albinovanus, Celsus, ismentioned by Horace 
(Ep. i. 8), as scriba of Tiberius Nero, and 
warned to avoid plagiarism. We have no record 
nf his writings. It is surmised that he is the 
Celsus mentioned in Ov. Font. i. 9. 



42 ALBINOVANUS 

Albinovanus, C. Pedo, a fiiend of Ovid, 
who addreBBes to hiiu one of Ids Epistles from 
Pontus (iv. 10). We have no warrant for attri- 
buting to Albinovanus the three elegies, Epi- 
cediuvi Drusi, de Maeconatis Obitu, and de 
Moribimdo Maecenatc, printed by Wernfidorf, 
in his PoiUae Latiiii Minorex, vol. iii. iv., and 
by Meinecke, Quedlinburg, 1819. Their author- 
ship remains unknown. Only one genuine frag- 
ment of Albinovanus survives: the 28 lines 
de Navigatione Germanici, which are quoted 
by Seneca {Snas. i. 14) with approval. They 
seem to have formed part of an epic poem on 
contemporary history. Ho wrote also an epic, 
Theseis (Ov. I.e.), and epigrams. Ho is called 
by Quintiliau (x. 1, 90) a poet ' non indignus 
cognitione.' 

Albinovanus, P. TuUius, belonged to the 
Marian party, was proscribed in B.C. 87, but was 
pardoned by Sulla in 81, in consequence of his 
putting to death many of the officers of Nor- 
banus, whom he had invited to a banquet at 
Ariminum. 

Albinus or Albus, Postumius, the name of a 
pati'iciau family at Eome, many of the members 
of which held the highest offices of the state 
from the commencement of the republic to its 
downfall. — 1. A., surnamedUe(7iZZe?isM, dictator 
B.C. 498, when he conquered the Latins in the 
great battle near lake Regillus, and consul 496, 
in which year some of the annals placed the 
battle (Liv. ii. 19 ; Dionys. vi. 2 ; Cic. N. D. ii. 
2, 6). — 2. Sp., consul 466, and a member of the 
first decemvirate 451 (Liv. iii. 2, 31, 70). — 3. A., 
consul B.C. 464 (Liv. iii. 4). — 4. Sp. (son of No. 2), 
cons. trib. in B.C. 432 (Liv. iv. 25). — 5. P., cons, 
trib. B.C. 411 (Liv. iv. 49). — 6. M,, censor B.C. 403 
(Liv. V. 1 ; Fast. Cap.) — 7. A., cons. trib. b.c. 
897 (Liv. V. 16).— 8. Sp., cons. trib. b.c. 394 (Liv. 
V. 26). — 9. Sp., consul 344, and again 321. In the 
latter year he marched against the Samnites,but 
was defeated near Caudium, and obliged to 
surrender with his whole army, who were sent 
under the yoke. The senate, on the advice of 
Albinus, refused to ratify the peace which he 
had made with the Samnites, and resolved that 
all persons who had sworn to the peace should 
be given up to the Samnites, but they refused 
to accept them (Liv. viii. 16, ix. 1-10 ; Appian, 
de Beb. 8amn. 2; Cic. de Off. iii. 80.— 10. L., 
consul 234, and again 229. In 216 he was 
praetor, and was killed in battle at Litana by 
the Boii. His head was cut off, lined with 
gold, and used as a cup by the Boii (Liv. xxiii. 
24 ; Polyb. iii. 106, 118 ; Cic. Tusc. i. 37, 89.— 
11. Sp., consul in 186, when the senatuscon- 
sultum was passed, which is extant, for sup- 
pressing the worship of Bacchus in Rome. He 
died in 179. — 12. A., consul 180, when he 
fought against the Ligurians, and censor 174. 
He was subsequently engaged in many public 
missions. Livy calls him Luscus, from which it 
would seem that he was blind of one eye (Liv. 
xl. 41, xlii. 10, xlv. 17).— 13. Sp., brother of Nos. 
12 and 14, surnamed Paullulus, consul 174 (Liv. 
xxxix. 45, xli. 26, xliii. 2). — 14. L., praetor 180, in 
Further Spain, where he remained two years, 
and conquered the Vaccaei and Lusitani. He 
was consul in 173, and afterwards served under 
Aemilius Paulus in Macedonia in 168 (Liv. xl. 44, 
xliv.41). — 15, Sp., lieutonantof Paullusn.c. 168, 
consul 110, caiTied on war against Jugurtha in 
Numidia, but effected nothing. When Albinus 
departed from Africa, he left his brother Aulus 
in command, who was defeated by Jugurtha. 
Spurius was condemned by the Mamilia Lex, 
as guilty of treasonable practices with Jugurtha. 



ALBUNEA 
— 16. A., consul 151, imprisoned by tribunes for 
conducting the levies with too much severity 
(Liv. Ej). 48 ; Pol. xxxv. 3) ; accompanied 
Munmiius to Greece as legate in 146 (Cic. Att. 
xiii. 80, 82). He wrote a Roman history la 
Greek, of which Polybius did not think highly 
(Pol. xl. 6). Cicero speaks of him as a learned 
man (Acad. ii. 45, 187, Brut. 21, 81).— 17. A., 
consul B.C. 99, with M. Antonias, is said by 
Cicero to have been a good speakef [Brut. 25, 
94). 

Albinus {'AK^ivos), a Platonic philosopher, 
lived at Smyrna in the 2nd century after 
Christ, and wrote an Introduction to the Dia- 
logues of Plato. — Editions. In the first edi- 
tion of Fabricius's Bibl. Graec. vol. ii., and pre- 
fixed to Etwall's edition of three dialogues of 
Plato, Oxon. 1771 ; Schneider, 1852 ; C. Her- 
mann, 1873. 

Albinus, Clodius, whose fuU name was 
Decimus Clodius Ceionius Septimius Albinus. 
was born at Adrumetum in Africa. The em- 
peror Commodus made him governor of Gaul 
and afterwards of Britain, where he was on the 
] death of Commodus in a.d. 192. In order to 
secure the neutrality of Albinus, Septimius 
Severus made him Caesar; but after Severu.s. 
had defeated his rivals, he turned his arms 
against Albinus. A great battle was fought at, 
Lugdunum {Lyons), in Gaul, the 19th of Feb- 
ruary, 197, in which Albinus was defeated and 
killed. (Dio Cass. Ixx. 4 ; Vita Alb.) 

Albion or Alebion {'A\^ia>v, 'AKefi'twy), son of 
Poseidon and brother of Dercynus or Bergion, 
with whom he attacked Heracles, when he 
passed through their country (Liguria) with 
the oxen of Geryon. They vrere slain by Hera- 
cles. 

Albion, another name of Bkitankia, by 
which it was originally distinguished from leme 
(Plin. R. N. iv. I 102). 

Albis [Elbe), one of the great rivers in Ger- 
many, the most easterly which the Romans 
became acquainted with, rises according to 
Tacitus in the country of the Hermunduri. 
The Romans reached the Elbe for the first 
time in b.c 9 under Drusus, and crossed it for the 
first time in B.C. 3 under Domitius Ahenobarbus. 
Tiberius reached the Elbe a.d. 5 ; but after 
that the legions were withdrawn from this part 
of Germany, whence the expression in Tac. 
Germ. 41, ' nunctantum auditur.' 

Albiuni Ingaunum or Albingaunum {Al- 
benga), a town of the Inganni on the coast of 
Liguria, and a municipium (Plin. iii. § 48; 
Strabo, p. 202, writes it 'AX^iyyavvov). 

Albium Intemelium or Albintemelium 
{Vintimiglia) a town of the Intemelii on the 
coast of Liguria, and a municipium. (Strabo 
connects both this name and the preceding with 
the word Alp.) 

T. Albucius or Albiitius, studied at Athens, 
and belonged to the Epicurean sect ; he was 
well acquainted with Greek literature, but was 
satirised by Lucilius on account of his affecting 
on every occasion the Greek language and 
philosophy. He was praetor in Sardinia in B.C. 
105 ; and in 108 was accused of extortion 
by C. Julius Caesar, and condemned. He 
retired to Athens and pursued the study of 
philosophy. (Cic. Brut. 35, 181 ; de Fin. i. 88 ; 
Orat. 44, 149 ; Tusc. v. 37, 108.) 

Albiila, an ancient name of the river Tibkb. 

Albulae Aquae. [Albunea.] 

Albunea (Albiila, Stat. Silv. i. 8. 75; accord- 
ing to some, Albuna in Tib. ii. 5. 69), a prophetic 
nymph or Sibyl, to whom a grove was con- 



ALBUENUS 

:Becrated in the neighbourhood of Tibur 
(Tivoli) with a fountain and a temple (Verg. 

vii.' 81 ; Hor. Od. i 7, 12). This fountain 
was the largest of the Albulae aquae, still called 
Acque Albule, sulphurous springs at Tibur, 
which flow into the Anio. Hence the story of 
the Anio bearing the oracular books unwetted 
in its stream to Tibur (Tib. ii. 5, 69). The name 
perhaps belonged to other sulphurous springs, 
for Probus [ad Gcorg. i. 10) mentions one so 
called in the Laurentine district. Near it was 
the oracle of Faunus Fatidicus. The temple is 
still extant at Tivoli. 

Alburnus Mons, a mountain in Lucania 
(Verg. Georg. iii. 146). 

Aloaeus {'kKKoios), 1. — Son of Perseus and 
Andromeda, and father of Amphitryon and 
Anoxo. — 2. A name of Heracles. — 3. Son of 
Heracles, ancestor of Candaules (Herod, i. 7). 

Alcaeus. 1. Of Mytilene in Lesbos, the 
earliest of the Aeolian lyric poets. He belonged 
to the nobles of Mytilene and fought both with 
sword and pen in the struggles of the oligarchs 
against those who usurped the sovereignty. 
About the year 612 B.C. Melanchrus, the despot 
of Mytilene, was slain by a faction in which the 
brothers of Alcaeus, KUus and Antemenidas, 
were joined with Pittacus. Their party, how- 
ever, was overcome by Mjrrsilus, who made 
himself despot, and the brothers went into exile, 
Alcaeus to Egypt and Antemenidas to Assyria, 
where he seems to have taken service with Nebu- 
cadnezzar. One of the odes of Alcaeus tells of an 
ivory - hilted sword 
which his brother had 
worn in this service. 
Myrsilus was slain 
by the popular party, 
led by Pittacus ; and 
we find Alcaeus mak- 
ing war upon Pitta- 
cus in the interest of 
the oligarchic fac- 
tion. He was defeated 
and imprisoned, but 
soon pardoned by Pit- 
tacus. The only other 
event of which we 
have distinct notice, is that when the Athenians 
tried to colonise Sigeum, Alcaeus fought in the 
Mytilenaean army against them, and incurred 
the disgrace (as he himself tells) of leaving his 
shield in hia flight from the battle (Hdt. v. 95 ; 
Strab. p. 600). His poetry, in ten books, in- 
cluded hjTnns to the gods and odes, the latter 
being divided into political (o-Tao-ioiTi/ca), scoha 
and erotica; all, however, practically of the class 
of soolia or drinking songs, and greatly inferior 
poetry to that of his younger contemporary 
Sappho. Among the few fragments remaining 
are the originals of Horace's odes 'Vides ut 
alta,' ' O navis referent,' and ' Nunc est biben- 
dum,' which last is a rejoicing over the death 
of Myrsilus. He has given his name to the 
Alcaic meti-e, and seems also to have been the 
earliest writer of Sapphics.— jBdiiions. Bergk, 
in Poetae Lijrici, 1867 ; Hartung, 1855.— 2. A 
comic poet at Athens belonging to the transi- 
tion between Old and New Comedy, about B.C. 

— ^' Messene, author of epigi-ams in 
Anth. Pal, about B.C. 200. 

Alcamenes ('AAfca^eVrjj). 1. Son of Tele- 
cluB, king of Sparta, from B.C. 779 to 742.-2. 
A sculptor of Athens, flourished from b.c. 
444 to 400 and was the most famous of the 
pupils of Phidias. His gi-eatest works were a 
statue of Aphrodite (Plin. xxxvi. 16 ; Lucian, 



ALCIBIADES 



4& 




Alcaous. 
(From a coin of Mytilene.) 



Imag. 4), and a Dionysus. We are told also by 
Pausanias that the west pediment in the temple 
of Zeus at Olympia was his work. It is thought 
that this belongs to an early period of his art, 
before he came under the influence of Phidias. 
[Cf. Agobacbitus.] 

Alcander i^WKavSpos), a young Spartan, who 
thrust out one of the eyes of Lycurgus, when 
his fellow-citizens were discontented with the 
laws he proposed. Lycurgus pardoned the out- 
rage, and thus converted Alcander into one of 
his warmest friends. (Pint. Lyc. 11 ; Ael. V.H. 
xiii. 23.) 

Alcathoe or Alcithoe {'A\Ka06ri or 'AKKMri), 
daughter of Minyas, refused with her sisters 
Leucippe and Arsippe to join in the worship of 
Dionysus when it was introduced into Boeotia, 
and were accordingly changed by the god into 
bats, and their weaving-loom into vines (Ov. 
Met. iv. 1-40, 890-415). A somewhat different 
legend existed, apparently an attempt to explain 
a human sacrifice. The daughters of Minyas 
for the above reason being driven mad by Diony- 
sus, Leucippe gave up her son Hippasos to be 
torn in pieces. Hence, it was said, came the 
custom that the priest of Dionysus slew any 
maiden of the race of Minyas whom he found 
at the festival of Agrionia (Ant. Lib. 10 ; Plut. 
Q.G. 38; Ael. V.H. iii. 42; Diet, of Ant. s.v. 
Ag7-ioiiia.) 

Alcathous {'A\KddooT). 1. Son of Pelops and 
Hippodamla, brother of Atreus and Thyestes, 
obtained as his wife Euaechme, the daughter of 
Megareus, by slaying the Cithaeronian lion, and 
succeeded his father-in-law as king of Megara. 
He restored the walls of Megara, m which work 
he was assisted by Apollo. The stone upon 
which the god used to place his lyre while he 
was at work was believed, even in late times, to 
give forth a somid, when struck, similar to that 
of a lyre (Ov. Met. viii. 15). — 2. Son of Aesyetes 
and husband of Hippodamla, the daughter of 
Anchises and sister of Aeneas, was one of the 
bravest of the Trojan leaders in the war of Troy, 
and was slain by Idomeneus {II. xiii. 427, 466). 

Aloestis or Alceste ("AA/ct/o-tis or 'AA/ceVrT)), 
daughter of Pelias and Anaxibia, wife of Adme- 
tus, died in place of her husband. [Admetus.] 

Alcetas {'AAKeras), two kings of Epirus. 1. 
Son of Tharypus, was expelled from hia king- 
dom, and was restored by the elder Dionysius 
of Syracuse. He was the ally of the Athenians 
in B.C. 373 (Demosth. Timoth. pp. 1187, 1190, 
§§10, 22 ; Paus. i. 11 ; Diod. xv. 13).— 2. Son of 
Arymbas, and grandson of Alcetas I., reigned 
B.C. 313-303, and was put to death by his sub- 
jects (X)iod. xix. 88 ; Plut. Pyn-h. 3). 

Alcetas. 1, King of Macedonia, reigned 29 
years, and was father of Amyntas I. — 2. Brother 
of Perdiccas and son of Orontes, was one of 
Alexander's generals. On the death of Alex- 
ander, he espoused his brother's party, and 
upon the murder of the latter in Egypt in 321, 
he joined Eumenes. He killed himself at Ter- 
messus in Pisidia in 320, to avoid falling into 
the hands of Antigonus. 

Alcibiades ('A\Ki0iaSris), son of Clinias and 
Dinomache, was born at Athens about b.c. 450, 
and on the death of his father in 447, was brought 
up by his relation Pericles. He possessed 
a beautiful person, transcendent abilities, and 
great wealth, which received a large accession 
through his marriage with HipparGte,the daugh- 
ter of Hipponicus. His youth was disgraced by 
his amours and debaucheries, and Socrates, 
who saw his vast capabilities, attempted to win 
him to the paths of virtue, but in vain. Their 



4i 



ALCIBIADES 



ALCINOUS 



intimacy was strengthened by mutua. Bervices. I Potami (405), he gave an ineffectual warning 
At tlie battle of Potidaea (i).c. 482) Iub life was to the Athenian generals. After the fall of 
saved by Socrates, and at that of Dolium (424) Athens (404), ho was condemned to banishment 
he saved tlie life of Socrates. He did not take I and^ook refuge with Phanmbazus ; he was about 
Mucli part in public affairs till after the death j to proceed to the court of Artaxerxes, when one 




of Cleon (422), but he then became one of the 
leading politicians, and the head of the war 
party in opposition to Nicias. Enraged at the 
affront put upon him by the Lacedaemonians, 
who had not chosen to employ his intervention 
in the negotiations which ended in the peace of 
421, and had preferred Nicias to him, he induced 
tlie Athenians to form an alliance with Argos, 
Mantinea and Elis, and to attack the alhes of 
Sparta. In 415 he was foremost among the 
advocates of the Sicilian expedition, which he 
believed would be a step towards the conquest 
■of Italy, Carthage, and Peloponnesus. While 
tlie preparations for the expedition were going 
■on, there occurred the mysterious mutilation of 
the Hermes-busts, which the popular fears con- 
nected in some unaccountable manner with an 
attempt to overthrow the Athenian constitution. 
Aloibiades was charged with being the ring- 
leader in this attempt. He had been already 
■appointed along with Nicias and Lamachus as 
commander of the expe- 
dition to Sicily, and he 
now demanded an inves- 
tigation before he set sail. 
This, however, his ene- 
mies would not grant ; as 
they hoped to increase the 
popular odium against 
him in his absence. He 
was therefore obliged to 
depart for Sicily ; but he 
had not been there long, 
before he was recalled to 
stand his trial. On his 
return homewards, he 
managed to escape at 
Thurii, and thence pro- 
ceeded to Sparta, where 
he acted as the avowed 
enemy of his country. 
At Athens sentence of 
death was passed upon 
him, and his property 
was confiscated. At 
Sparta he rendered him- 
self popular by the facility with which he adop- 
ted the Spartan manners; hut the machina- 
tions of his enemy Agis II. induced him to 
abandon the Spartans and take refuge with Tis- 
saphernes (412), whose favour he soon gained. 
Tlirough his influence Tissaphernes deserted 
the Spartans and professed his willingness to 
assist the Athenians, who accordingly recalled 
Aloibiades from banishment in 411. He did 
not immediately return to Athens, but remained 
abroad for the next 4 years, during which the 
Athenians under his command gained the vic- 
tories of Cynossema, Abydos, and Cyzicus, and 
got possession of Chalcedon and Byzantium. 
In 407 he returned to Athens, where he was 
received with great enthusiasm, and was 
appointed commander-in-chief of all the land 
and sea forces. But the defeat at Notiuin, occa- 
sioned during his absence by the imprudence of 
his lieutenant, Antiochus, furnished his enemies 
with a handle against hiin, and he was super- 
seded in his command (b.c. 400). He now 
went into voluntary exile to his fortified 
domain at Bisanthe in the Thracian Cherso- 
nesus, where he made war on the neighbouring 
Thraciajis. Before the fatal battle of Aegos- 



Alciblades. 



night his house was surrounded by a band of 
armed nien, and set on fire. He rushed out 
sword in hand, but fell, pierced with arrows 
(404). The assassins were probably either em- 
ployed by the Spartans, or (according to Plu- 
tarch) by the brothers of a lady whom Alcibiades 
had seduced. He left a son by his wife Hip. 
parete, named Alcibiades, who never distin- 
guished himself. It was for him that Isocrates 
wrote the speech Uepl tov Zevyovs. (Plut. Alcib.; 
Nepos, Alcib. ; Thuc. v.-viii. ; Xen. Hell. i. 11 ; 
Diod. xiii. ; Anioc. in Ale. cle Myst.; lsocv.de 

Alcidamas {'A\KtSdnas), a Greek rhetorician, 
of Elaea in Aeolis, in Asia Minor, was a pupil of 
Gorgias, and resided at Athens between B.C. 432 
and 411. His works were characterised by 
pompous diction and the extravagant use of 
poetical epithets and phrases (Quintil. iii. 1, 
10 ; Ai-ist. Bhet. i. 13, 5, iii. 3, 8 ; Cic. Ttisc. i. 
48, IIG). There are two declamations extant 
which bear his name, entitled Odysseus (in 
which Odysseus accuses Palamedes) and cle 
Sophistis. These are generally thought by mod- 
ern critics to be the work of different authors, 
and it is possible that neither is by Alcidamas. 
In a fragment of a speech about Messene, Alci- 
damas seems to condemn slavery as contr.ary to 
natural law. — Editions of the two declamations 
ascribed to him, in Eeiske's Orat. Gr. ; Bekker's 
Orat. Att. ; Blass, 1871. 

Alcldas ('AA./ciSaj Dor. = 'AAkci'Sijs), a Spartan 
commander of the fleet B.C. 428-427. In the 
former year he was sent to Mytilene, and in the 
latter to Corcj-ra. (Thuc. iii. 16, 26, 69.) 

Alcides ('AAkci'Stjj), a name of Amphitryon, 
the son of Alcaeus, and more especially of 
Heracles, the grandson of Alcaeus. Alcaeus 
also seems to have been an early name of 
Heracles himself. 

Alcimede {'A^iafxiSri), daughter of Phylacus 
and Clymene, wife of Aeson, and mother of 
Jason (Ov. Her. vi. 105 ; Ap. Eh. i. 45). 

Alcimus (Avitus) AletMus, the writer of 
7 short poems, a rhetorician in Aquitania, is 
Slacken of in terms of praise by Sidonius Apol- 
linaris and Ausonius. — Editions. In jMeier's 
AnthoLogia Latina, 254-200, and in "Wems- 
dorf's Poetae Latini Minores, vol. vi. 

Alcimedon ("AAKijacSaiv), an Arcadian hero, 
father of Phialo, whom he cast forth upon the 
mountains with the child which she had borne 
to Heracles. Heracles, guided by a jay {Klaaa) 
discovered and saved them (Pans. viii. 12, 2). 

Alcinous ('AAicfi'oos). 1. Son of Nausithous, 
and grandson of Poseidon, is celebrated in the 
story of the Argonauts, and still more in the 
Odyssey. Homer represents liim as the happy 
ruler of the Phaeacians in the island of Scheria, 
friend of the Immortals, who a)>pear in visible 
form to him and his people. He has by Arete 
five sons and one daughter, Nausicaa. The 
way in which he received Ulysses, and the 
stories which the latter related to the king about 
his wanderings, occupy a considerable portion 
of the Odyssey (books vi. to xiii.). Pliny 
(iv. § 52) identifies Scheria with Corfu, the in- 
habitants of which are said still to point out 
the roclcy island of Pontikottisi, noticed by 
Pliny, in" shape like a ship, as the rock into 
which the Phaeacian ship (Od. xiii. 160) was 
changed. The doom of the city of Alcinous, 



ALCIPHRON 

that it should be overwhelmed by a mountain 

■ is foretold as though to enhance the nobility of 
the character of Alcinoua, but is not further 

■ related [For the Argonaut story, which places 
Alciuous in the island of Drepane, see AiiGO- 

• NAUT U3 ; Ap. Eh. iv. 990.]— 2. A Platonic philo- 
sopher who probably lived under the Caesars, 
wrote a work entitled Epitome of the Doctrines 
of Plato, hnt he ascribes to Plato much that 
belongs to Aristotle, and some theories about 
transniigi'ation, which are probably derived 
from Pythagoras. His Sal/xoves are not unlike 
the Gnostic i^ons.—Editiotis. By Fell, Oxon. 
1667, and by J. F. Fischer, Lips. 1878, 8vo. 

Alciphron ('A\kI<Ppi»v), the most distin- 
guished of the Greek epistolary witors, was 
probably a contemporary of Lucian, about a.d. 
180. The letters (118 in number, in 8 books) 
Bxe written by fictitious personages, and the 
language is distinguished by its purity and ele- 
gance. The new Attic comedy was the prin- 
cipal source from which the author derived his 
information respecting the characters and man- 
ners which he describes, and for this reason 
they contain much valuable information about 
the private life of the Athenians of that time. — 
Editions. By Bergler, Lips. 1715 ; Hercher, 
1873 ; Meineke, 1853. 

Alcippe. [H.ILIEBHOTHITJS.] 

Alcithoe. [Alcathoe.] 

Alcmaeon (' KXKfxaiaiv). 1. Son of Amphia- 
raus and Eriphyle, and brother of Ampliilochus 
(Paus. X. 10, 2). His mother was induced by 
the necklace of Harmonia, which she received 
from Polynlces, to persuade her husband 
Amphiaraus to take part in the expedition 
against Thebes; and as he knew he would 
perish there, he enjoined his sons to kill their 
mother as soon as they should be gi'own up, 
before they went against Thebes. Alcmaeon 
took part in the expedition of the Epigoni 
against Thebes. The oracle made his leader- 
ship in the expedition a condition of its suc- 
cess, and his mother, bribed by Thersander with 
the dress of Harmonia, overcame liis scruples 
about startmg without having avenged his 
father, wishing that her son also might die ; 
and on his return home after the capture of the 
city, he slew his mother according to the injunc- 
tion of his father, and urged also by the oracle 
of Apollo. For this deed he became mad, and 
was haunted by the Erinnyes. He -went to 
Psophis, and was there purified by Phegeus, 
whose daughter Arsinoe or Alphesiboea he 
married, giving her the necklace and peplus 
of Harmonia. But as the land of this 
countiy ceased to bear on account of its har- 
bouring a matricide, his madness returned ; he 
left Psophis and repaired to the country at the 
mouth of the river Achelous. Here in the allu- 
vial deposit of the river was ground which had 
not existed when his mother cursed him, and 
so he was healed from his madness. The god 
Achelous gave him his daughter Callirrhoi: in 
marriage ; and as the latter wished to possess 
the necklace and peplus of Harmonia, Alcmaeon 
went to Psophis and obtained them from Phe- 
geus, under the pretext of dedicating them at 
Delphi ; but when Phegeus heard that the trea- 
sures were fetched for Callirrhoe, he caused his 
sons to murder Alcmaeon. Alcmaeon was wor- 
shipped as a hero at Thebes, and at Psophis his 
tomb was shown, surrounded with cypresses. 
His sons by Callirrhoe avenged his death. 
(Paus. viii. 24; Time. ii. 102; Plut. de Exil. 
p. 002 ; Apollod. iii. 7 ; Ov. Met, ix. 407.)— 2. Son 
o£ Megacles, was greatly enriched by Croesus, 



ALCMENE 



45 



as related in Hdt. vi. 12.-).— 3. Of Crotona in 
Italy. He is said to have been the first person 
who dissected anunals, and he made important 
discoveries in anatomy and natural philosophy. 
There are traces of Pythagorean influence in 
his opinions. He wrote several medical and 
philosophical works, which are lost. (Diog. 
Laiirt. viii. 83 ; Clem. Alex. Strom, i. 808.) 

Alcmaeonidae ('AA-K/iaiwciSai), anoble family 
at Athens, members of which fill a space in 
Grecian history from B.C. 750 to 400. They were 
a branch of the family of the Nelldae, who were 
driven out of Pylus in Messenia by the Dorians, 
and settled at Athens. Li consequence of the 
way in which Megacles, one of the family, 
treated the insurgents under Cylon (b.c. 612), 
they brought upon themselves the guilt of sacri- 
lege, and were in consequence banished from 
Athens, about 595. About 560 they returned 
from exile, but were again expelled by Pisistra- 
tus. In 548 they contracted with the Amphictyo- 
nic council to rebuild the temple of Delphi, and 
obtained great popularity throughout Greece by 
executing the work in a style of magnificence 
which much exceeded their engagement. On 
the expulsion of Hippias in 510, they were again 
restored to Athens. They now joined the 
popular party, and Clisthenes, who was at that 
time the head of the family, gave a new consti- 
tution to Athens. [See also Clisthenes, Mega- 
cles, Peeicles.] 

Alcman {'A\Kixdv, also called 'AXKfialwv), the 
chief lyric poet of Sparta, by birth a Lydian of 
Sardis, was brought to Laconia as a slave, when 
very young, and was emancipated by his master, 
who discovered his geniua He lived in the 7th 
century B.C., and most of his poems were com- 
posed after the conclusion of the second Messe- 
nian war. Lyric poetry was chiefly used at 
Sparta for religious worship, and accordingly 
Alcman wrote paeans, wedding hymns and pro- 
cessional hymns (prosodia), but he wrote also 
parthenia (for girls to sing in chorus), and is. 
said by some ancient writers to have been the 
inventor of erotic poetry. His metres were very 
various. The Cretic hexameter was named 
from liim Alcmanic. His dialect was the Spartan 
Doric, with an intermixture of epic and Aeolic. 
The Alexandrian grammarians placed Alcman 
at the head of their canon of the 9 lyric poets. 
The fragments of his poems are edited by 
Welcker, Giessen, 1815 ; Bergk, in Poetae Lyrici 
Graeci, 1807 ; Dramard-Baudry, Paris, 1870. 

Alomene ('AA./cju^j't)), daughter of Electryon, 
king of Mycenae, by Anaxo or Lysidice. The 
brothers of Alcmene were slain by the sons of 
Pterelaus ; and their father set out to avenge 
their death, leaving to Amphitryon his kingdom 
and his daughter Alcmene, whom Amphitryon 
was to marry. But Amphitryon having unin- 
tentionally killed Electryon before the marriage, 
Sthenelus expelled both Amphitryon and Alc- 
mene, who went to Thebes. But here, instead 
of marrying Amphitryon, Alcmene declared 
that she would only marry the man who should 
avenge the death of hor brothers. Amphitryon 
undertook the task, and invited Creon of Thebes- 
to assist him. During his absence, Zeus, in the 
disguise of Amphitryon, visited Alcmene, and, 
pretending to be her husband, related in what 
way he had avenged the death of her brothers. 
(Pind. Nem. x. 15, Isthm. vii. 5). Amphiti-yon 
himself returned the next day ; Alcmene became 
the mother of Heracles by Zeus, and of Iphicles 
by Amphitryon. [Heracles.] "When Heracles 
was raised to the rank of a god, Alcmene, fear- 
ing Eurystheus, fled with the sons of Heracles. 



4G 



ALCYONE 



to Athens ; but when Hylhis died she returned 
to Thebes and, according to some, died there 
(Anton. Lib. 83); Pausanias (i. 41) says that 
she died near Megara, and was buried there. 
Pherecydes [ap. Ant. Lib.) relates that Zeus 
sent Hermes to conduct lier to the Islands of 
the Blest, where she married Rhadamanthys. 
From this comes a variant, that she married 
Rhadamanthys while he was Iring of Ocalia. 
(Apollod. ii. 4, 11; PJut. Lijs. 28.) 

Alcyone or Halcyone ('AKkv6vti) 1. A Pleiad, 
daughter of Atlas and Pleione, and beloved by 
Poseidon. — 2. Daughter of the Thessalian 
Aeolus and Enarete, wife of the Malian king 
Ce.V'x. — 3. Daughter of the wind-god Aeolus and 
Aegiale, wife of Ceyx, the son of Hesperus. 
They lived so happily that they were presump- 
tuous enough to call each other Zeus and 
Hera, for which Zeus metamorphosed them 
into birds, alcyon and ceyx (Ap. Eh. i. 1087). 
Others relate that Ceyx perished in a ship- 
•wreok, that Alcyone for grief threw herself into 
the sea, and that the gods, out of compassion, 
changed the two into birds (Hyg. Fah. 65 ; Ov. 
Met. xi. 410-750). It was fabled that during 
ihe seven days Ijefore, and as many after, the 
shortest day of the year, while the bird alcyon 
-was breeding, there always prevailed calms at 
■sea. Hence the term aA./cuovfSej rifidpai (Arist. 
-ff. ^. v^ 9; cf. Theocr. vii. 57). 

Alcyoneus {'AAKuovevs), a giant killed by 
Heracles at the Isthmus of Corinth (Apollod. i. 
•6, 1 ; Pind. Nem. iv. 27). He is called ^ovfidras 
{Nem. vi. 86), because he was said to have 
•driven off the cattle of the Sun from Erytheia. 
Later poets represent him as lying under Aetna. 

Alcyonlum Mare {rj 'KKkuovIs BdAacra-a), the 
E. part of the Corinthian Gulf. 

Alea ('AA.6a), a surname of Athene, under 
which she was worshipped at Alea, Mantinea, 
and Tegea. Her temple at the latter place was 
one of the most celebrated in Greece. It is 



ALESIUM 
Alebion. [Albion.] 

AlectO. pSuMENIDES.] 

Alemanni or Alamanni or Alamani (from 
the German alle Manner, all men), a con- 
federacy of German tribes, chiefly of Suevic 
extraction, between the Danube, the Rhine, 
and the Main, though we subsequently find 
them extending their territories as far as the 
Alps and the Jura. The diflerent tribes of the 
confederacy were governed by their own kings, 
but in time of war they obeyed a common 
leader. They were brave and warlike, and 
proved formidable enemies to the Romans. 
They first came into contact with the Romans 
in the reign of Caracalla, who assumed the sur- 
name of Alemanicus on account of a pretended 
victory over them (a.d. 214). They were attacked 
by Alexander Severus (234), and by Maximin 
(237). They invaded Italy in 270, but were 
driven back by Aurelian, and were again de- 
feated by Probus in 282. After this time they 
continually invaded the Roman dominions in 
Germany, and, though defeated by Constautius 
I., Julian (357), Valentinian, and Gratian, they 
gradually became more and more powerful, and 
in the fifth century were in possession of Alsace 
and of German Switzerland. 

Aleria ('A\epia : 'A\a\ia in Herod.), one of 
the chief cities of Corsica, on the E. of the 
island, on the S. bank of the river Rhotanus 
(Tarignano) near its mouth. It was founded 
by the Phocaeans b.b. 564, was plundered by L. 
Scipio in the first Punic war, and was made a 
Roman colony by Sulla. (Hdt. i. 165 ; Zonar. 
viii. 11 ; Diod. v. 13.) 

Alesa. [H.iLESA.] 

Alesia ('AAecrla), an ancient town of the 
Mandubii in Gallia Lugdunensis, said to have 
been founded by Hercules, and situated on a 
high hill (now Auxois), which was washed by 
the two rivers Lutosa [Oze) and Osera [Oze- 
rain). It was taken and destroyed by Caesar, 



j.oo(j ^(Ko jocc aoiv soecx 




Plan of tho EnYirons ot .Vlesla. , j i „ • o 

said to have been built by Aleus, son of Aplu- in b.c. 52, after a ".emo^'^We ff'^^i es-'oo' 
das, king of Tegea, from whom the goddess afterwards rebuilt (Caes B. G. vii. 68 9U, 
derived this suniame (Pans. viii. 4, 4). | Strab. p. Wonia W 

Alea {'A\4a: 'A\.i^), a town in Arcadia, E 1 Aleatae '{'AKM, a ^"^'^ "ii''^^^;''^' V 
of the Stymphalian lake, with a celebrated , of Sparta, on tlie road to Pherae (Faus. ni. 
temple of Athene, the ruins of which are near 20) ^ 
Piali (Paus. viii. 28). ' Alesium (>AAff<r»ov), a town in Elis, not lar 



ALESIUS 

"•from Olyinpia, afterwards called Aleaiaewn 
{Stnib. 11. 841 ; Horn. II. ii. 617). 

Alesius Mons (rb 'AKriffwy opos), a mountain 
m Arcadia, with a temple of Poseidon Hippius 
and a gi-ove of Demeter. [Mantinea.] 

Aletes ('AAi'iTTjs), son of Hippotes and a de- 
scendant of Heracles, is said to have taken pos- 
session of Corinth, and to have expelled the 
SisyiJhids, thirty years after the first invasion 
of Peloponnesus by the Heraclids. His family, 
called the Aletidae, maintained themselves at 
Corinth down to the time of Bacohis. (Strab. 
p. 889 ; Paus. ii. i ; VeU. Pat. i. 8). According 
to tradition he got bis name, ' Wanderer,' be- 
cause his father had been banished for the 
murder of Camus. It is not improbable that 
he may be under this name merely the repre- 
sentative of the migrating Dorians, who were 
spoken of as o^tjtoi. Regarding the manner in 
■which Aletes took Corinth, there are various 
stories. The historical account is that the 
conquerors entrenched themselves on the Soly- 
gian hill, and from that basis got possession of 
the town (Thuc. iv. 42). Pausanias (ii. 4, 3) says 
that the two kings Doris and Hyanthidas made 
terms for themselves to remain in the land 
•while their Aeolian subjects were driven out. 
From their names it might rather be imagined 
that they were eponyms of Dorian tribes. A 
more popular legend is that Aletes consulted 
the oracle of Zeus at Dodona, and was told that 
he might take the city on a festal day if he 
could first induce a native of the place to give 
him a clod of earth. Aletes disguised himself 
and asked a Corinthian for bread ; the man 
chm-hshly gave him a clod, ujaon which he, 
recognising the omen, said, Se'xeToi Koi ^ooKov 
'AAijTTjr. As a festival of the Dead was going 
on, he contrived to accost the daughter of 
Creon the king, and promised to marry her if 
she would open the city gates for him, which 
she did. He called the place Aibs KdpiuBos, 
because he had gained it by the aid of Zeus : 
hence the proverb for an ' old story,' because 
this story was so often told. {Schol. ad Pind. 
Ne7n. vii. 155.) The legend seems to have 
grown up somehow as an explanation of the 
proverb itself, and of the custom of asking for 
earth in token of submission. [For another 
story of the taking of Corinth see Hellotis.] 
Aletes also fought against Atreus when Codrus 
devoted himself [see Codeus]. He divided his 
people into eight tribes, with eight districts. 
From him the Corinthians are called ncuSes 
'AXdra (Pind. 01. xiii. 17). 

Alethea {'AAiideia), Truth personified, the 
daughter of Zeus (Pind. 01. xi. 6 ; Schol. ad 
loc). The Romans regarded her as daughter 
of Satumus = Kp(iros (Pint. Q. B. 11). Gellius 
apparently confuses Kp6vos and XP^>">^ when 
he says (xii. 11) that she was the daughter of 
Tempus. 
Aletis. [Erigone.] 

Aletllim (Aletlnus), a town of Calabria (Strab. 
p. 282 ; Plin. iii. § 105). 

Aletrium or Alatrium (Aletrinas, atis ; Ala- 
tn), an ancient town of the Hernici, subse- 
quently a municipium and a Roman colony, W. 
of Sora and E. of Anagnia (Liv. ix. 42: Cic 
Clu. 16, 42 ; Strab. p. 287 ; C.I. L. i. 1166). It is 
especially remarkable for its remains of ancient 
walls in polygonal masonry. 

Aleuadae. [Aleuas.] 

Aleuas ('AAcuas), a descendant of Heracles, 
was the ruler of Larissa in Thessaly, and the 
reputed founder of the celebrated family of 
the Aleuadae (Pind. Pyth. x. 5; Theocr. xvi 



ALEXANDER 



47 



34). In Ael. H. A. viii. 11 we have a story of a 
serpent falling in love with him while he tended 
cattle on Ossa. [For the history of the Aleu- 
adae see Thessallv.] 
Aleus. [Alea.] 

Alex or Halex (Alece), a small river in S. 
Italy, was the boundary between the territory 
of Rhegium and of the Locri Epizephyrii (Strab. 
p. 260 ; Thuc. iii. 99). 

Alexander {'AAc'^avSpoj), the usual name of 
Pabis in the Iliad. 
Alexander Severus. [Sevebus.] 
Alexander. I. Minor Historical Persons. 
1. Son of Aeropus, and son-in-law of Anti- 
pater, a native of the Macedonian district 
called Lyncestis, whence he is usually called 
Alexander Lyncestes. He was an accomplice in 
the murder of Philip, B.C. 336, but was pardoned 
by Alexander the Great. He accompanied 
AJexander to Asia ; but in 334 he was detected 
in carrying on a treasonable correspondence 
with Darius, was kept in confinement and put 
to death in 880 (Arr. i. 25 ; Curt. viii. 8 ; Pint. 
Al. 10; Just. xii. 14). — 2. Son of Antonius, 
the triumvir, and Cleopatra, surnamed Helios, 
born with his twin-sister Cleopatra Selene, B.C. 
40. After the battle of Actium they were taken 
to Rome by Augustus, and were generously 
educated by Octavia, the wife of Antonius, with 
her own children (Pint. Ant. 54, 87 ; Dio Cass, 
xlix. 40, h. 21).— 3. Eldest son of Aristobulus 
II., Iring of Judaea, rose in arms in B.C. 57 
against Hyrcanus, who was supported by the 
Romans. Alexander was defeated by the 
Romans in 56 and 55, and was put to death by 
Pompey at Antioch in 49 (Jos. Ant. xiv. 5 ; 
B. J. i. 8). — 4. Third son of Cassauder, king of 
Macedonia, by Thessalonica, sister of Alexander 
the Great. In his quarrel with his elder brother 
Antipater for the government [Antipater], he 
called in the aid of Pyrrhus of Epirus and De- 
metrius Polioroetes, by the latter of whom he 
was murdered B.C. 294 (Plut. Pijrrh.; Deni.; 
Just. xvi. 1). — 5. Jannaeus, the son of Joannes 
Hyrcanus, and brother of Aristobulus I., king 
of the Jews b.c. 104-77. At the commencement 
of his reign he was engaged in war with Ptolemy 
Lathyrus, king of Cyprus ; and subsequently he 
had to carry on for six years a dangerous 
struggle with his own subjects, to whom he had 
rendered himself obnoxious by his cruelties and 
by opposing the Pharisees. He signalised his 
victory by the most frightful butchery of liis 
subjects (Jos. Ant. xiii. 12). — 6. Sumamed Isius, 
the chief commander of the Aetolians, took an 
active part in opposing Philip of Macedonia 
(B.C. 198, 197), and in the various negotiations 
with the Romans, including the embassy to 
Rome, B.C. 189, to obtain peace for the Aetolians 
on terms of submission after the victories oi 
Fulvius NobUior (Liv. xxxii. 32 ; Pol. xvii. xviii. 
xxii. 9).— 7. Tyrant of Pherae, nephew of Jason, 
and also of Polyphron, whom he murdered, 
thus becoming Tagus of Thessaly, b.c 369 (Plut. 
Pel. 29 &c. ; Xen. Hell. vi. 4 ; Cic. de Off. ii. 7, 
25). In consequence of his tyrannical govern- 
ment the Thessalians applied for aid first to 
Alexander II., king of Macedonia, and next to 
Thebes. The Thebans sent Pelopidas into 
Thessaly to succour the malcontents; but 
having ventured incautiously within the power 
of the tyrant, lie was seized by Alexander and 
thrown mto prison, b.c. 3G8. The Thebans sent 
a large army into Thessaly to rescue Pelopidas, 
but they were defeated in the first campaign 
and did not obtain their object till the next 
year, 367. In 804 Pelopidas again entered 



48 



ALEXANDER 



Thessaly with a small force, but was slain in 
battle by Alexander. The Thebans now sent a 
large army against the tyrant, and compelled 
him to become a dependent ally of Thebes. 
We afterwards hear of Alexander making pira- 
tical descents on many of the Athenian de- 
pendencies, and even on Attica itself. He was 
murdered in 8(i7, by his wife Thebe, with the 
assistance of her three brothers, when, as it 
is said, he was planning to murder her and 
marry the widow of his uncle Jason. Reference 
to the anecdote in Plut. Pel. 29 will show that 
Shakespeare in all probability took some sug- 
gestions for the plot of Hamlet from what is 
related of Alexander of Pherae, especially as re- 
gards the ' play-scene.' — 8. Son of Polysperclion, 
the Macedonian, was chiefly employed by his 
father in the command of the armies which 
he sent against Cassander. Thus he was sent 
against Athens in B.C. 318, and was engaged in 
military operations during the next year in 
various parts of Greece. But in 315 he became 
reconciled to Cassander, and we find him in 
314 commanding on behalf of the latter. He 
was murdered at Sicyon in 814 (Diod. xviii. C5 
&c., xix. 11, 53, 60, 66).— 9. Ptolemaeus. 
[Ptolemaeus.] — 10. Tiberius, born at Alex- 
andria, of Jewish parents, and nephew of the 
writer Philo. He deserted the faith of his 
ancestors, and was rewarded for his apostasy 
by various public appointments. In the reign 
of Claudius he succeeded Fadius as procurator 
of Judaea (a.d. 46), and was appointed by Nero 
procurator of Egypt. He was the first Roman 
governor who declared in favour of Vespasian ; 
and he accompanied Titus in the war against 
Judaea, and was present at the taking of 
Jerusalem. (Jos. Ant. xx. 4, B. J. ii. 11 &c. ; 
Tac. Ann. xv. 28, Hist. i. 11, ii. 74, 79.) 

II. Kings of Epirus. 
1. Son of Neoptolemus and brother of 
Olympias, the mother of Alexander the Great. 
Philip made him king of Epirus in place of his 
cousin Aeaoides, and gave him his daughter 
Cleopatra in marriage (b. c. 336). In 832, 
Alexander, at the request of the Tarentines, 
crossed over into Italy, to aid them against the 
Lucanians and Bruttii. After meeting with 
considerable success, he was defeated and slain 
in battle in 326, near Pandosia, on the banks of 
the Acheron in Southern Italy. (Just. viii. 6, 
xii. 2 ; Liv. viii. 17, ix. 17).— 2. Son of Pyrrhus 
and lanassa, daughter of the Sicilian tyrant 
Agathocles, succeeded his father in b. c. 272, 
and drove Antigonus Gonatas out of Mace- 
donia. He was shortly afterwards deprived of 
both Macedonia and Epirus by Demetrius, the 
son of Antigonus : but he recovered Epirus by 
the aid of the Acarnanians. (Plut. Pyrrh. 9 ; 
Just. xxvi. 2, xxviii. 1.) 

III. Kings of Macedonia. 
1. Son of Amyntas I., distinguished himself 
in the life-time of his father by killing the 
Persian ambassadors who had come to demand 
the submission of Amyntas, because they 
attempted to offer indignities to the ladies of 
the court, about b. c. 507. He succeeded his 
father shortly afterwards, was obliged to submit 
to the Persians, and accompanied Xerxes in his 
invasion of Greece (b. c. 480). He gained the 
confidence of Mardonius, who sent him to 
' Athens to propose peace to the Athenians, 
which was rejected. He was secretly inclined 
to the cause of the Greeks, and informed them 
the night before the battle of Plataeae of the 



intention of Mardonius to fight on the following 
day. He died b. c. 454, and was succeeded by 
Perdiccas II. (Hdt. vii. 178, viii. 136, ix. 44 ; 
Just.^vii. 8.)— 2. Son of Amyntas II., whom ho 
succeeded, reigned b. c. 869-867 (Plut. Pel. 
20 ; Diod. xv. 00 ; Dem. F.L. p. 402, § 195). A 
usurper, of the name of Ptolemy Alorites, 
having risen against him, Pelopidas, who was 
called in to mediate between them, left Alex- 
ander in possession of the Icingdom, but took 
with him to Thebes several hostages; among 
whom was Philip, afterwards king of Mace- 
donia, and father of Alexander the Great. 
Alexander was shortly afterwards murdered by 
Ptolemy Alorites. 

3. Alexander ' The Great,' Son of Philip II. 
and Olympias, was born at Pella, b. c. 856. 
His early education was committed to Leonidas 
and Lysimachus, who taught him to compare 
himself with Achilles ; at the age of 18, he was 
also placed under the care of Aristotle, who ac- 
quired an influence over his mind and character 
which was manifest to the latest period of his 
life. At the age of 16 Alexander was entrusted 
with the government of Macedonia by his 
father, while he was obliged to leave his king- 
dom to march against Byzantium. He first 
distinguished himself, however, at the battle of 
Chaeronea (888), where the victory was mainly 
owing to his impetuosity and courage. On the 
murder of Philip (336), to which he was con- 
sidered by some, though probably with injus- 
tice, to have been privy, Alexander ascended 
the throne, at the age of 20, and found himself 
surrounded by enemies on every side. He first 
put down rebellion in his own kingdom, and 
then rapidly marched into Greece. His un- 
expected activity overawed all opposition; 
Thebes, which had been most active against 
him, submitted when he appeared at its gates ; 
and the assembled Greeks at the Isthmus of 
Corinth, with the sole exception of the Lacedae- 
moniajis, elected him to the command against 
Persia, which had previously been bestowed 
upon liis father. He now directed his arms 
against the barbarians of the north, marched 
(early in 335) accross mount Haemus, defeated 
the Triballi, and advanced as far as the 
Danube, which he crossed ; and on his return 
subdued the lUyrians and Taulantii. A report 
of his death having reached Greece, the 
Thebans once more took up arms. But a 
terrible punishment awaited them. He ad- 
vanced into Boeotia by rapid marches, took 
Thebes by assault, destroyed all the buUdings, 
with the exception of the house of Pindar, 
killed most of the inhabitants, and sold the rest 
as slaves. (Arr. i. 7 ; Just. xi. 2; Plut. Al. 11.) 
Alexander now prepared for his great expedi- 
tion against Persia. Phihp having been nomi- 
nated leader of the war against Persia by the 
Greek States, whose best policy in the interests 
of their own freedom would have been to pre- 
serve the balance of Persia against Macedon, 
Alexander now succeeded to the enterprise. 
In the spring of 884, he crossed the Hellespont, 
with about 35,000 men. Of these 30,000 were 
foot and 5000 horse; and of the former only 
12,000 were Macedonians. At Ilium he offered 
sacrifice to Athene, placed garlands on the 
tomb of Achilles and himself ran round it. 
Alexander's first engagement with, the Persians 
was on the river Granicus in Mysia (May 384), 
where they were entirely defeated by him. 
This battle was followed by the capture or 
submission of the chief towns on the W. coast 
of Asia Minor. Halicarnassus was not taken. 



ALEXANDEB 



49 



t'll late in the autumn, after a vigorous defence 
I v Memnon the ablest general in the Persian 
. rvice. whose death in the following year (388) 
n lieved Alexander from a formidable opponent. 

I le now marched along the coast of Lycia and 
ramphvlia, and then N. into Phrygia and to 
; lordium. where he cut or untied the celebrated 
. n.rdiau knot, attaching the yoke to the pole of 
!he waggon (traditionally that of Gordius), 

II hich, it was said, was to be loosened only by 
tht? conqueror of Asia. In 333, he marched 
finni Gordium though the centre of Asia Minor 
into Cilicia, where he nearly lost his life at 
Tarsus by a fever, brought on by his great 
exertions, or through bathing, when fatigued, 
ill the cold waters of the Cydnus. Darius 
iiieautime had collected an army of 500,000 or 
iniu,000 men, with 30,000 Greek mercenaries, 
whom Alexander defeated in the narrow plain 
of Issus. Darius escaped across the Euphrates 
bv the ford of Thapsacus ; but his mother, wife, 
aiid childi'en fell into the hands of Alexander, 
who treated them with the utmost delicacy and 
respect. It was a fortunate capture for Alex- 
ander, since Darius for a long time abstained 
from opposition in hopes of ransoming the 
captives, and so lost valuable time. Alexander 
now directed his armies against the cities of 
Phoenicia, most of which submitted ; but Tyre 
was not taken till the middle of 332, after an 
obstinate defence of seven months. Next 
followed the siege of Gaza, which again delayed 
Alexander two months. His cruelty towards 
Batis its defender, whom he fastened to the 
chariot and dragged round the walls, in imita- 
tion of Achilles, is unlike his previous 
character. Afterwards, according to Josephus, 
he marched to Jerusalem, intending to punish 
the people for refusing to assist him, but he was 
diverted from his purpose by the appearance of 
the high priest, and pardoned the people. 
There is no doubt that this story, which rests 
on the authority of Josephus alone, should be 
rejected. Alexander next marched into Egypt, 
which willingly submitted to him, for the Egyp- 
tians had ever hated the Persians, who treated 
their national religion and customs with con- 
tempt, while Alexander's policy was exactly the 
opposite. At the beginning of 331, Alexander 
founded at the mouth of the W. branch of the 
Nile, the city of Alexandria, and about the 
same time visited the temple of Jupiter 
Ammon, in the^esert of Libya, and was saluted 
by the priests as the son of Jupiter Amnion. — In 
the spring of the same year (331), Alexander set 
out to meet Darius, who had collected an- 
other army. He marched through Phoenicia 
and Syria to the Euphrates, which he crossed at 
the ford of Thapsacus; thence he proceeded 
through Mesopotamia, crossed the Tigris, and at 
length met with the immense hosts of Darius, 
said to have amounted to more than a million 
of men, in the plains of Gaugamela. The 
battle was fought in the month of October, 331, 
Mid ended in the complete defeat of the 
Persians. Alexander pursued the fugitives to 
Arbela iErhil), which place has given its name 
to the battle, though distant about 25 miles 
from the spot where it was fought. Darius 
who had left the field of battle early in the day] 
fled to Ecbatana [Hamadan), in Media. Alex- 
ander was now the conqueror of Asia, and began 
to adopt Persian habits and customs, by which 
he conciHated the affections of his new subjects 
* rom Arbela, he marched to Babylon, Susa, and 
^ersepolis, all of which surrendered to him. At 
Susa he found a treasure of 40,000 talents, and 



among other spoils carried off by Xerxes, the 
statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, which he 
sent back to Athens.' Here he received a rein- 
forcement of 15,000 men from Greece. Heissaid 
to have set fire to the palace of Persepolis, and, 
according to some accounts, in the revelry of a 
banquet, at the instigation of Thais, an Athenian 
courtesan (Curt. v. 6 ; Arr. iii. 19 ; Diod. xvii. 
70; Plut. Al. i2). The treasure found at Per- 
sepolis is said to have amounted to 120,000 
talents. — At the beginning of 330 Alexander 
marched from Persepolis into Bledia, to Ecba- 
tana, in pursuit of Darius, whom he followed 
through Ehagae and the passes of the Elburz 
mountains, called by the ancients the Caspian 
Gates, into Parthia, where the unfoi'tunate king 
was murdered by Bessus, satrap of Bactria, and 
his associates. Alexander sent his body to 
PersexJolis, to be buried in the tombs of the 
Persian kings. Bessus escaped to Bactria, and 
assumed the title of king of Persia. Alexander 
was engaged during the remainder of the year 
in subduing the N. provinces of Asia between 
the Caspian and the Indus — namely, Hyrcania, 
Parthia, Aria, the Drangae and Sarangae. It 
was during this campaign that Ptttt.otas, his 
father Pahmenion, and other Macedonians, 
were executed on the charge of treason. The 
proceedings in this matter were both cruel and 
unjust, and have left a stain upon Alexander's 
memory. In 329 Alexander crossed the moun- 
tains of the Paropamisus (the Hindoo Koosli), 
and marched into Bactria against Bessus, whom 
he pursued across the Oxus (which he crossed 
upon ijoutoous formed of inflated skins) into 
Sogdiana. In this country Bessus was betrayed 
to him, and was put to death. From the Oxus, 
after occupying Maracanda (Samarcand), he 
advanced as far as the Jaxartes (the Sir), which 
he crossed, and defeated several Scythian tribes 
N. of that river. After founding a city Alex- 
andria on the Jaxartes, called also Alexandria 
Eskate, as the northern Ihuit of his march — it 
is probably either Khojend or Kohan — he re- 
traced his steps, and returned to Zariaspa or 
Bactra, where he spent the winter of 329. It 
was here that he killed his friend Clitus in a 
di-unken revel.— In 328, Alexander again crossed 
the Oxus to complete the subjugation of Sog- 
diana, but was not able to effect it in the year, 
and accordingly went into winter quarters at 
Nautaca, a place in the middle of the province. 
At the beginning of 327, he took a mountain 
fortress, in which Oxyartes, a Bactrian prince, 
had deposited his wife and daughters. The 
beauty of Roxana, one of the latter, captivated 
the conqueror, and he accordingly made her his 
wife. This marriage with one of his Eastern 
subjects was in accordance with the whole of 
his policy. Having completed the conquest of 
Sogdiana, he marched S. into Bactria, and made 
preparations for the invasion of India. "^Vliile 
the army was in Bactria another conspiracy was 
discovered for the murder of the king. The plot 
was formed by Hermolaus with a number of the 
royal pages, ivho were all put to death. Alex- 
ander found, or pretended to find, that the 
philosopher Callisthenes, whose freedom of 
speech he resented, was an accomplice and put 
him also to death, at the same time uttering a 
threat against the absent Greeks [i.e. Aristotle) 
who had sent Callisthenes to him (for the com- 
ment of Theophrastus, see Cic. Tusc. iii 10 21) 
Alexander did not leave Bactria till late in the 
spring of 827 : he rocrossed the Paropamisus 
niouiitains (Hindoo Koosli), and, marcliing bv 
Cabul and the Cophen (Cabtd river), crossed 



60 



ALEXANDER 



the Indus, probably near the modern Attack. 
IIo met with no resistance till he reached the 
Hydaspes (Jehun), where he was opponed by 
Porus, an Indian king, whom he defeated after 
a gallant resistance, and took prisoner. Alex- 
ander restored to him his kingdom, and treated 
him with distinguished honour. He founded 
two towns, one on each bank of the Hydaspes : 
one called Bucophala, in honour of his horse 
Bucephalus, who died here, after carrying him 
through so many victories ; and the other Ni- 
caea, to commemorate his victory. From thence 
he marched across the Acesines (the Chinah) 
and the Hydraotes (the Itavi), and penetrated 
as far as the Hyphasis [Gharra). This was the 
furthest point which he reached, for the Mace- 
donians, worn out by long service, and tired of 
the war, refused to advance further ; and Alex- 
ander, notwithstanding his entreaties and 
prayers, was obliged to lead them back. He 
returned to the Hydaspes, where he had pre- 
viously given orders for the building of a fleet, 
and then sailed down the river with about 8000 
men, while the remainder marched along the 
banks in two divisions. This was late in the 
autumn of 827. The people on each side of 
tlje river submitted without resistance, except 
the Malli, in the conquest of one of whose towns 
(probably Mooltan), where he was the first to 
scale the wall, Alexander was severely wounded. 
At the confluence of the Acesines and the 
Indus, Alexander founded a city, and left Philip 
as satrap, with a considerable body of Greeks. 
Here he built some fresh ships, and continued 
his voyage down the Indus, founded a city at 
Pattala, the apex of the delta of the Indus, and 
sailed into the Indian ocean, which he reached 
about the middle of 326. Nearchus was sent 
with the fleet to sail along the coast to the Per- 
sian gulf [Neabchus] ; and Alexander marched 
with the rest of his forces through Gedrosia, in 
which country his army suffered greatly from 
want of water and provisions. He reached 
Susa at the beginning of 325. Here he allowed 
himseK and his troops some rest from their 
labours ; and anxious to form his European and 
Asiatic subjects into one people, he assigned to 
about 80 of his generals Asiatic wives, and gave 
with them rich dowries. He himself took a 
second wife, Barsine, the eldest daughter of 
Darius, and according to some accounts, a third, 
Parysatis, the daughter of Ochus. About 10,000 
Macedonians followed the example of their 
king and generals, and married Asiatic women. 
Alexander also enrolled large numbers of 
Asiatics among his troops, and taught them the 
Macedonian tactics. He moreover directed his 
attention to the increase of commerce, and for 
this purpose determined to make the Euphrates 
and Tigris navigable, by remoTOg the artificial 
obstructions which had been made in the river 
for the purpose of irrigation. The Mace- 
donians, who were discontented with several 
of the new arrangements of the king, rose in 
a mutiny, which he quelled with some diffi- 
culty. Towards the close of the same year 
(825) he went to Ecbatana, where he lost his 
great favourite Heph.vestion. Prom Ecbatana 
he marched to Babylon, subduing m his way 
the Cossaei, a mountain tribe ; and before he 
l-eached Babylon he was met by ambassadors 
from almost every part of the known w-orld. 
Alexander entered Babylon in the spring of 324, 
about a year before his death, notwithstanding 
the warnings of the Chaldaeans, who predicted 
evil to him if he entered the city at that tune. 
He intended to make Babylon the capital of 



his empire, as the best point of commumcation 
between his eastern and western dominions. 
Hifi schemes were numerous and gigantic. His 
firs" object was tlie conquest of Arabia, which 
was to be followed, it was said, by tlie subjuga- 
tion of Italy, Carthage, and the West. But his 
views were not confined merely to conquest. He 
ordered a fleet to bo built on the Caspian, in 
order to explore that sea. He also intended to 
improve the distribution of waters in the Baby- 
lonian plain, and for that purpose sailed down 
the Euphrates to inspect the canal called 
PaUacopas. On his return to Babylon he was 
attacked by a fever, probably brought on by his 
recent exertions in the marshy districts around 
Babylon, and aggravated by the quantity of wino 
he had drunk at 
a banquet given 
to his princi- 
pal officers. He 
died after an ill- 
ness of 11 days, 
in the month 
of May or June 
B.C. 823, at the 
age of 32, after a 
reign of 12 years 
and 8 months. 
He appointed 
no one as his 
successor, but 
just before his 
death he gave 
his ring to Per- 
diccas. Roxana 
was with child 
at the time of 
his death, and 
afterwards bore 
a son who is 
known by the 
name of Alexan- 
der Aegus Por- 
traits of Alexan- 
der were made 
by Lysippus the 
sculptor, Apelles the painter, and Pyrgoteles 
the gem-engraver. His successors introduced 
his portrait upon their coins, as in the accom- 
panying one of Lysimachus, where he is re- 
presented as Zeus Ammon. — The history of 




AAEHANAPDZ 

<f>iAinnoY 

MAKEAONDZ 



Ale.xandcr, by Lysippus. 




Alexander as ZeuB Ammon, on » coin of Lytlmachus. 



Alexander forms an important epoch in the 
history of mankind. Alexander himself must 
rank as one of the most remarkable men of 
all ages and countries. It would be difficult 
to name any one whose career was more re- 
markable, especially when we remember that 
all his achievements were crowded into twelve 



vears and that he died before lie V 
[ifrYomrger in fact at the time of his death 
an Julius Caesar was when he began his 
oareer As a general he has no proved superior 
in history- It is true that, as the Romans were 
crhid to remark, his Asiatic opponents were, like 
Sther Asiatics, bad and untrustworthy troops 
such as have m other ages been defeated by 
forces small in number; but he had had to 
defeat Greek troops before he started for Asia, 
and in Asia itself Greeks were opposed to him ; 
at Granicus 20,000 Greeks fought in the Persian 
army, and at Issus 30,000. When we consider 
liis uniform success under these circumstances, 
we cannot set it down to the fact that his foes 
were a mob of unwarlike Asiatics. But a 
stronger evidence of his rank as a pre-emment 
military commander is afforded by his strate- 
rical greatness and the absence of all failure 
hi his provision for long and difficult inarches 
arranged long beforehand, and for drawing 
reinforcements from Greece into the heart of 
^sia His marches through such country as the 
defiles of the "Susian Gates" and the Hindoo 
Koosh, alone are evidence of marvellous skill. 
Of his power to organise and control the vast 
empire which he had conquered, it is more 
difficult to speak positively. The proof was to 
come in the following 20 or 30 years which he 
never saw. But his dealings with Greece, with 
EgjTit, and so far with Persia give reason to 
believe that he had political capacity also, such 
as rarely has been surpassed. His character, 
which seems to have been naturally chivalrous 
and generous, however liable to fits of passion, 
had, it must be admitted, sufiered by his Eastern 
conquests. His treatment of Batis, of Philotas 
and Parmenio, and of Callisthenes, and his 
afiectation of Asiatic dress and manners, seem 
to show that, except as regards mere personal 
bravery, little of the early chivali-y remained. 
His importance in history is due not merely to 
his traversing and opening up countries un- 
known to the Western nations. In spite of the 
break up of his plans and the general confusion 
which ensued from his premature death, it is 
not easy to overestimate the importance of the 
results to history from his policy of founding 
cities to mark his conquests, and planting in 
them Hellenising populations which spread so 
widely the Greek language and, in some cases, 
the Greek learning. And, as he initiated this 
policy, which his successors followed, it is not 
unfair to ascribe to him cities such as Antioch, 
hardly less than Alexandria. — i. Aegna, son 
of Alexander the Great and Roxana, was born 
shortly after the death of his father, in b.c. 323, 
and was acknowledged as the partner of Philip 
Arrhidaeus in the empire, under the guardian- 
ship of Perdiccas, Antipater, and Polysperchon 
in succession. Alexander and his mother Roxana 
were imprisoned by Cassander, when he obtained 
possession of Macedonia in 316, and remained 
in prison till 311, when they were put to death by 
Cassander. (Diod. xix. 51, 52, 61, 105 ; Just. xv. 2.) 

rV. Kings of Syria. 
1. Sumamed Balas, a person of low origin, 
pretended to be the son of Antiochus IV. 
Epiphanes, and reigned in Syria B.C. 150-146. 
He defeated and slew in battle Demetrius I. 
Soter, but was afterwards defeated and de- 
throned by Demetrius II. Nioator (Polyb. xxxiii. 
14; Just. xxv. ; Joseph, ylni. xiii. 2). — 2, Sur- 
named Zebina or Zabinas (i.e. the slave), son of 
a merchant, was set up by Ptolemy Physcon as 
a pretender to the throne of Syria, shortly after 



ALEXANDER 

eached middle the return of DemetnusJI. Nicator^fro^ Ws, 



captivity among the Parthians, b.c. 128, 
defeated Demetrius in 125, but was afterwards 
defeated by Antiochus Grypus, by whom he 




Alexander Balas, King of Syria, B.C. 160-146. 
Obv head of king ; rev., eagle standing ou beak of gaUey ;■ 
date, 103 = B.C. 160. 

was put to death, 122. (Just, xxxis. 1 ; Joseph. 
Ant. xiii. 9.) 

V. Literary. 
1. Of Aegae, a peripatetic philosopher at. 
Rome in the first century after Christ, was tutor 
to the emperor Nero (Suet. Tib. 57). — 2. The 
Aetolian, of Pleuron in Aetolia, a Grreek poet,, 
lived in the reign of Ptolemaeus Philadelphus, 
(B.C. 285-247), at Alexandria, whore he was 
reckoned one of the seven tragic poets who 
constituted the tragic pleiad. He also wrote 
other poems besides tragedies. His fragments 
are collected by Capelhnann, Alexandri Aetoli 
Fragmenta, Bonn, 1829.— 3. Of Aphrodisias, in 
Caria, the most celebrated of the commentators, 
on Aristotle, and hence called Exegetes, lived 
about A.D. 200. About half his voluminous 
works were edited and translated into Latin at 
the revival of literature ; there are a few more 
extant in the original Greek, which have never 
been printed, and an Arabic version is preserved 
of several others. His most important treatise 
is entitled De Fato, an inquiry into the opinions 
of Aristotle on the subject of Fate and Free- 
will : edited by Orelli, Zurich, 1824 ; Usener, 
Berlin, 1859.— 4. Cornelius, sumamed Poly- 
Mstor, a Greek writer, was made prisoner 
during the wai; of Sulla in Greece (b.c. 87-84), 
and sold as a slave to Cornelius Lentulus, who 
took him to Rome, made him the teacher of 
his children, and subsequently restored him to 
freedom. The surname of Polyhistor was given 
to him on account of his x^rodigious learning. 
He is said to have -written a vast number of 
works, all of which have perished : the most 
important of them was one in 42 books, con- 
taining historical and geographical accounts of 
nearly all countries of the ancient world. Some 
fragments are collected by C. Miiller, Frag. 
Hist. Oraec. 1849. — 5. Sumamed Lychnus, of 
Ephesus, a Greek rhetorician and poet, lived 
about B.C. 30. A few fragments of his geo- 
graphical and astronomical poems are extant. 
(Strab. p. 642; Cic. Att. ii. 20, 22.) See C. 
Miiller, Frag. Hist. Graec. — 6. Of Myndus, in 
Caria, a Greek writer on zoology, of uncertain 
date. — 7. Numenius, a Greek rhetorician, who 
lived in the second century of the Christian 
aera. Two works are ascribed to him, one JDe 
Figuris Sententiarmn et Elocutionis, from 
which Aquila Romanus took his materials for 
his work on the same subject ; and the other 
On Show-speeclies ; which was written by a 
later grammarian of the name of Alexander. 
Edited in Walz's Bhetore.s Graeci, vol. viii. ; 
Spengel, 1856.— 8. The PapMagonian, a cele- 
brated impostor, who flourished about the begin- 
ning of the second century after Christ, of whom 
Lucian has given an amusing account, chiefly of 

£ 2 



63 



ALEXANDRIA 



the various contrivances by which he establisaied 
and maintained the credit of an oracle, whicli 
he pretended to be tlie reappearance of Ascle- 
pius in the form of a serpent. The influence 
he attained over the popuhioe Heems incredible ; 
indeed, the narrative of Lucian would appear to 
be a mere romance, were it not confirmed by 
some medals of Antoninus and M. Aurelius 
(Lucian, Alex.). — 9. Surnamed Peloplaton, a 
Greek rhetorician of Seleucia in Cilicia, was 
appointed Greek secretary to M. Antoninus, 
about A.D. 175. At Athens he conquered the 
celebrated rhetorician Herodes Atticus, in a 
rhetorical contest. All persons, however, did 
not admit his abilities ; for a Corinthian said 
that he had found in Alexander ' the clay 
{TlTjXds], but not Plato.' This saying gave rise 
to the surname of Peloplaton (Philostr. Vit. 
Soph. ii. 5). — 10. Philaletnes, an ancient Greek 
physician, lived probably towards the end of 
the first century B.C., and succeeded Zeuxis as 
head of a celebrated HerophQean school of 
medicine, established in Phrygia between Lao- 
dicea and Carura (Strab. p. 580 ; Galen, de Biff. 
Puis. iv. 4, vol. viii. p. 727, 746).— 11. Of Tralles 
in Lydia, one of the most eminent of the ancient 
physicians, lived in the 6th century after Christ 
(Agathias, Hist. v. p. 149), aiid is the author of 
two extant Greek works : — 1. Lihri Duodecim 
de Be Medica ; 2. De Lumbricis fPuschmann, 
Vienna, 1878). 



which was joined to the city by an artificial 
dyke, called Heptastadiura, which formed, with 
thegsland, the two harbours of the city, that ou 
the NE. of the dyke being named the Great 
Harbour (now the Neiv Port), that on tlie SW. 
EunostuB (eVvoo-ros, the Old Port). These 
harbours communicated with each other by two 
channels cut througli the Heptastadium, one at 
each end of it ; and there was a canal from the 
Eunostus to the Lake Mareotis. The city was 
built on a regular plan ; and was intersected by 
two principal streets, above 100 feet wide, the 
one extending 30 stadia from E. to W., the other 
across this, from the sea towards the lake, to the 
length of 10 stadia. The city was divided into 
three regions : the Bi'ucheium, which was the 
Royal, or Greek, region at the eastern end, the 
Jews' quarter at the NE. angle, and the 
Rhacotis or Egyptian quarter on the west, 
beyond which, and outside of the city, was the 
Necropolis or cemetery. A great lighthouse 
was built on the I. of Pharos in the reign of 
Ptolemy Philadelphus (b.c. 283). Under the 
care of the Ptolemies, as the capital of a great 
kingdom and of the most fertile country on the 
earth, and commanding by its position all the 
commerce of Europe with the East, Alexandria 
soon became the most wealthy and splendid 
city of the known world. Greeks, Jews, and 
other foreigners flocked to it ; and its popula- 
tion probably amounted to three quarters of a 



Mediterranean 
\The Tower § 




M a r e 0 t ;""s 



ll 'aUcr C- IS.'iHall sc. 



Plan o[ Alexandria. 



Alexandria, oftener -la, rarely -ea ('AAela;'- 
Spem : 'AA-elacSpeus, Alexandrinus), the name of 
several cities founded by, or in memory of Alex- 
ander the Great.— 1. (Alexandria, Arab. Iskan- 
deria), the capital of Egypt under the Ptolemies, 
ordered by Alexander (who himself traced the 
ground plan) to be founded in B.C. 332. (Strab. 
p 791 ; Arrian, iii. 1 ; Curt. iv. 8 ; Amm. Marc, 
xxii. 40; Plin. v. 10; Polyb. xxxix. 14; Caes. 
BC. iii. 112.) It was built on the narrow- 
neck of land between the Lake Mareotis and 
the Mediterranean, opposite to the I. of Pharos, 



million (in Diod. Sic. xvii. 52 the free citizens 
alone are reckoned at 300,000, B.C. 58). Under 
the empire the food of the populations of Rome 
and Constantinople depended largely on the 
despatch of the corn-ships from Alexandria. 
Its fame was greatly increased through tho 
foundation, by tlie first two Ptolemies, of the 
Museum, an establishment in which men de- 
voted to literature were maintained at the 
ijublic cost, and of the Library, which contained 
90,000 distinct works, and 400,000 volumes, and 
the increase of which made it necessary to 



ALEXANDRIA 

iTvi, mnhlier library in the Serapeium 
f£Se\ st' pis), whL reached to 42 .00 
•Sel but which was destroyed by the bishop 
iiewW us, at the time of tlie general overthrow 
S^the heathen temples under Theodosms (a d 
S89) The Great Library sufiered severely by 
fire when Juhus Caesar was besieged m Alex- 
andria, and was finaUy destroyed by Amrou, the 
lieutenant of the Cahph Omar m x.l>. 651 
These institutions made Alexandria the chiet 
centre of literary activity. When Egypt be- 
came a Eoman province [AegyptusJ, Alex 
audria was made the residence of the Praef ectus 
\etn^pti. Its government was peculiar and re- 
'taiSed specially in the hands of the emperor, 
perhaps owmg to the importance of the sending 
or delapng the corn supply. The emperor 
appointed the chief official, called Juridicus 
Alexandriae, who acted as procurator, exerci- 
sing without any municipal senate, junsdiction 
over the city as apart from the Egyptian country 
districts. The Jewish population had a council 
and an iOudpxvs of theii' own, competent to deal 
with pm-ely Jewish disputes; but m causes 
afieoting other nationahties the sole authority 
was the juridicus. Other subordinate officers 
belongmg to the city were the i^vywhs, who 
managed the markets and commerce, the town- 
clerk called i-KOixvnfj.aToypa<pos, and the vvicre- 
pivhs arpaTriyos, or praefectus vigilum for the 
police. In matters beyond municipal concern 
the Praefectus Aegypti was supreme. It re- 
tained its commercial and literary importance, 
and became also a cliief seat of Christianity and 
theological learning. Among the ruins of the 
ancient site are the remains of the cisterns by 
wliich the whole city was supplied with water, 
house by house; the two obehsks (vulg. Cleo- 
patra'a Needles), which adorned the gateway of 
the royal palace, and, outside the walls, to the 
S., the column of Diocletian {vulg. Pompey's 
Pillar). The modern city stands on the dyke 
uniting the island of Pharos to the mainland. — 
2. A, Troas, also Troas simply ('A. v Tpuds : 
EsHstajnhoul, i.e. the Old City), on the sea- 
coast SW. of Troy, was enlarged by Antigonus, 
hence called Antigonia, but afterwards it re- 
sumed its first name. It flourished greatly, 
both under the Greeks and the Romans ; it 
was made a colonia (Plin. v. § 124 ; Strab. 
p. 593). It is even said that both Julius 
Caesar and Constantine thought of establishing 
the seat of empire in it (cf. Suet. Caes. 79 ; Hor. 
Od. iii. 3. 37 ; Zosim. ii. 30). — 3. A, ad Issum 
("A. Kara Icrcrov : Iskenderoon, Scanderoun, 
Alexandrette), a seaport at the entrance of 
Syria, a little S. of Issus, on the coast road 
between that place and Rhossus. It possibly 
occupied the site of Myriandus (Xen. An. i. 4), 
and received its name in Alexander's honour. 
— 4. In Susiana, aft. Antiochia, aft. Charax 
Spasini (XapaJ Ylachov or Stoo-.), at the mouth 
of the Tigris, built by Alexander ; destroyed by 
a flood ; restored by Antiochus Epijihanes : 
birthplace of Dionysius Periegetes and Isi- 
dorus Characenus. — 5, A. Ariae ("A. ij iv 'Apiois : 
Herat), founded by Alexander on the river 
Arius, in the Persian province of Aria, a very 
flourishing city, on the great caravan road to 
India.— 6. A. Arachosiae or Alexandropolis 
[Kandahar ?), on the river Arachotus, was pro- 
bably not founded till after the time of Alex- 
ander.— 7, A. Bactriana ('A. kuto. Bdicrpa : prob. 
Khooloom, Ru.), E. of Bactra [Balkhj.—S. A, 
ad Caucasum, or apud Paropamisidns ("A. eV 
TiapoiraiiKTlSais), at the foot of M. Paropamisus 
(Hindoo Koosh), probably near Cabul. — 9. A, 



ALLECTUS 



5» 



Ultima or Alexandrescata {'A. ^ iaxdrri : Ko- 
kand ?), in Sogdiana, on the Jaxartes, a little 
E. of Cyropolis, marked the furthest point 
reached by Alexander hi his Scythian expedition 
(Arvian, An. iv. 1, 3 ; Ciii't. vii. 6). 

Alexanor (perhaps an old surname of Asole- 
pius), son of Machaon and grandson of Ascle- 
pius, to whom he is said to have built the 
temple of Titane, near Sicyon (Paus. ii. 11, 6). 

Alexiares, brother of Anicetus, son of Hera- 
cles and Hebe. Both these sons were probably 
imagined out of surnames of Heracles similar 
in meaning to aAe^'iKaicos . 

Alexinus ("AAe^rvos), of Elis, a philosopher of 
the Dialectic or Megarian school, and a disciple 
of Eubulides, lived about the beginning of the 
3rd century B.C. From Cic. Acad. ii. 24, 75, 
he seems to have dealt in sophistical puzzles. 
He died from being wounded by a reed while 
swimming in the Alpheus (Diog. Laert. ii. 
109). ^, .. 

Alexis C'AA6^ij),a comic poet, born at Thuru 
in Italy, and an Athenian citizen. He was the 
uncle and instructor of Menander, was born 
about B.C. 394, and lived to the age of 106. He 
was the chief poet of the Middle Comedy, and 
wrote 245 plays, of wliich we have fragments 
from 140, but not of sufficient length to criticise. 
He lived on into the period of the New Comedy ; 
but the fragments of his works show the politi- 
cal allusions, and also mythological subjects, 
which do not belong to the New Comedy (Poet. 
Comic. Frag. ed. Meineke, 1847). 

Alfenus Varus. [V.vnus.] 

Algidus Mons, a range of mountains in La- 
tium, extending S. from Praeueste to M. Alba- 
nus, cold, but covered with wood, and containing 
good pasturage. The two kinds of oak, decidu- 
ous and evergreen (quercus et ilices, Hor. Od. 
iii. 23, 10, iv. 4, 50), may still be seen on its 
slopes. It was an ancient seat of the worship 
of Diana. From it the Aequi usually made 
their incursions into the Roman territory. A 
small town, Algidus, on its slopes is men- 
tioned in Strabo, p. 237. 

Alienus Caecina. [Caecina.] 

Alimentus, L. Cincius, a celebrated Roman 
annalist, was praetor in Sicily, B.C. 209, and 
wrote his Annales, which contained an account 
of Rome to the second Punic war. He was for 
some time a prisoner in Hannibal's army. 
Hence when Livy appeals to his writings for 
matters connected with the second Punic war 
(as regards the route of Hannibal, Liv. xxi. 88)i 
the statements are entitled to more respect than 
they sometimes receive. 

Alinda (to "AAirSa : 'A?^LvSevs), a fortress 
and small town, SE. of Stratonlce, where Ada, 
Queen of Caria, fixed her residence, when 
she was driven out of Halicarnassus (b.c. 
340). _ 

Alipliera ('AKi<peipa, 'AK'ict>Tlpa, 'AKKpeipaios, 
'A\i</)7)peus : nr. Nerovitza, Ru.), a fortified to^vn 
in Arcadia, situated on a mountain on the 
borders of Elis, S. of the Alpheus, said to have 
been founded by the hero Alipherus, son of Ly- 
caou (Pans. viii. 26). 

Alipherus. [Alipheea.] 

Aliso (Elsen), a strong fortress built by 
Drusus B.C. 11, at the confluence of the Luppia 
(Lippe) and the Eliso (Ahne) (Die Cass. liv. 33 ; 
Tac. Ann. ii. 7). 

ALsontia (Alsitz), a river flowing into the 
Mosella (Mosel). 

AUectus, the chief officer of Carausius in 
Britain, whom he murdered in a.d. 293. He 
then assumed the imperial title himself, but 



64 



ALLIA 



was defeated and slain in 290 by the general of 
Coustantius. 




AUoctua, Roman Emperor, A.D. 20S-29G. 
01)1)., hoad of Emporor ; rev.. Pax (struck in London). 

Allla, or more correctly Alia, a small river, 
which rises in the neighbourhood of Crustume- 
rium, and flows into the Tiber, crossing the Via 
Salaria about 11 miles from Eome. It is 
memorable for the defeat of the Bomans by the 
Gauls on its banks, July 16th, B.C. 390 ; which 
day, dies Alliensis, was hence marked as an 
imlucky day in the Eoman calendar. (Liv. vi. 
1, 28; Tac. Hist. ii. 91; Verg. Aen. vii. 717.) 
There is some dispute about its identification, 
but it seems probable that it is the stream now 
known as Scolo del Casale, which crosses the 
road at Fonte di Papa. It is a very small 
brook, but runs in a deep hollow. 

A. AUienus. 1, A friend of Cicero, was the 
legate of Q, Cicero in Asia, B.C. 60, praetor in 
49, and governor of Sicily on behalf of Caesar 
in 48 and 47 (Cic. Q. F. i.l; Att. x. 15 ; Fam. 
xiii. 78). — 2. A legate of Dolabella, by whom he 
was sent into Egypt in 43 (Cic. Phil. xi. 12). 

Allifae, or more correctly Allfae (Alifanus : 
Allife), a to'.Tn of Samnium, on the Vulturnus, 
in a fertile country. It was celebrated for the 
manufacture of its large drinldng-cups {Alifana 
sc. pocula, Hor. Sat. ii. 8, 39). 

Allobroges (Nom. Sing. AUobrox: 'A\\6- 
fipoyes, 'AWdPpvyes, 'A\X60ptyes), a powerful 
people of Gaul dwelling between the Ehodanus 
{Bho7ie) and the Isara (Isere). In the time of 
Julius Caesar their territory extended as far as 
that corner of L, Lemannus where Geneva 
stands. At that point they were bounded on 
the east by the Nantuates, south of whom came 
the Centrones, and next, foi-ming the southern 
border of the Allobroges (i.e. immediately 
across the Isere), the Graioceli and the Vocontii. 
To the west they were bounded by the Ehone, 
as far as Lyons, and the same river formed 
their noithern boundary up to the Lake of 
Geneva. Hence their territory at that time 
comprised the NW. corner of Savoy and part 
of the department of Isere, with the southern 
corner of Drome. Their chief city was Vienna 
{Vienne) on the Rhone (Caes. B. G. i. 6 and 
10 ; Strab. p. 185). But there is good reason 
to suppose that their territory was not the same 
two centuries earUer (as modern writers seem 
generally to assume). There can be no doubt 
that the country which both Polybius and Livy 
call 'the Island,' was precisely the country 
of the Allobroges in Caesar's time : but in Poly- 
bius, iii. 49, 50, the 'AWSfipiyes are obviously 
not the people of the ' Island,' but dwelt in the 
country through which Haimibal was next to 
pass ; they furnished guides at first and after- 
wards attacked him on his march. It is pro- 
bable that they then dwelt south of the Isere, 
perhaps near Gap, and at a late time (before 
B.C. 121) moved northwards and occupied the 
'Island.' Livy (xxi. 31) though he says cor- 
rectly, speaking of the Island, ' incolunt ^oro^^e 
AUobroges,' yet seems to confuse them with the 
then dwellers in the Island as described by 
Polybius. If the Celtic etymology of their , 



ALOPE 

name (at7, ' other,' and brog, 'dwelling') is cor- 
rect, they would seem to have been at one time 
a roving tribe They were conquered, in b.c. 

by g. Fabius Maximus AUobrogieus, and 
made subjects of Eome, but they bore the voke 
unwillingly, and were always disposed to rebel- 
lion. In li.c. 08 their ambassadors first intrigued 
wil l Catiline, and then divulged the conspiracy 
(Sail. Cal!. 41; Cic. Cai. iii. 5). 

Almo (Ahnone), a small river, rises near 
BoviUae, and flows into the Tiber S. of Eome, 
half a mile from the walls on the Ostian road' 
in which tlie statues of Cybele were washed 
annually. [Diet. Ant. s. v. Megalesia.) 

Almopes {'AXfiSnres), a people in Macedonia, 
inhabiting the district Almopia between Eor- 
daea and Pelagonia. 

Aloeus CAAwfus) 1. Son of Helior, and 
brother of Aretes. He was King of Asopia 
(Pans. ii. 41).— 2. Son of Poseidon and Cauace, 
married Iphimedia, the daughter of Triops. 
His wife was beloved by Poseidon, by whom she 
had two sons, Otus and Ephialtes, who are 
usually called the Aloidae, from their reputed 
father Aloeus. In Horn. II. v. 385 they are 
genuine sons of Aloeus— in Od. xi. 305; Ap. 
Eh. i. 481 ; Ov. Met. vi. 116, of Poseidon. They 
were renowned for their extraordinary strength 
and daring- spirit. When they were 9 years 
old, each of their bodies measured 9 cubits in 
breadth and 27 in height. At this early age, 
they threatened the Olympian gods with war 
and attempted to pile Ossa upon Olympus, and 
Pelion upon Ossa. They would have accom- 
plished their object, says Homer, had they been 
allowed to grow up to the age of manhood; 
but Apollo destroyed them before their beards 
began to appear (Od. xi. 305 seq.). They also 
put the god Ares in chains, and kept him im- 
prisoned for 13 months. Ephialtes is said to 
have sought the love of Hera and Otus of 
Artemis (or both of Artemis) : therefore Artemis 
passed between them in the form of a hind, at 
which they hurled spears and slew one another 
(Pind. Pyth. iv. 88; Apollod. i. 482). In Hades 
they were bound to a pillar by serpents, and 
plagued by the cries of an owl [Stos, however, 
means ' shriek-owl '] (Hyg. Fab. 28 ; cf, Verg. 
Aen. vi. 582). The Thracian legend is totally 
different. 'They are heroes who founded Ascra 
on Helicon, and instituted the worship of the 
Muses. Their graves were honoured at Anth- 
edon (Pans. ix. 22; Diod. v. 51). They were 
worshipped also in Naxos [C. I. G. ii. 2420). 
The conclusion should be that they were origi- 
nally for the Thracians deities representing the 
increase and produce of the earth, and presid- 
ing over agricultural work : under this view 
the names are connected with aXoiri, and with 
tifle'o), i(t)d\\o/j.ai, as describing the work of the 
wine-press. These earth-deities were then 
imagined by the Greeks as in conflict with the 
gods of Olympus. 

Aloidae. [Aloeus.) 

Alonta ('AA.rfi'To : TereJc), a river of Sarmatia 
Asiatica, flowing into the Caspian (Ptol. v. 9, 12.) 

Alope ('AA.(S7n)), daughter of Cercyon, became 
by Poseidon the mother of Hippothous. She 
was put to death by her father, but her body 
was changed by Poseidon into a well, which 
bore the same name (Hyg. Fab. 187; Paus. i. 
5 ; Aristoph. A v. 559). 

Alope {'A\6m] : 'AAoTrei'/y, 'AAott/ttjs). 1. A 
town in tlie Opuntian Locris, opposite Euboea 
(Thuc. ii. 20; Strab. p. 420). — 2, A town in 
Phthiotis iu Thessaly {II. ii. 682; Strab, p. 427, 
482). 



ALOPECE 

Alopece ('AAaiT€K7) and 'AAuireKal : 'AKwire- 
Ke6s) a tlenms of Attica, of the tribe Antiocbis, 
11 stadia E. of Athens, on the hill Auchesmus. 

Alopeconnesus ('AAco7r€re<Jw7)(ros : 'AA.a)7rf(fOV- 
i/^o-ioi: Alexi-?), a town in the Tlmioian Cber- 
sonesus, founded by the Aeolians (Dem. de 
Oor. p. '156, § 92 ; Liv. xxxi. 16). 

Alorus, a town of Macedonia, west of 
Methone, in the Thermaic Gulf, birthplace of 
Ptolemaeus Alorites (Strab. p. 330). 

Alpenus CAATnti'Ss, 'AATrrj^oO, a town of the 
Epicneniidii Locri at the entrance of the pass 
of Thermopylae (Hdt. vii. 176, 216). ^ 

Alpes [at "AA-ireij, •;; "AAirii, to 'AAireim 
upri,Ta''A\nHa oprj ; probably from the Celtic 
Alb or Alp, ' a height '), the mountains forming 
the boundary of northern Italy, are a part of 
the great mountain-chain which extends from 
the Gulf of Genoa to the Adriatic near Trieste, 
but on the west the line of demarcation between 
the Alps and the Apennines, running southwards, 
is not very distinct, while on the east the spurs 
from the Cornice Alps, separating the valleys 
of the Save and Drave from the Adriatic, 
pass into the Illyi'ian mountains, and so 'east- 
ward to the Balkans. Of the Alps proper the 
Greeks had very little knowledge, and included 
them under the general name of the Rhipaean 
mountains. The appear m Lycophron {Alex. 
1361) as SaATTia. The Romans first obtained 
some Imowledge of them by their conquest of 
Cisalpine Gaul and by Hannibal's passage 
across them : this knowledge was gradually 
extended by their various wars with the inhabi- 
tants of the mountains, who were not finally 
subdued till the reign of Augustus. In the 
time of the emperors the different parts of the 
Alps were distinguished by the following names, 
most of which are still retained. We enume- 
rate them in order fi'ora W. to E. 1. Aipes 
MABiTniAE, the Maritime or Ligurian Alps, 
from Genua {Genoa), where the Apennines 
begin, run W. as far as the river Varus (Far) and 
M. Cema {la Caillole), and then N. to M. Vesulus 
(Monte Viso). (Phn. H. N. iii. § 117 ; Strab. 
p. 201 ; Mel. ii. 4.) — 2. Alpes Cottiau or Cot- 
TUNAE, the Cottian Alps (so called from a king 
Cottius in the time of Augustus), from Monte 
Viso to Mont Cenis, contained M. Matrona, 
afterwards called M. Janus or Janua {Mont 
Genevre), across which Cottius constructed a 
road, which became the chief means of commu- 
nication between Italy and Gaul.— 3. Alpes 
Gr.uae, also Saltus Grains (the Romans fanci- 
fully connected the name with the legendary 
passage of Hercules, but it is probably Celtic, 
and has nothing to do with Greece) and Mons 
Grains (Tac. Hist. iv. 68), the Graian Alps, 
from Mont Cenis to the Little Sb. Bernard 
inclusive, contained the Jugum Cremonis (Liv. 
XXI. 38) {le Cramont) and the Centronicae 
Alpes, apparently the little St. Bernard and the 
surrounding mountains. — 4. Alpes Penninae 
the Pennine Alps, from the Great St. Bernard 
to the Simplon inclusive, the highest portion of 
the chain, including Mont Blanc, and Monte 
Rosa. The Great St. Bernard was called M 
Pennlnus, and on its summit the inhabitants 
worshipped a deity, whom the Romans called 
Jupiter Penninus. The name is probably de- 
rived from the Celtic pen, 'a height.' Livy 
(xxi. 38) expressly rejects the absurd derivation 
Irom Poem, which was based on the idea that 
Hnnmbal had gone round to Martigny in the 
upper Rhone valley.- 5. Alpes Lepontiobum 
or Lepontiae, the Leponiian or Helvetian 
Alps, occupied by the Celtic Lepontii, from the 



ALPES 55 

Simplon to the St. Gotlmrd. — 6. Alpes Ehab- 
Tic.AE, the lihaetian Alps, from the St. 
Gothard to the Orteler and the pass of the 
Stelvio. [Cf. Abula Mons.] — 7. -Alpes Triden. 
tinjVE, the mountains of southern Tyrol, in 
which the Athesis {Aclige) rises, with the pass 
of the Brenner. — 8. Alpes NoeiC/U3, whence 
the Drave rises (Plin. iii. § 139), the No7-ic 
Alps, NE. of the Tridentine Alps, comprising 
the mountains in the neighbourhood of Salz- 
burg, with mines worked by the Romans for 
iron. — 9. Alpes C-vBNiCjii;, the Oarnic Alps, 
E. of the Tridentine, and S. of the Noric, to 
Mount Terglu. From these mountains flows 
the Save (Phn. ih.). — 10. AiPES Jullve, the 
Julian Alps, from Blount Terglu to the com- 
mencement of the lUyrian or Dalmatian moun- 
tains (Tac. Hist. iii. 8), which are known by the 
name of the Alpes Dalmaticae, further north 
by the name of the Alpes Pannonicae. The 
Alpes Juliae were so called because Julius 
Caesar or Augustus constructed roads across 
them : they are also called Alpes Venetae. 
(Amm. Marc. xxxi. 16). We have some men- 
tion of the industries and produce of the Alps, 
which then, as now, consisted of pine wood, 
resin, honey, wax and cheese, with but little 
corn (Strab. p. 206) ; and of alpine animals, 
the chamois {rupicapra), the ibex, the marmot, 
white hares and ptarmigan (Plin. viii. § 214, 
X. § 186, Varr. R.B. iii. 12). 

Principal Passes of the Alps. 

It will be useful to enumerate the passes 
used by the Romans, and, no doubt, communi- 
cated to them by the natives of the various 
districts as the easiest routes; for we can 
hardly doubt that there were other mountain 
paths traversed, though less frequently, by the 
natives themselves. The Roman roads, or bridle 
tracks, over the Alps were as follows, reckoning 
fi'om the western sea coast : — 1. Per A Ipes Mari- 
timas, corresponding to the Cornice Road, from 
the Var to Genoa, which was opened in the 
time of Augustus as a regular road, the Ligu- 
rians being entirely subdued. Turbia was re- 
garded as the summit of the pass : thence it 
passed rather north of Nice. — 2. It is probable 
that the modern Col de V Argentiere, from 
Cuneo by the valley of the Stura to Barcelo- 
nette, by the valley of the Ubaye and so to Gap, 
was used by the Romans (see Freshfield, Alp. 
Journ. xi. 282 ; Desjardins, Gcogr. de la Gaule 
Bo7n. i. 90). If so, this pass led from Pollentia 
to Vapincum, and was, no doubt, like the fol- 
lowing, described as per Alpes Cottias. — 3. Per 
Alpes Cottias, i.e. the pass of Mont Genevre 
from Augusta Taurinorum {Turin) to Brigantio 
{Briangon). It thence at first followed the 
Durance to Charges in the Caturiges : whence 
those who were bound for the Southern Pro- 
vincia (Nimes, Orange, ifec.) continued by the 
Durance ; those who went northwards to Va- 
lence, Vienne, &c., crossed the Col Bayard by 
Gap, down the valley of the Drac, into the 
valley of the Isi're. This in all probability waa 
the route of Hannibal (see Freshfield, I.e.. who, 
however, makes Hannibal reach Italy by the 
Col de I'Argentiere mentioned above). Pompey 
probably shortened the route by taking the Col 
de Lauteret from Brian(;on after he had crossed 
the Genevre. This Col is higher than the 
Genevre itself but a much more direct route to 
Grenoble, and after the time of Pompey it be- 
came a recognised Roman road.— 4. North o£ 
the Genevre is the pass of Mont Cenis, which 
also belongs to the Alpes Cuttiae. There is 



56 ALPHENUS 
little doubt that over this, or rather over the 
Petit Mont Cents, IVom Susa (Seyusio) was a 
route used by the Komans : here probably 
Caesar passed to Gallia Ulterior {B.G. i. 10). The 
pass descends by the \'alley of the Arc, through 
the territory of the Centrones into the valley of 
the Isore. — 5. Per Alpes Grains: this is the 
pass of the Little St. Bernard, from the plain 
of the Po at Ivrea, through the defiles of the 
valley of Aosta, then from Aosta {Augusta Prae- 
toria), S. Didier (Arehrigium) over the pass to 
B. St. Maurice {Rergintrum), and by the valley 
of the Isore, directly to Vienna or northwards to 
Geneva. It will be found impossible to make 
the route by the valley of Aosta agree with 
Polybius's account of Hannibal's route. 6. Par 
Alpes Penninas : the Great St. Bernard, from 
Martigny (Octodurus) to Aosta (Tac. Mist. i. 
Gl, iv. 08; cf. Liv. xxi. 38). 7. Per Alpes 
Bhaetioas, from Brigantia on L. Constance to 
Mediolanum (Milan). This passage had two al- 
ternative routes : a, most direct, by Curia (Goire) 
over the Julier pass as far as Bivium (Bivio), 
thence over the Septimer to Casaccia and 
Clavenna {Chiavenna) ; b, branching off at 
Bivio by the remainder of the Julier pass to 
Silvaplana, and then by the Maloja to Chia- 
venna, rejoining the Septimer route at Casaccia. 
Both routes pass by Tinnetio {Tinzen) on the 
Swiss side. Either will suit the description in 
Claud. Bell. Get. 320-360.— 8. Also per Alp. 
Bhaet., from Brigantia to Tridentmn, striking 
oil from the preceding at Clunia (Feldkirch), 
and passing by the upper Inn and Meran to 
Bauzianum {Botzen). — 9. A divergence from the 
preceding by the Busier Thai and Lienz, to 
reach Aquileia. [Possibly also a direct road from 
Sebatum (Brunnecken) to Balluno.^ — 10. Per 
Alpes Tridentinas, from Verona to Tridentum, 
thence up the valley of the Athesis, and over 
the Brenner, and so to Augusta Vindelicorum 
(Augsburg). — 11. Per Alpes Carnicas, from 
Aquileia through Julium Carnicum (Zugiio), hy 
the pass of Sta Croce and the valley of the Gail 
into the valley of the Drave, near Aguontum 
(Lienz). — 12. Slightly east of the preceding 
(from which it diverged near Gemona), more 
directly to Villa ad Aquas (Villach), by the low 
pass of Tarvis (the lowest in the chain of the 
Alps). — 13. Per Alpes Julias, through the valley 
of the Sontius (Isonzo), by the Predil pass to 
Villa ad Aquas. — 14. Also per Alp. J ulias, from 
Aquileia by the valley of the Wippach over the 
pass of Loitsch to Emona (Laibach), and the 
valley of the Save. The last five were intended 
as lines of communication from Aquileia to 
Rhaetia, Noricum, and Pannonia. 

Of these passes Nos. 1, 3, 5, 7 were kno^vn to 
Polybius (cited by Strabo, p. 209), and Nos. 
1, 3, i, 5 are mentioned by Varro (Serv. ad 
Aen. X. 13), who reckons five passes, probably 
because he considers the Col de Lauteret passed 
by Pompey as a separate one. He brings Has- 
drubal over the Cenis. The communication 
with the Central Alps was by No. 6 to the 
Rhone valley, and thence by Viviscus (Vevey) 
and Minnodunum (Moudon) to Aventicum ; or 
by No. 7 to Brigantia, thence by the western 
road through Vindonissa (Windisch) to Salo- 
durum (Solothu.rn) and Aventicum. 

Alphenus Varus. [V.uius.] 

Alpliesiboea ('AA.<;)e(ri;3o'ia). 1. Mother of 
Adonis. [Adonis.]— 2. Daughter of Phegeus,who 
married Alcmaeon. [ALCJr.^EON.] — 3. Daughter 
of Bias and wife of Pelias (Theocr. iii. -15). 

AlpheusMytilenaeuB ('AAcpcfosMuTiAiji'aTor), 
the author of about 12 epigrams in the Greek 



ALTHEMENES 
Anthology, was probably a contemporai^ of the 
emperor Augustus (Anth. Pal.). 

Alpheus {'AK<pti6s: Dor. 'AA^eds ; Alfeo, 
Bof^o, Bgfo, Bufea), the chief river" of 
Peloponnesus, rises at Phylace in -Arcadia, 
shortly afterwards sinks under ground, appears 
again near Asea, and then mingles its waters 
with those of the Eurotas. After flowing 20 
stadia, the two rivers disappear under ground : 
the Alpheus again rises at Pegae in Arcadia, and 
increased by many affluents, among them tlie 
Ladon and the Erymantlius, flows NW. 
through Ai-cadia and Elis, not far from 
Olympia, and falls into the Ionian sea. (Pans, 
viii. 51; Strab. pp. 275, 343J. The subterra- 
nean descent of the river, which is confirmed 
by modern travellers, gave rise to the stories 
about the river-god Alpheus and Artemis 
Alpheiaea, or the nymph Arethusa : a. that 
the river-god Alpheus loved Artemis and she 
escaped him by the strange disguise of smear- 
ing her face and the faces of her nymphs with 
mud (Pans. vi. 227 : b. that Artemis fled from 
him to Ortygia (Pind. Nem. i. and Schol.) : c. 
the lA,ter poeticised legends, where instead of 
Artemis we have a nymph Arethusa i^ursued by 
Alpheus, both changed to streams passing under 
the sea and at last united in Ortygia (Pans. v. 
7, 2 ; Ov. Met. v. 752, with the intervention of 
Artemis ; Verg. Aen. iii. 694 ; Stat. Silv. i. 2, 
203 ; Theb. i. 271, iv. 239). The actual .sequence 
appears to be, that the Artemis of Elis and 
Aicadia was a deity of fountains and streams 
who was avix^ufxos, or united in worship, with 
Alpheus, and was called Artemis Alpheiaea or 
irorafua. This worship was transferred to 
Ortygia by some of the family of the lamidae 
at Olympia who joined in the Corinthian settle- 
ment and established a temple of Artemis 
TTOTOyUi'a and also named a spring in Ortygia 
after the spring Arethusa in Elis. It is easy 
to understand how later orthodoxy found it neces- 
sary to substitute Arethusa for Artemis in the 
legend of the passage under the sea. (Pind. 
01. v., Nem. i. ; Died. v. 3 ; Strab. p. 270.) Strabo 
mentions the story of the saucer thrown into the 
fountain at Olympia and coming up in Ortygia 
with the sacrificial stains upon it : for, when 
the nymph, pursued by Alpheus, was changed 
by Artemis into the fountain of Arethusa in the 
island of Ortygia at Syracuse, the god continued 
to pursue her imder the sea, and attempted to 
mingle his stream with the fountain at Ortygia. 

AlpMus Avitus. [A-saTus.] 

Alpinus. [See under Bibaculus.] 

Alsa, a small river of Venetia, which flows 
into the Adriatic a little west of Aquileia. The 
younger Constantine fell here, n. 340. 

Alsium (Alsiensis : Palo), one of the most 
ancient Etruscan towns on the coast near 
Caere, and a Roman colony after the 1st Punic 
war. In its neighbourhood Pompey had a 
country-seat (villa Alsiensis). 

Althaea ('AXeala), daughter of the jVetoliau 
king Thestius and Eurythemis, married Oeneus, 
king of Calydon, by whom she became the 
mother of several children. [See Mele.\ger.] 

Althaea, the chief town of the Olcades in the 
country of the Oretani in Hispania Tarraco- 
nensis. 

Althemenes ('AKBnufvvs ov 'A\eai(uf i'tjs), son 
of Catreus, king of Crete. In consequence of 
an oracle, that Catreus would lose his life by 
one of his children, Althemenes quitted Crete 
and went to Rhodes. There he unwittmRly 
killed his father, who had come in search of his 
son. (Diod. v. 59 ; ApoUod. iii. 2.) 



ALTINUM 
Altinum (Altinas : Altino), a municipium 
in the land of the Veneti in the N. of Italy, 
at the mouth of the river Silis aud on tiie 
road from Piitavium to Aquileia, was a wealthy 
manufacturing town, and the chief emporium 
for all tlie goods which were sent from southern 
Italy to the countries of the north. Goods 
could be brought from Eavenna to Altinum 
through the Lagoons and the numerous canals 
of the^Po, safe from storms and pirates. There 
were many beautiful villas around the town. 
(Mart. iv. 25 ; Strab. p. 214 ; Tao. Hist. iii. 6.) 

Altis ("AATis), the sacred grove of Zeus at 
Olvjima. 

Aluntium or Haluntium {'hKovvnov), a town 
on the N. coast of Sicily, on a steep hill, cele- 
brated for its wine. It lay between Tyndaris 
and Calacta ; the town of S. Marco probably 
occupies its site. (Dionys. i. 51 ; Cic. Verr. iv. 
23 .1.) 

Alus orHalus CA\os, "A\os : 'AXevs : nr. Ee- 
falosi, Ru.), a town in Phthiotis in Thessaly, at 
the extremity of M. Othrys, built by Athamas. 
{II. ii. 682 ; Hdt. vii. 173 ; Strab. p. 432.) 

Alyattes('A\uoTTT/s),Hngof Lydia, B.C. 617- 
560, succeeded his father Sadyattes, and was 
himself succeeded by his son Croesus. He car- 
ried on war with Miletus from 617 to 612, and 
with Cyaxares, king of Media, from 590 to 585 ; 
an eclipse of the sun, which happened in 585 
during a battle between Alyattes and Uyaxares, 
led to a peace between them. Alyattes drove 
the Cimmerians out of Asia and took Smyrna. 
The tomb of Alyattes, N. of Sardis, near the 
lake Gygaea, which consisted of a large mound 
of earth, with a circumference of nearly a mile, 
raised upon a foundation of great stones, still 
exists. (Hdt. i. 25, 73, 93 ; Strab. p. 627.) 

Alyba ('AXu^tj), a town on the S. coast of the 
Euxine. [II. ii. 857.) 

Alypius ('AXvTnoi), of Alexandria, probably 
Lived in the 4th century of the Christian aera, 
and is the author of a Greek musical treatise 
entitled ' Introduction to Music ' {elffayaiy^ 
HOvcnKT]), printed by Meibomius in Antiquae 
Musicae Auctores Septem, Amstel. 1652; Script. 
Metrici, ed. Westphal, 1866. 

Alyzia or Alyzea ('AAu0a, 'AA.u^"eia: AAu- 
faios ; Eu. in the valley of Kandili], a town in 
Acarnania near the sea opposite Leucas, with a 
harbour and a temple both sacred to Heracles. 
The temple contained one of the works of Lysip- 
pus representing the labours of Heracles, which 
the Romans carried off. (Thuc. vii. 31 ; Xen. 
Hell. V. 4 ; Strab. p. 450 ; Cic. Fam. xvi. 2 ; 
Plin. iv. 2.) 

Amadocus ('A|Ua5o/coi) or Medocus (M-^So/cos). 
1. King of the Odrysae in Thrace, when Xeno- 
phon visited the country in B.C. 400. He aud 
Seuthes, who were the most powerful Thracian 
kings, were frequently at variance, but were 
reconciled to each other by Thrasybulus, the 
Athenian commander, in 390, and induced by him 
to become the allies of Athens (Diod. xiii. 105 ; 
Xen. An. vii. 2, Hell. iv. 8).— 2, A ruler in 
Thrace, who, in conjunction with Berisades and 
Cersobleptes, succeeded Cotys in 358. (Dem 
in Arist. p. 623.) 

Amaflnius, one of the three writers on Epi- 
curean philosophy who preceded Cicero (the 
other two being Rabirius and Catius Insuber). 
They wrote simply and in a popular manner, 
especially on the physical theories of Epicurus 
merely drawing from the Greek sources without 
Miy origmal reasoning. (Cic. Acad. i. 2, 5- 
Tusc. 1. 8, 6, ii. 3, 7, iv. 3, 6.) 

Amagetobria. [Maoktobbia.] 



AMARYNTHUS 



57 



Amalthea {'AixaKBeia). 1. The nurse of the 
infant Zeus in Crete. According to some tra- 
ditions Amalthea is the goat who suckled Zeus, 
and who was rewarded by being placed among 
the stars. [Aj3»a.] According to others, Amal- 
thea was a nymph, daughter of Oceanus, Helios, 
Haemouius, or of the Cretan king Melisseus, 
who fed Zeus with the milli of a goat. When 
this goat broke off one of her horns, Amalthea 
filled it with fresh herbs and gave it to Zeus, 
who placed it among the stars. According to 
other accounts Zeus himself broke off one of 
the horns of the goat Amalthea, and gave it to 
the daughters of Melisseus, and endowed it with 
the wonderful power of becoming filled with 
whatever the possessor might wish. This 
story is explanatory of the celebrated horn of 
Amalthea, commonly called the horn of plenty 
or cornucopia, which was used in later times as 
the symbol of plenty in general. (Athen. p. 503 ; 
Strab. p. 458 ; Ov. Fast. v. 115, Met. ix. 87.) 
[For the story of Amalthea giving the horn of 
plenty to Aohelous, and his exchange, see 
AcHELous.] In Diod. iii. 68, there is a story 
that Amalthea was beloved by the Libyan Am- 
mon, who gave her a horn-shaped portion of 
land of great fertility. — 2. One of the Sibyls, 
identified with the Cumaean Sibyl, who sold to 
king Tarquinius the celebrated Sibylline books 
(Laotant. Inst. i. 6, 10), but distinguished from 
her in TibuU. ii. 5, 67. 

Amaltheum or Amalthea, a villa of Atti- 
cus on the river Thyamis in Bpirus, was per- 
haps a shrine of the nymph Amalthea, which 
Atticus adorned with statues and bas-reliefs, 
and converted into a beautiful summer retreat. 
Cicero, in imitation, constructed a similar re- 
treat on his estate at Arpinum. (Cic. de Legg. 
ii. 3, 7 ; Att. i. 13.) 

Amantla ['AixavTia : Amantlnus, Amantiiinus, 
or Ainantes, pi. : Nivitza), a Greek town and 
district in Illyricum ; the town, said to have 
been founded by the Abantes of Euboea, lay at 
some distance from the coast, E. of Orieum. 
(Caes. S.C. iii. 12, 40 ; Cic. Phil. xi. 11.) 

Amauus (6 'Afiavds, rh 'Afiavdv : 'A/j.avirt)s, 
Amaniensis : Almadagli), a branch of Mt. 
Taurus, which rmis from the head of the Gulf 
of Issus NE. to the principal chain, dividing 
Syria from Cilicia and Cappadocia (Strab. pp. 
521, 535). There were two passes in it : the one, 
called the Syi-ian Gates [al 'S.vp'iM TrvKai, Syriae 
Portae: Bylan) near the sea; the other, called 
the Amanian Gates {'Afxavi^es or 'AfxaviKol 
irvKai : Amanicao Pylae, Portae Amani Montis : 
Demir Kajm, i.e. the Iron Gate), further to the 
N. The former pass was on the road from 
Cilicia to Antioch, the latter on that to the dis- 
trict Commagene ; but, on account of its gi-eat 
difficulty, the latter pass was rarely used, until 
the Romans made a road through it. (Arrion. 
An. ii. 7 ; Polyb. xii. 17, 19 ; Strab. p. 676 ; Cic. 
Fam. XV. 4.) 

Amardi orMardi {"A/xapSoi, MdpSoi), a power- 
ful, warlike, and predatory tribe who dwelt on. 
the S. shore of the Caspian Sea. (Strab. p. 514.) 

Amardus or Mardus CAfmpSos, MdpSos: 
Kizil Ozien), a river flowing through the coun- 
try of the Mardi into the Caspian Sea. 

Amarynoeus ('AtiapvyKevs), a chief of the 
Eleans [11. xxiii. 630), is said by some writers to 
have fought against Troy; but Homer only men- 
tions hiB son Diores [Amarijncides) as takine 
part in the Trojan war (II. ii. G22, iv. 517) 

Amarynthus (' Aix-ipuvBos : 'AmpMios), a 
town m Euboea 7 stadia from Eretria, to which 
it belonged, with a celebrated temple of Artemis 



58 



AMASENUS 



(Stnib. V. 448 ; Paus. i. 81 ; Liv. xxxv. 88), who 
was lience culled Avuirijnihia or Amari/iiia, and 
in whose honour there was a festival of this 
name both in Euboea and Attica. (Bee Diet, of 
Atitiq^art. Amarynthia.) 

Amasenus (Amaseno), a river in Latium, rises 
in the Volscian mountains, flows by Privernum, 
and after being joined by the Ufens (Ufente), 
which flows from Setia, falls into the sea be- 
tween Circeii and Terracina, though the greater 
part of its waters are lost in the Pontine 
marshes. (Verg. Acn. vii. (584, xi. 547.) 

Amasia or -ea ('A/xdaeia : 'A/xacrevs : Ama- 
siah), the capital of the kings of Pontus, was a 
strongly fortified city on both banks of the river 
Iris. It was the birthplace of Mithridates the 
Great and of the geographer Strabo. It is 
described by Strabo (p. 561). 

Amasis. "l. King of Egj^it, b.c. 572-528 [the 
Egyptian Aahmes 11]. When the expedition of 
Apries against Gyrene had failed [Apbies], 
Amasis, whom he had trusted to quell the mu- 
tinous troops, became their leader and defeated 
his master. For six years he reigned jointly with 
Apries, and then put him to death. Although the 
Egyptian party who had given him the tlirone 
expected him to withdraw all favour from the 
Greeks and cease to employ them or merce- 
naries, he did just the contrary. He formed a 
body-guaxd of lonians at Memphis, married La- 
dice, a native of Cyrene, of the family of the 
Battiadae, and restored Naucratis as a settle- 
ment for Greek traders in the Delta. [Naucra- 
tis.] His reign was one of great prosperity. 
(Hdt. ii. 161-182, iii. 1-16 ; Died. i. 68, 95.)— 
2. A Persian, sent in the reign of Cambyses (b.c. 
525) against Cyrene, took Barca, but did not 
succeed in taking Cyrene. (Hdt. iv. 167, 201.) 

Amastris {"A/xacrrpis, Ion. "Afi-qarpis). 1. 
Wife of Xerxes, and mother of Artaxerxes I., 
was of a cruel and vindictive character (Hdt. 
vii. 61, ix. 108-113). — 2. Also a&Wedi Amastrine, 
niece of Darius, the last king of Persia. She 
married, 1. Craterus; 2. Dionysius, tyrant of 
Heraclea in Bithynia, B.C. 822 ; and 3. Lyai- 
machus, B.C. 302. Having been abandoned by 
Lysimachus upon his marriage with Arsinoe, 
she retired to Heraclea, where she reigned. She 
was drowned by her two sons about 288. (Arrian. 
An. vii. 4 ; Diod. xx. 109 ; Memn. 4, 5.) 

Amastris ("Afiaffrpis : 'AfiacrrpiaySs : Ama- 
aera), a large and beautiful city, with two har- 
bours, on the coast of Paphlagonia, built by 
Amastris after her separation from Lysimachus 
(about B.C. 300), on the site of the old town of 
Sesamus, which name the citadel retained. The 
new city was built and peopled by the inha- 
bitants of Cytorus and Cromna. {II. ii. 853 ; 
Strab.j). 544 ; Plin. Ej). x. 99 ; Oatull. 4, 11.) 

Amata, wife of king Latinus and mother of 
Lavinia, opposed Lavinia being given in mar- 
riage to Aeneas, because she had already pro- 
mised her to Turnus. When she heard that 
Turnus had faUen in battle, she hung herself. 
{Verg. Aen. xii. 600 ; Dionys. i. 64.) 

Amathiis, untis {'AfiaBovs, ovvtos : 'Afia6oi- 
(Tios : Limaaol), an ancient to^vn on the S. coast 
of Cyprus, with a celebrated temple of Aphro- 
dite, who was hence called Amathilsia. But it 
preserved its Phoenician character and retained 
the worship of Melcart. It long remained 
faithful to Persia (Hdt. v. 104). There were 
copper-mines in the neighbourhood of the town 
(fecundam Amathunta vietalli, Ov. Met. x. 
220). TJvPRUS.] 

Amatlus, suniamedPiejtfZowrtrMts, originally 
an oculist. It is said that his real name was 



AMAZONES 
Herophilus, which he romanised into Amatius 
i retended to be either the son or grandson of 
the great Marius, and was jiut to death by 
t^^Si'.y (^''^'' ^^ax. ix. 15, 2 ; Appian. 

i^. OTu. 2; Cic. Att. xii. 4!), xiv. 6-8, Phil. i. 2, ^ 
Amazones {'Afxa^dves), a mythical race of 
warrior women who engaged in battle with dif- 
ferent Greek heroes according to various local 
traditions. Tlieir especial countrv in legend 
was in Pontus, near the river Thermbdon, where, 
by some accounts, the Naiad Harinonia had 
born them to Ares, and where they founded the 
city Themisc.vra, in the neighbourhood of the 
modern Trebizond (Paus. i. 2; Diod. iv. 16- 
Ap. Rh. ii. 996; Pherecyd. fr. 25). Their 
aountry was inhabited only by the Amazons, 
who were governed by a queen : but in order to 
propagate their race, they met once a year the 
Gargareans in Mount Caucasus. The children of 
the female sex were brought up by the Amazons, 
and each had her right breast cut off, the better 
to manage spear and bow (whence the name, 
a-fxaCds, according to most: Diod. ii. 45; 
Apollod. ii. 5 ; Arrian. An. vii. 18 ; cf. TJnimain- 
mia, Plant. Cure. iii. 75), but it should be 
observed that this does not appear in any art 
representation of an Amazon. The male chil- 
dren were sent to the Gargareans or put to 
death. The foundation of several towns in Asia 
Minor and in the islands of the Aegean is 
ascribed to them, e.g. of Ephesus, Smyrna, 
Cyme, and Myrina, and it is particularly to be 
noticed that verj- prevalent traditions connect 
them, not merely witli the north of Asia Minor, 
Colchis, the Caucasus, ifec, but also with Thrace 
and Scj'tliia (Aesch. P}\ 723 ; Verg. Aen. xi. 
659 ; Strab. p. 504 ; Hdt. iv. 110). The Greeks 
believed in their existence as a real historical 
race down to a late period ; and hence it is said 
that Thalestris, the queen of the Amazons, 
hastened to Alexander, in order to become a 
mother by the conqueror of Asia (Pint. Alex. 
46). The following are the chief mythical ad- 
ventures with which the Amazons are con- 
nected. In Homer thej' appear in Phrygian and 
Lycian story (II. iii. 188, vi. 186) — they are said 
to have invaded Lycia in the reign of lobates, 
but were destroyed by BeUerophontes, who 
happened to be staying at the king's court. 
[Bellebophontes ; L.\05tED0N.] They also 
invaded Phrygia, and fought with the Phrygians 
and Trojans when Priam was a young man. 
Their story was developed by Arctinus, who, 
unlike Homer, makes their queen Penthesilea 
the ally of Priam, but in the period of the war 
after the close of the Iliad, when she was slain 
by Achilles. This is a favourite subject in 
art (Q. Smyrn. i. 669). A later story tells of 
their being repelled from the island of Leuce at 
the mouth of the Danube by the ghost of 
Achilles. The ninth among the labours imposed 
upon Heracles by Eurj-stheus, was to take from 
Hippolyte, the "queeii of the Amazons, her 
girdle, the ensign of her kingly power, which 
she had received as a present from Ares. 
[Heracles.] The Athenian story makes them 
invade Attica, penetrating into the town itself, 
in revenge for the attack which Theseus had 
made upon them. They are repelled and driven 
back to Asia by Theseus. This was the subject 
of Micon's picture of the Amazons on the Stoa 
Poikile (PauB. i. 15, 2 ; Aristoph. Lys. 678; ct. 
Aesch. Eiim. 655 ; Plut. Thes. 27). As to the 
origin of these stories different theories have 
been put forward. That of O. Miiller and later 
writers following him, is that the story arose 
from armed maiden attendants (UpdSovKoi) of 



AMBAEEI 

ithe ' Magna Mater ' under one or more of her 
names, the Goddess of Comana, Artemis of 
Ephesus, Cybele, the Goddess Ma or Aimna. 
This may derive some probability from the 
accounts of their connexion with Artemis in 
some stories, their attendance on her as huntress 
maidens, their offerings to Artemis Tauropolos, 
their recognition of her power in Laconia 
(Pans. iii. 25, 2). But, on the other hand, 
notliing can be further removed than the 
Amazons, as represented to us, from the sen- 
suality of the temple-slaves. A more likelj' 
origin is suggested by the legends which make 
them come from Thracian and Scythian lands, 
connected with the Thracian Ai-es, whose chil- 
dren they are by some accounts, and to whom 
they sacrifice horses (Ap. Eh.ii. 387). Couijling 
this with the accounts which reached the Greeks 
regarding the life and character of women 
among these northern races, their free and 
hardy life, hunting and bathing like men (Hdt. 
IV. 116), it is easy to imderstand how these 
stories of warrior women may have grown up, 
and how they reached Greece in connexion 



AMBEACIUS 



69 



Ambiatmus Vicus, a place in the country of 
the Treviri near Coblenz, where the emperor 
Caligula was born (Suet. Cal. 8). 

Ambibari, an Armoric peojile in Gaul, near 
the modern Ambieres in Normandy (Caes. J3. G. 
vii. 75). 

Ambiliati, a Gallic people, perhaps in Brit- 
tany (Caes. B. G. iii. 9). 

Ambiorix, a chief of the Eburones in Gaul, 
out to pieces, in conjunction with Cativolcus, 
the Eoman troops under Sabinus and Cotta, 
who were stationed for the winter in the terii- 
tories of the Ebui-ones, B.C. 54. He failed in 
taking the camp of Q. Cicero, and was defeated 
on the arrival of Caesar, who was unable to 
obtain possession of the person of Ambiorix, 
notwithstanding his aciii'e pursuit of the lattei'. 
(Caes. B. G. v. 26-51, vi. 29-43, viii. 24 ; Dio 
Cass. xl. 5, 31.) 

Ambivareti, the clientes or vassals of the 
Aedui, probably dwelt N. of the latter (jS. G. 
vii. 75). 

Ambivariti, a Gallic people, W. of the Maas, 
in the neighbourhood of Namur {B. G. iv. 9). 




Wounded Amazons. (Phlgalean Maxbles.) 



with stories of Ares ; the connexion with Ar- 
temis probably arose merely from the huntress 
character which belonged to her. In art the 
Amazons are a favourite subject alike in gi-eat 
sculptures such as those from the temple frieze 
at Bassae, from the Mausoleum and from Xan- 
thus, and on vases. It is noticeable that in the 
more archaic art they are dressed and armed 
exactlylike male warriors (avriavupai); but after 
the Persian wars in vase pictures they assume 
an Oriental type of dress and appearance, while 
m sculptures they become idealised wanuor 
maidens, resembling some types of the huntress 
Artemis, and perhaps modelled after Spartan 
maidens. In the Greek fonn they wear the 
chiton witli the right breast bare whether on 
loot or on horseback ; on the vases their garb is 
Oriental with the Phrygian cap and with the 
Asiatic or the Scythian trousers. The charac- 
lenstic Amazonian arms besides the bow are 
the double battle-axe and the crescent shield 
t < °'h}^- s.vv.Pei^a, 

beams). rPENTHESILEA.] 

^cjf?'^*"!' a people of Gaul, on the Arar 
i'r I > '^"'^ the same stock 

A J- ^- '^^ < Liv. V. 84) 

Ambiani, a Belgic people, between the Bello- 

IT ^7 Jt^''^^°'\''?\ =onq»ered by Caesar in 
«-c. 67. Their chief town was Samarobrlva 
afterwards called Ambiani, now Amiem (Caes! 
u. 4, 15, vu. 75). 



Ainbivius Turpio. [Turpic] 

Amblada ( to 'A/xISXaSa : 'AuffKaSevs), a town 
in Pisidia, on the borders of Caria; famous for 
its wine (Strab. p. 570). 

Ambracia {'AfiirpaKla, afterwards 'A/xfipaKla : 
'A^^poKicuTTjs, 'AM/3pa/ci6us, Ambraciensis : Arta), 
a town on the left bank of the Arachthus, 80 
stadia from the coast, N. of the Ambracian Gulf, 
was originally included in Acarnania, but after- 
wards in Epirus. It was colonised by the 
Corinthians about B.C. 660, and at an early 
period acquired wealth and importance. It be- 
came subject to the kings of Epirus about the 
time of Alexander the Great. Pyi-rhus made it 
the capital of his kingdom, and adorned it with 
public buildings and statues. At a later time 
it joined the Aetolian League, was taken by the 
Eomans m b.c. 189, and stripped of its works 
of art. Its inhabitants were transplanted to 
the new city of Nicopolis, founded by Augustus 
after the battle of Actium, b.c. 31. South of 
Ambracia on the E. of the Arachthus, and close 
to the sea, was the fort Avibracus. (Strab nn 
325, 452; Hdt. viii. 45; Thuc. i. 46, ii. 80, iU." 
105 ; Polyb. xxii. 9-13 ; Liv. xxxviii. 3-9 ) 

Ambracius Sinus ('AM7rpa/c,Kbj or 'A^0paKiKhs 
Kd\Tros: G. of Arta), a gulf of the Ionian Sea 
between Epirus and Acarnania, said by Poly- 
bius to be 300 stadia long and 100 wide, and 
with an entrance only 5 stadia in width. Its 
real length is 26 mUes and its breadth 10 ; the 



60 AMBKONES 

entrance is about half a mile wide, niirrowiiii,' 
in one part to 700 yards. 

Ambrones {"Aufipuv^s), a Celtic people, who 
joined tlieCimbri aud Teutoncsin tlieir invasion 
of the Koman dominions, and were defeated by 
Marius near Aquae Sextiae {Aix) in B.C. 102. 

Ambrosius, bishop of Milan A.D. 87-1. [See 
Diet, of Chrisluui Bioyrajjlii/.'] 

Ambrysus or Amphrysus" ["A/x^p^a-os : 'A/x- 
fipuffevs : nr. Dhistuvio), a town in Phocis 
strongly fortified, y. of M. Parnassus : in the 
neighbourhood were numerous vineyards. It was 
fortified with a double wall by the Ihebans as 
a stronghold agamst Philip. (Strab. p. i23 ; 
Pans. X. 36, 1.) 

Ambustus, Fabius. The notable persons of 
tliis name are 1. M., pontifex maximus in the 
year when Borne was taken by the Gauls, d.c. 
S90. His three sons, Kaeso, Numerius, aud 
Quintus, were sent as ambassadors to the Gauls 
when the latter were besieging Clusium, and 
took part in a sally of the besieged against the 
Gauls (B.C. 391). The Gauls demanded that 
the Fabii should be surrendered to them for 
violating the law of nations; and upon the 
senate refuting to give up the guilty parties, 
they marched against Rome. The three sons 
were in the same year elected consular tribunes 
(Liv. V. 35, 41). — 2. M., consular tribune in B.C. 
331 and 369, aud censor in 368, had two daugh- 
ters, of whom the elder was married to Ser. 
Sulpioius, and the younger to C. Licinius Stolo, 
the author of the Licinian Rogations. Accord- 
ing to the story recorded by Livy, the younger 
Fabia induced her father to assist her husband 
in obtaining the consulship for the plebeian 
order, into which she had married (Liv. vi. '22, 
34, 36). — 3, M., thrice consul, in B.C. 360, when 
he conquered the Hernici, a second time in 356, 
when he conquered the Falisci and Tarqninien- 
ses, and a third time in 354, when he conquered 
the Tiburtes. He was dictator in 351. He was 
the father of the celebrated Q. Fabius Maximus 
RuUianus. [Maximus.] (Liv. vii. 11, 17, 22, 
viii. 33.) 

Amenanus {'A/j.evav6s, Dor. 'Afi^yas), a river 
in Sicily near Catana, sometimes dried up for 
years together {mcnc jluit, interdiim stqrpressis 
fontibus aret, Ov. Met. xv. 280 ; Strab. p. 240), 
possibly owing to volcanic changes in Etna, at 
whose foot it rises. 

Ameria (Amerlnus : Avielia), an ancient town 
in Umbria, and a municipium, the birthplace of 
Sex. Roscius defended by Cicero, was situate in 
a district rich in vines (Verg. Georg. i. 265), on 
a hill 56 miles from Rome, between the valleys 
of the Tiber and the Nar (Strab. p. 227 ; Plin. 
iii. § 114). 

Ameriola, a town in the land of the Sabines, 
destroyed by the Romans at a very early period 
(Liv. i. 38 ; Plin. iii. § 68). 

Amestratus (Amestratlnus : Mistretta), a 
town in the N. of Sicily, not far from the coast, 
the same as the Myttistratmn of Polybius and 
the Amastra of S'ilius Italicus, taken by tlie 
Romans from the Carthaginians in the first 
Punic war (Cic. Verr. iii. 39, 43, 74). 

Amestris. [Ajiastris.] 

Amida (/; "A/xiSa : DiarbeJcr), a town in So- 
phene (Armenia Major) on the Upper Tigris. 
It was taken by the Persian king Sapor a.d. 
859, when Ammianus Marcellinus was among 
the defenders (Am. Marc. xix. 1). The Romans 
afterwards recovered it. 

Amilcar. [Hajiilcae.] 

Aminias {'Anuulas), brother of Aeschylus, 
distinguished liimself at the battle of Salamis 



AMMIANUS 

(B.C. 480) ; he and Eumenes were judged to 
have been the bravest on this occasion amonc 
all the Athenians (Hdt. viii. 84, 93; Plut 
Them. 14 ; Diod. xi. 27). 

Alblpsias {'A/xu^'ias), a comic poet of Athens, 
contemporary with Aristophanes, whom he twice 
conquered in the dramatic contests, gaining the 
second prize with his Coiinua wlien Arislo- 
phanes was third with the Clouch (b.c. 423), 
and the first with his Comastae when Aristo- 
phanes gained the second with the Birds (u.r. 
414). _ (Diog. Laert. ii. 28.) 

Amisia or AmisiuB (Ems), a river in nortlii;i ji 
Germany well known to the Romans, on whicu 
Drusus had a naval engagement with the Bruc- 
teri, B.C. 12 (Strab. p. 290 ; Mela, iii. 3 ; Tac. 
Ann. i. 60, 03, 70, ii. 23). 

Amisia [Bmden ?), a fortress on the left bank . 
of the river of the same name (Tac. Ann. li. 8). 

Amisodarus ('Afxiawhapos), a king of Lycia, 
who brought up the monster Chimaera ; his sons 
Atj'mnius and Maris were slain at Troy by the 
sons of Nestor (II. xvi. 317-328 ; Apollod. ii. 3). 

Amisus ('A^uicrds : ' A/xicrrivSs , Amisenus : 
Savisun), a large city on the coast of Pontus, 
on a bay of the Euxine Sea, called after it 
(Amisenus Sinus). Mitlu-idates enlarged it, 
and made it one of his residences. It was taken 
by Lucullus B.C. 71, by Pharnaces B.C. 47, freed 
by Juhus Caesar, and again held by tyrants, 
liberated from the tyrant Strato by Augustus 
immediately after Actium (see Ramsay's Asia 
Minor, p. 194). It became one of the civitates 
foederatae, and before Trajan's time was at- 
tached to the province of Bitliynia-Pontus as a 
free city (Strab. p. 547 ; Dio Cass. xlii. 40 ; App. 
B. C. ii. 91 ; Plut. Luc. 15 ; Phn. Ep. x. 93). 

Amiternum (Torre d' Amiterno), an ancient 
Sabine town, according to Cato and Varro the 
cradle of the Sabine race (Diouys. i. 14, ii. 49). 
It stood on the Aternus, under the highest of 
the Apennines (Gran Sasso d' Italia). It fell 
into decay in the civil wars, but was re-colonised 
and became a place of importance under the 
Empire, and was the birthplace of SaUust. 
According to Liv. x. 39 it was in the power or 
the alliance of Samnium at the beginning of 
the third Samnite war, and was taken B.C. 293 
(Verg. Aen. vii. 710 ; Strab. p. 228). 

Ammianus ('Aytt^uiovtSs), a Greek epigrammix- 
tist, but probably a Roman by birth, the author 
of nearly thirty epigrams in the Greek An- 
thology, lived under Trajan and Hadrian. 

Ammianus Marcellinus, by birth a Greek, 
and a native of Syrian Ajitioch, was admitted 
at an early age among the imperial bodyguards. 
He served many years imder Ursicinus, one of 
the generals of Constantius, both in the West 
and East, and he subsequently attended the 
emperor Julian in his campaign against the 
Persians (a.d. 363). Eventually he estabhshed 
himself at Rome, where he composed his his- 
tory, and was alive at least as late as 390. His 
history, wi'itten in Latin, extended from the 
accession of Nerva, a.d. 96, the point at 
which tlie histories of Tacitus terminated, to 
the death of Valens, a.d. 378, comprising a 
period of 282 years. It was divided into 81 
books, of which the first 13 are lost. The re- 
maining 18 embrace the acts of Constantius 
from A.D. 358, the seventeenth year- of his reign, 
I together with the whole career of Gallus, Ju- 
lionus, Jovianus, Valentinianus, and N alens 
The portion preserved was the more importiuit 
part of the work, as he was a contemporary ot 
the events described in these books. 1 he style 
of Aimniaiius is too often atTected and bom- 



AMBION 



AMPELUS 



61 



T u„ I- Ilia accuracy, ficTelity, and impartiality 
Tjastic.butliisaccuui^i, j. -p, , 



I head, as iu figures of Zeus Ammon and Alex- 



^P<;erve prai3e.--Ed'<*o«s- By Eyssenhardt, 
ReiHsTl Gardthausen, Gott. 1875 
^ iiim5n more correctly Amon or Amun, he 
suSe god of the Egyptians aocordmg to he 
theolc^v. He may possibly, as some 
tWu^ha rbeea onginally the god of ammal 
!7ui vegetable fruitfuhiess ; but there is no 
do bt that as Amen-Ba at Thebes he was the 
Sun God, who ruled over all the upper and the 
under world, and whose representative on the 
earth was the reignmg kmg of Egypt Kis 
worship in the original form was set aside by 
Amenhotep who fi-om his mother, appa- 
rently a Mesopotaniian, had adopted views in 
favour of a pirer monotheism, and substituted 
Ihe worship of ' the sun's disk ' or the orthodox 
worship of Amun, and though the original faith 
was restored by the following dynasty, and 
TpeciaUy by Eamses II. =Sesostris) some 
Sees of the change remained. A further 
variation from other lands was caused by the 
Ethiopian conquest of Egypt in the 8th centm-y 
BC whence some Etliiopian characteristics 
were mtroduced into his worship, and the erro- 
neous idea arose that the Egyptians liad de- 
rived the religion of Amun from Meroe (Hdt. 
ii 29 i2). 'When Psammetiohus estabhshed his 
rule 'in Lower Egypt at Sais, in the 7th century 
B.C., the exclusive worship of Amun, except m 
his special temples, diminished; but soon after 
this he was brought into relation with Greek 
mythology, through the settlers at Naucratis, 
&c., and still more through the Greek colonists 
of Gyrene, who became acquamted with the 
famous oracle of Ammon in the western Oasis 
of the Ammonium {Siwah), founded by a colony 
of Egyptians and Ethiopians in the 8th century. 
His worship spread in Greece, being identified 
with that of Zeus ; so that he became ZeJ/s "A/x- 



jxaiv, and to the Ro- 
mans Jupiter Am- 
mon. (Pind. Pyth. 
iv. 16 ; Plat. Polit. 
257 B, where ' our ' 
God means Cyre- 
naic.) It appears in 
Laconia (Pans. iii. 
18, 2). The oracle 
from the Am- 
monium, to which I 
tradition gave the 
same origin as that 
of Dodona (Hdt. ii. 
54), gained much 
influence with the 
Greeks after Alex- 
ander's visit, and 
sacred embassies 
were sent to it 
[see Diet. Ant. 
s.v. Theoris]. In 
Egyptian art Am- 
mon is represented 
sometimes with a 
head-dress of two lofty feathers, symbolising his 
rule over the upper and under world ; sometimes 
as a ram-headed deity with an orb over the 
horns, symbolising the sun. Some take the 
ram merely to signify animal fruitfulness. It 
looks more like the remnant of a totemistic 
teligion, especially where the custom of cloth- 
ing the statue in the skin of a slaughtered ram 
is mentioned (Hdt. ii. -12). In Greek art this 
symbol of the ram is preserved, but brought 
into agreement with Greek taste by merely 
showing the horns added to the ideal human 




ander the Gre°at (seen m coins of Lysimachus). 
See coin, p. 50. 
Ammonium. [Oasis.J 

Ammonius {'A^L^xd>nos). 1. Grammaticus, 

of Alexandria, left this city on the overthrow of 
tne heathen temples m a.d. 880, and settled at 
Constantinople. He wrote, ^ Greek a valu- 
able work. On the Differences of Words of hke 
Signification <5W'">' «al S^acpSpccu 
—Editions. By Valckenaer, Lugd. Bat. 17 39 , 
by Schafer, Lips. 1822.-2. Son of Hermeas, 
studied at Athens under Proclus (who died a.d. 
484) and was the master of Simplicms, Damas- 
cius and others. He wrote numerous com- 
mentaries m Greek on the works of the earlier 
philosophers. His extant works are Commen- 
taries on the Isagoge of Porphyry, or the Five 
Predicables, first published at Venice m 1500 ; 
and On the Categories of Aristotle, and De 
Interpretaiione, published by Brandis m lus 
edition of the Scholia of Aristotle. — 3. Ot 
Lamprae m Attica, a Peripatetic philosopher, 
lived in the first century of the Christian aera, 
and was the instructor of Plutarch (Plut. 
Symp. iii. 1). — 4. Surnamed Saccas, or sack- 
carrier, because his employment was cari-ying 
the corn landed at Alexandria, as a pubhc 
porter, was born of Chi-istiau parents. Some 
writers assert, and others deny, that he aposta- 
tised from the faith. At any rate he combined 
the study of philosophy with Christianity, and 
is regarded by those who maintain his apostasy 
as the founder of the later Platonic School. 
Among his disciijles were Longinus, Heren- 
nius, Plotinus, and Origen. He died a.d. 243, 
at the age of more than 80 years. 

Amnias, a river of Pontus, E. of the Halys 
(Strab. p. 562 ; Appian, Mithr. 18). 

Amnisus ('Ajuvio-dr), a town in the N. of 
Crete and the harbour of Cnossus, situated _ on 
a river of the same name, the nymphs of which, 
called Amnlsiddes, were in the service of Arte- 
mis (Strab. p. 470 ; Od. xix. 188 ; Ap. Rh. iii. 
881; Callim. Hymn. Dian. 15). 
Amon. [Ammon.] 
Amor. [Ebos.] 

Amorgus {"Anopyos ; 'A/xopy^vos : Amorgo), 
an island in the Grecian Archipelago, one of 
the Sporades, the birthplace of Simonides, and 
under the Roman emperors a place of banish- 
ment, more favourable than Gyarus as being 
productive of corn, oil, and wine. It had three 
towns on its western coast, Aigiale, Arcesine, 
and Minon. (Strab. p. 487 ; Soyl. p. 22 ; Tac. 



Annion. 
(From Wilkinson g Efiyptiam.) 



Ann. iv. 30.) 

Amorlum 
miles SW. of 



'Afxopiov), a city of Galatia, 80 
Pessiauus. 

Ampe ("A/iTTi), Hdt.) or Ampelone (Plin.), 
a town at the mouth of the Tigris, where Darius 
I. planted the Milesians whom he removed 
from their own city after the Ionian revolt 
(B.C. 494J. (Hdt. vi. 20; Plin. vi. § 159.) 

L. Ampelius, the author of a small work, 
entitled Liber Meniorialis, lived iu the 2nd 
century of the Christian era. His work is a 
sort of commonplace-book, containing a meagre 
summary of the most striking natural objects 
and of the most remarkable events, divided 
into 50 chapters. He is praised by Sidonius 
ApoUiuaris (ix. 299). It is generally printed 
with Florus, and is published separately by 
Beck, Lips. 1826 ; Wolfflin, Lips. 1854. 

Ampelus, the personification of the vine. 
He was a beautiful youth, son of a satyr and a 
nymph, and beloved by Dionysus. According 
to Ovid (Fast. iii. 407), he was killed by falling 



62 AMPELUS 

from a vine branch, and was placed, as Vinde- 

niitor, in the stars; according to Nonn. Dion^/s. 

X. 175, lie was changed into a vine. A marble 

group now in the British Museum represents 

Dionysus with Ampelus half changed into a 

vine. 

Ampelus CA^uireAos), a promontory at the 
extreniity of tlie peninsula Sithonia in Chal- 
cidice in Macedonia, near Toroue. 

Ampelusia {'Afxire^ova-la : C. Es2iartel), the 
promontory at the W. end of the S. or African 
coast of the Fretum Gaditanum {Straits of 
Gibraltar). The natives of the country called 
it Cotes {ai Kajreis). (Strab. p. 825 ; Plin. v. 1.) 

Amphaxitis ('A/i(f ci|rTisj, a district of Myg- 
donia in Macedonia, at the mouths of the Axius 
and Echedorus (Polyb. v. 97 ; Strab. p. 330). 

Amphea ("A^u^tia : 'Ajxcp^vs), a small town of 
Messenia on the borders of Laconia and Mes- 
senia, conquered by the Spartans in the first 
Messenian war (Pans. iv. 5, 9). 

AmpMaraus ('Ancpidpaos), sou of Oicles and 
Hypermnestra, daughter of Thestius, was de- 
scended on his father's side from the famous 
Beer Melampus, and was himself a great pro- 
phet and a great hero at Argos, having first 
gained his prophetic powers by sleeping in the 
fiavTiKhs oJkos at Phlius (Pans. ii. 13, 6). By 
his wife Eriphyle, the sister of Adrastus, he 
was the father of Alomaeon, Amphilochus, 
Eurydice, and Demonassa. He took part in 
the hunt of the Calydonian boar, and the Argo- 
nautic voyage. He also joined Adrastus in the 
expedition against Thebes, although he foresaw 
its fatal termination, through the persuasions 
of his wife Eriphyle, who had been induced to 
persuade her husband by the necklace of Har- 
monia which Polynices had given her. On 
leaving Argos, however, he enjoined his sons to 
punish their mother for his death. [Axcii.-iiON.] 
During the war against Thebes, Amphiaraus 
fought bravely, but could not escape liis fate. 
Pursued by Periclymeuus, he fled towards the 
river Ismenius, and the earth swallowed him 
up together with his chariot, before he was 
overtaken by his enemy. {Od. xv. 2i0-2i7; 
Pind. Nem. ix. 57, 01. vi. 21; Aesch. Sejit. 
587 ; Soph. El. 837 ; Stat. Theb. vii. 816.) Li 
Paus. i. 34 there is a story that he was swal- 
lowed up by the earth at Harma, near Myca- 
lessus. Zeus made him immortal, and hence- 
forth he was worshipped as a hero between 
Potniae and Thebes (Hdt. i. 46, viii. 134), but 
afterwards with greater fame near Oropus, 
where also his temple for dream-oracles was 
situated (Paus. i. 34). (See Diet, of Ant. art. 
Oraculum.) 

Amphicaea or AmpMclca {' KucpiKaia, 'Afupi- 
KKeia : 'Afx-tpiKaievs : DhaMd or Oglimitha ?), a 
town in the N. of Phocis, with an adytum of 
Dionysus, was called for a long time Uphitea 
{'0(t>tTe'ia) (Hdt. viii. 33 ; Paus. x. 3, 33). 

Amphictyon {'A/KpiKTvwv). 1. A king of 
Attica who drove out his father-in-law Crauaus, 
and reigned for 12 years, when he was displaced 
by Erichthonius (Paus. i. 2, 5 ; Apollod. i. 7).— 
2. The mythical founder of the Amphiotyonic 
council, son of Deucalion (Paus. x. 3). He had 
a temple at Anthela, near Thermopylae (Hdt. 
vii. 200). 

AmpMdamas ('A/M<piSd/jLas). 1. Son of Aleus 
and brother of Lycurgua, the Arcadian king 
(Paus. viii. 4, 6 ; Ap. Rh. i. 161) : others make 
him the father, others the son, of Lycurgus (II. 
ii. 608). He was one of the Argonauts. (Other 
mythical persons of the same name, //. x. 266 ; 
Hes. Op. 652.)— 2. General of the Eleans u.c. 



AMPHIOX 

218 taken prisoner by Pliilip, king of Macedon 
(i'olyb. IV. 75, 84, 86j. 

,,,^2'^^^'^°^^ ('A/i</)i'5oAoi), a town in Pisatis in 
Ehs'^Xen. Hell. iii. 2, 30 ; Strab. pp. 341, 349j. 

Amphilochia {'A/x<pi^oxia!, the country of tlie 
Aniphilochi {'Afi<p'i\oxotj, an Epirotrace, at the 
E. end of the Anibracian gulf, usually includiid 
in Acarnania. Tlieir chief town was AuGos 
Ampuilochicum. ^Strab. p. 320.; 

AmpMlochus {'A/xcpiKoxos), son of Amphia- 
raus and Eriphyle, and brother of Alcmaeoii. 
He took an active part in the expedition of the 
Epigoni against Thebes, assisted his brother in 
the murder of their mother [Alcm.ieon], and 
afterwards fought against Troy, and was in the 
wooden horse (Quint. Sm. xii. 323). On liis re- 
turn from Troy, together with Mopsus, who was 
like himself a seer, he founded the town of 
Mallos in Cilicia. Hence he proceeded to his 
native place, Argos, but returned to Mallos, 
where he was killed in single combat by Mopsus 
(Strab. p. 075 ; Lycophr. 439), or by Apollo 
(Strab. p. 676). Others relate (Thuc. ii. 08) that, 
after leaving Argos, Amphilochus founded Argos 
Amphilochicum on tlie Anibracian gulf. He 
was worshipped at Mallos in Cilicia, at Oropus, 
and at Athens. (Paus. i. 34, 2, iii. 15, 6 ; cp. 
Mopsus.) 

Amphilytus {'Afj.cpiAvTos), a celebrated seer in 
the time of Peisistratus (b.c. 559), is called both 
an Acarnanian and an Athenian : he may have 
been an Acarnanian who received the franchise 
at Athens (Hdt. i. 62 ; Plat. Theag. p. 124). 

AmpMmaclius {'Afupi/xaxos). 1. Son of Ctea- 
tus, grandson of Poseidon, one of the four leaders 
of the Epeans against Troy, was slain by Hector 
(II. xiii. 185). — 2. Son of Nomion, with his 
brother Nastes, led the Carians to the assistance 
of the Trojans, and was slain by Achilles (II. 
ii. 870).— 3. Son of Polyxenus (II. ii. 623). 

Amphimalla (to 'A^(f)i'^aAAo), a towu on the 
N. coast of Crete, on a bay called after it (G. if 
Armiro). 

Ampnimedon ('Afi<j>tfi4dav), of Ithaca, a guest- 
friend of Agamemnon, and a suitor of Penelope, 
slain by Telemachus (Od. sxii. 284, xxiv. 103). 

AmpMnomus ('Afxtplvo/xos) and his brother 
Anapius were dutiful citizens of Catane, who 
in an eruption of Aetna carried off, the one his 
father, the other his mother, on their shoulders. 
The lava turned aside and spared them. They 
appear in later coins of the city. (Paus. x. 28, 4 ; 
Claudian, vii. 41 ; Auson. Ord. Urb. Nob. 92.) 

Anvphion ('Afj.<p'niiv\ 1. Son of Zeus and An- 
tiope, the daughter of Nycteus of Thebes, and 
twin-brother of Zethus. Amphion and Zethus 
were born either at Eleutherae in Boeotia or on 
Mount Cithaeron, whither tlieir mother had fled, 
and grew up among the shepherds, not knowing 
their descent. Hermes (according to others, 
Apollo, or the Bluses) gave Amphion a lyre, who 
henceforth practised song and music, while his 
brother spent his time in hunting and tending 
the flocks. (Od. xi. 260 ; Eur. Antiop. Fr. ; Pans, 
ii. 6. 2 ; Ov. Met. vi. 110 ; Hor. Eji. i. 18.) Having 
become acquainted with their origin, they 
marched against Thebes, where Lycus reigned, 
the husband of their mother Antiope, whom he 
had repudiated, and had then married Dirce in 
her stead. They took tlie city, and as Lycus 
and Dirce had treated their mother with great 
cruelty, the two brothers killed them both. 
They put Dirce to death by tying her to a bull, 
who dragged her about tUl she perished ; and 
they then threw her body into a well, which was 
from this time called the well of Dirce (Stat. 
Thob. ix. 078). After they had obtained posses- 



AMPHIPOLIS 

-inn of Tliebes, they fortified it by a wall. It 
IZ^ th't when Amphion played his lyre, the 

f„,,ps moved of their owu accord and fonned 
the wal" (Sc ol.Ap. Kh. i. 710, 7C3 ; Apollod. 

ii 5 5 ; Hor. 0.7. iii. 11 1 Prop- 9, 10; Stat. 
Thcb iv S57). Amphion afterwards mamed 
Niche, who bore him many sous and daughters, 
Si of whom were killed by Apollo. His death 




AMPHISTHATUS 65 

more successful, iind drove the Edonians out of 
the ' Nine Ways,' which was henceforth called 
Ai^phipohs. (Hdt. v. 12C, ix. 75 ; Thuc. i. 100, 




Coin of AmphipollB. 
Obv,, Apollo, laurel-crowned ; rev., torch and crown. 

iv. 102, V. 6.) It was one of the most imx^ortant 
of the Athenian possessions, being advan- 
tageously situated for trade on a navigable river 
in the midst of a fertile country, and near the 
gold mines of M. Pangaeus. Hence the indig- 
nation of the Athenians when it fell into the 
hands of Brasidas (b.c. 424) and of Phihp (358). 
Under the Eomans it was a free city, and the 
capital of Macedonia prima : the Via Egnatia. 



Zethus and Amphion. (From a Bas-relief at Eome.) 



■ is differently related : some say that he killed 
himself from grief at the loss of his children 
(Ov. Met. vi. 270), and others tell us that he was 
killed by Apollo because he made an assault on 
the Pythian temple of the god. Amphion and 
his brother were buried at Thebes. A connexion 
may be traced bet%veen the Theban legend of 
these twin sons of Zeus and the Lacedaemonian 
legend of the Dioscuri ; and, again, between 
-Amphion and Apollo. The punishment inflicted 
upon Dirce is represented in the celebrated 
Famese bull, the work of Apollonius and Tau- 
riscus, which was discovered in 1546, and placed 
in the Famese palace at Eome. (Plin. xxxvi. 
§ 34.) [DincE.]— 2. Son of Jasus and father of 
Chloris (Od. xi. 281). In Homer, this Amphion, 
king of Orchomenos, is distinct from Amphion 
the husband of Niobe ; but in some traditions 
they were regarded as the same person. 

Amphipolis {'A/KpliroXis ; 'AixipLiroKiTr]! : 
NeohJiorio, in Turkish Jeni-Kevi), a town in 
Macedonia on the left or eastern bank of the 

' Strymon, just below its egress from the lake 
Cercinitis, and about 3 miles from the sea. 
The Strymon flowed almost round the town, 
nearly forming a circle, whence its name Amphi- 
polis. It was originally called "Evf ta 65oi', ' the 
Nine Ways,' and belonged to the Edonians, a 
Thracian people. Aristagoras of Miletus first 
attempted to colonise it, but was cut off with 
hie followers by the Edonians in B.C. 4S)7. The 
Athenians made a next attempt with 10,000 
colonists, but they were all destroyed by the 
Edonians in 465. In 487 the Athenians were 




Plan of the neighbourhood of Amphipolis. 
1, site of Amphipolis ; 2, site of Elon : 3, ridgo connecting. 
Amphipolis with Mt. Pangaeus ; 4, Long Wall of Amphi- 
polis : the three marks across indicate the gates ; 5, 
Palisade (trTatfpoj^al connecting the Long Wall with the, 
bridge over the StrjTnon ; 6, Lake Cercinitis ; 7, Mt. 
Cerdylium ; 8, Mt. Pangaeus. 

ran through it. The port of Amphipolis was 

ElON. 

Amphia f A/u^is), an Athenian comic poet, of 
tlie middle comedy, contemporary with the 
philosopher Plato. We have the titles of 26 of 
his plays, and a few fragments of them (Meineke, 
Frag. Com. Graec). 

Amphissa {"A/j.^ita-a'a: 'Ajx^iffffevs, ''Afupia- 
(Xaios : Salo)ia), one of the chief towns of the 
Locri Ozolae on the borders of Phocis, 7 miles 
from Delphi, said to have been named after 
Amphissa, daughter of Macareus, and beloved 
by Apollo. In consequence of the Sacred War 
declared against Amphissa by the Amphictyons, 
the town was destroyed by Philip, B.C. 838 
(Aesch. Ctes. p. 71 ; Strab. p. 419), but it was 
soon afterwards rebuilt, supplying 400 hoplites 
against Brennus b.c. 279 (Paus. x. 23, 1) ; was 
taken by the Eomans n.c. 190 (Liv xxxvii. 5). 
Under the empire it had freedom from tribute 
(Plin. iv. t, 7). 

AmpMstratus {'AiJ.<pl<TTpaTos) and his brothsr 
Crecas, the charioteers of the Dioscuri, were 
said to have taken part in the expedition of 



64 AMPHITRITE 
Jason to Colchis, and to have occupied a part 
of that country which was called after them 
Hemoclna, as heniochiis {^v'toxos) signifies a 
charioteer (Strab. p. 490; Arist. Pol. viii. 4, 8). 

AmpMtrite {'Aij.(pirphri), a Nereid or an 
Oceanid, wife of Poseidon and goddess of the 
sea, especially of the Mediterranean. In the 
Odyssey Amphitrite is merely the name of the sea 




Amphitriije holding a ruddor. 
(From a Bas-reliel published by Winckelmann.) 



(in the Iliad the word does not occur), and she 
first occurs as a goddess in Hesiod. She was 
carried off from Naxos by Poseidon, or, accord- 
ing to others, having fled to Atlas was tracked 
out by a dolphin, which Poseidon therefore 
placed in the stars. Later poets again use the 
word as equivalent to the sea in general. She 
became by Poseidon the mother of Triton, 
Rhode or Rhodes, and Benthesicyme. 

Amphitrope ('Afi4>tTp6irr] : 'Afj.(t>iTpoirai€vs), 
an Attic demus belonging to the tribe Autio- 
chis, in the neighbourhood of the silver mines 
of Laurium. 

Amphitryon or AmpMtriio CAufpiTpvaiv), son 
of Alcaeus, king of Tiryna, and Astydameia, or 
Laonome, or Lysidice. Alcaeus had a brother 
Eleotryon, who reigned at Mycenae. Between 
Electryon and Pterelaus, king of the Taphians, 
a furious war raged, in which Electryon lost all 
his children except Licymnius, and was robbed 
of his oxen. Amphitryon recovered the oxen, 
but on his return to Mycenae accidentally killed 
his uncle Electryon. He was now expelled 
from Mycenae, together with Alcmene the 
daughter of Electryon, by Sthenelus the brother 
of Electryon, and went to Thebes, where he was 
purified by Creon. In order to win the hand of 
Alcmene, Amphitryon prepared to avenge the 
death of Alcmene's brothers on the Taphians, 
and conquered them, after Comaetho, the 
daughter of Pterelaus, through her love for 
Amphitryon, cut off the one golden hair on her 
father's head which rendered him immortal. 
During the absence of Amphitryon from Thebes, 
Jupiter visited Alcmene, who became by the 
god the mother of Heracles ; the latter is called 
Amphitryoniades in allusion to his reputed 
father. Amphitryon fell in a war against Er- 
ginus, king of the Minyans (Paus. viii. 14, 15, 
17, ix. 10; Apollod. ii. 4; Hes. Sc. 11; Pind. 
Nem. X. 13, Pijth. ix. 81). Euripides {H. F.) 
represents his death as caused by Heracles after 
the war with the Minyans. The comedy of 
Plautus, called Amphitruo, is a ludicrous re- 
presentation of the visit of Zeus to Alcmene in 
the disguise of her lover Amphitryon. 

Amphoterus {'AfxcpSrepos). [Ac.vbnan.] 

Amphrysus {'A/j-cppva-ds). 1. A small river in 
Thessaly which flowed into the Pagasaean gulf, 
on the banks of which Apollo fed the herds of 
Admetus (pastor ah Amphryso, Verg. Oeorg. 



AMYCUS 

i"r,firi^ Strab. p. 438 ; Ap. Rli. i. 54 ; Ov. Met. 

1. OHD). — 4. bee AiruRYSUs. 

Ampsaga [Wad-el-Kabir, or Sufjhnar), a 
rivei»of N. Africa, wliich divided Numidia from 
Mauretama Sitifensis. It flows past tlic town 
of Cirta (Comtantina). 

Ampsanctus or Amsanctus Lacus (Tm.'o 
d Ansant'i or MiifUi), a small lake in Samniiim 
near Aeeulanum, four miles from the modern 
Frigento. Sulpliurous vapours arose from it. 
Near it was a chapel of the god Mephitis witli 
a cavern from which mephitic vapours also 
came, and which was therefore regarded as an 
entrance to the lower world. (Verg. Aen. vii 
563; Plin. ii. § 208; Cic. Biv. i. 36.) 

Ampsivarii, [Ansibakh.] 

Ampycus {"AfxTrvKos). 1. Son of Pelias, hus- 
band of Clilinis, and father of the famous seer 
Mopsus, who is hence called Ampycides. Pau- 
sanias (v. 17) calls him Ampyx. — 2. Son of 
lapetus, a bard and priest of Ceres, killed by 
Phineus at the marriage of Perseus (Ov. Met. 
V. 111). 

Ampyx. [Ampycus.] 

Amiilius. [Romulus.] 

Amyclae. 1, {'Afim\a.r. 'A^uKXaie 
K\aios '. SMavokhori or Aia Kyriaki ?), an 
ancient town of Laconia on the Eurotas, in a 
beautiful country, 20 stadia SE. of Sparto 
(Polyb. V. 19 ; Liv. xxxiv. 28). It is mentioned 
in the Iliad (ii. 584), and is said to have been 
founded by the ancient Lacedaemonian king 
Amyclas, father of Hyacinthus, and to have 
been the abode of Tyndarus, and of Castor and 
Pollux, who are hence called Amyclaei Fratres 
(Paus. iii. 1 ; Stat. Theh. vii. 413). After the 
conquest of Peloponnesus by the Dorians, the 
Achaeans maintained themselves in Amyclae 
for a long time ; and it was only shortly before 
the first Messenian war that the town was taken 
and destroj'ed by the Lacedaemonians under 
Teleolus. The tale ran that the inhabitants 
had been so often alarmed by false reports of 
the approach of the enemy, that they passed a 
law that no one should speak of the enemy; and 
accordingly when the Lacedaemonians at last 
came, and no one dared to announce their ap- 
proach, ' Amyclae perished through silence : ' 
hence arose the proverb, Amyclis ijjsis tacitur- 
nior (Paus. iii. 2; Strab. p. 364; Serv. ad Aen. 
X. 564). After its destruction by the Lacedae- 
monians Amyclae became a village, and was 
only memorable by the festival of the Hyacinthia 
(see Diet, of Ant. s.v.) celebrated at the place 
annually, and by the temple and colossal statue 
of Apollo, who was hence called Amyclaeus. — 

2. (Amyclanus), an ancient town of Latium, E. 
of Terracina, on the Sinus Amyclanus, was. 
according to tradition, an Achaean colony from 
Laconia. In the time of Augustus the town 
had disapj)eared ; the inhabitants were said to 
have deserted it on account of its being infested 
by serpents (Plin. iii. 9); but when Virgil (Aen. 
X. 564) speaks of tacitae Amyclae, he probably 
transfers to this town the epithet belonging to 
the Amyclae in Laconia [No. 1] (cf. Sil. viii. 
528; Pervigil. Yen. 92). Near Amyclae was 
the Spelunca [Sperlonqa], or natural grotto, a 
favourite retreat of the emperor Tiberius. 

Amyclas. [Am-cL.vE.] 

Amyclides, a name of Hyacinthus, as the 
son of Amyclas. 

Amycus ("Aixvkos), son of Poseidon and Bi- 
thynis, king of the Bebryces, was celebrated 
for his skill in boxing, and used to challenge 
strangers to box with him. When the Argonauts 
came to his dominions, Pollux accepted the 



AMYDON 

challenge and killed him (ApoUod. i. 9; Ap. Bh. 
T\ Oil the Ficoroni Cista he is represented 
as 'bound to a tree by Polydeuces On his 
.rr,Lve o-rew the 'laurus msana, a branch ot 
Si caused strife (Plin. xvi. § 239). . 

Amydon ('A^iuSui'), a town in Macedonia on 
the river Axius {II. ii. 849 ; J uv iii. 69). 

Amymone ('Anvfiiivri), one of the daughters 
of Uanaus and Elephantis. When Danaus ar- 
rived in Argos, the country was suffering from 
a di-ought, and Danaus sent out Amymone to 
fetch water. She was attacked by a satyr, but 
was rescued from his violence by Poseidon, who 
appropriated her to himself, and then showed 
her the wells at Lerna. According to another 
account he bade her draw his trident from the 
rock, from which a tlii-eefold spring gushed 
forth, which was called after her the well and 
river of Amymone. Her son by Poseidon was 
called Nauplius (Apollod. ii. 1 ; Hyg. Fab. 169 ; 
Paus. ii. 87; Strab. p. 368; Eur. Phoen. 188). 

Amynander {'A/xvyavSpos), king of the Atha- 
maiies in Epirus, an aUy of the Romans in their 
war with Pliilip of Macedonia, about B.C. 198, 
but an ally of Antiochus B.C. 189 (Pol. xvi. 27, 
xxii. 8; Liv. xxvii. 30, xxxii. 14, xxxv. 47, 
xxxviii. 1). 

Amyntas {'A^uwras). 1. I- Kmg of Mace- 
donia, reigned from about B.C. 540 to 500, and 
was succeeded by his son Alexander I. He 
acknowledged himself to Megabyzus a vassal 
of Persia. He was in alliance with the Peisis- 
tratids, and offered Hippias a refuge (Hdt. viii. 
139 ; Thuc. ii. 100 ; Paus. ix. 40).— 2. II. King 
of Macedonia, son of Philip, the brother of 



ANACHARSIS 



6E 




Amyntas n.. King of Macedonia, B.C. 398-369. 
Obv., Uead of king ; rev,, horse. 

Perdiccas IE., at first, like his father, prince of 
upper Macedonia (Thuc. ii. 95), obtained the 
throne of Macedonia B.C. 393 by the murder of 
the usurper Pausanias. Soon after his acces- 
sion he was driven from Macedonia by the Illy- 
rians, but was restored to his kingdom by the 
'Thessaliaiis. On his return he was engaged 
in war with the Olynthians, in which he was 
assisted by the Spartans, and by their aid 
Olynthus was reduced in 379. Amyntas united 
Iximself also with Jason of Pherae, and carefully 
cultivated the friendship of Athens. Amyntas 
•died B.C. 370, and left by his wife Eurydice three 
sons, Alexander, Perdiccas, and the famous 
PhUip (Diod. xiv. 89 f., xv. 19, 60 ; Xen. Hell. v. 
2). — 3. Grandson of Amyntas II., was excluded 
T)y Philip from the succession on the death of 
his father Perdiccas III. in B.C. 360. He was 
put to death in the first year of the reign of 
Alexander the Great, 336, for a plot against 
the king's life (Just. xii. 6 ; Curt. vi. 9, 17). — 
4. A Macedonian officer in Alexander's army, 
son of Andromenes. He and his brothers were 
accused of being privy to the conspiracy of 
Philotas in 330, but were acquitted. Some little 
time after he was killed at the siege of a village 
<Arr. iii. p. 72 f.).— 5, A Macedonian traitor, son 
of Antiochus, took refuge at the court of Darius, 
smd became one of the commanders of the 
Oreek mercenaries. He was present at the 



battle of Issus (b.c. 388), and afterwards fled 
to Phoenicia, and having gathered ships went 
to Egypt, got possession of Pelusium, and was 
killed in battle against Mazaces, the Persian 
eovemorof Memphis (Arr. i. 24 f. ; Curt. iii. 11, 
iv. 7 ; Plut. Alex. ; Diod. xvii. 48).— 6. A king 
of Galatia, supported Antony, and fought on 
his side against Augustus at the battle of 
Actium (B.C. 31). He fell in an expedition 
aeamst the town of Homonada or Homona 
(Strab. p. 567).— 7, A Greek writer of a work 
entitled Stathmi (2Ta0/uoO, probably an ac- 
count of the different halting-places of Alex- 
ander the Great in his Asiatic expedition 
(Athen. ii. p. 67 &c.). 

Amyntor ('AixvuTwp), son of Ormenus of 
Eleon in Thessaly, where Autolycus broke mto 
his house, and father of Phoenix, whom he 
cursed on account of unlawful intercourse with 
his mistress. According to Apollodorus he 
was a king of Ormenium, and was slain by 
Heracles, to whom he refused a passage 
through his dominions, and the hand of his 
daughter AstydamIa. (II. ix. 434, x. 226; 
Apollod. ii. 7, iii. 13). According to Ovid (Met. 
xii. 364) he was king of the Dolopes. 

Amyrtaeus ('Aij.vpTa.7os), an Egyptian, 
assumed the title of king, and joined Inarus 
the Libyan in the revolt against the Persians in 
B.C. 460. They at first defeated the Persians 
[AcHAEMENKs], but Were subsequently totally 
defeated, 455. Amyrtaeus escaped, and main- 
tained himself as king in the marshy districts 
of Lower Egypt, till about 414, when the 
Egytians expelled the Persians, and Amyrtaeus 
reigned 6 years. (Hdt. ii. 140, iii. 15 ; Thuc. i. 
110 ; Diod. xi. 74.) 

AjuyruB CA/xvpos), a river in Thessaly, with 
a town of the same name upon it, flowing into 
the lake Boebeis : the country around was 
called the 'AiivpiKbv TveSlov (Strab. 442 ; 
Polyb. V. 99). 

Ajuythaon ('A/u.vdoi.wv), son of Cretheua and 
Tyro, father of Bias and of the seer Melampus, 
who is hence called Amythaomus (Verg. Georg. 
iii. 550). He dwelt at Pylus in Messenia, and 
is mentioned among those to whom the restora- 
tion of the Olympian games was ascribed. 
(Paus^ V. 8 ; Od. xi. 258.) 

Auabon {^Avafiaiv), a district of the Persian 
province of Aria, S. of Aria Proper, containing 
4 towns, which still exist, Phra (Ferrah), Bis 
(Beest or Bost), Gari (Ghore), Nii (Nell). 

Anabura ('Avd/Soupa) a town of Pisidia. It 
stood NW. of Antiocheia and SW. of the river 
Lalandus. Its name seems to have been 
changed to Neapolis between the times of 
Strabo and Pliny, or, rather, it was deserted 
when Neapolis was built near it. (Strab. p. 
570 ; Liv. xxxviii. 15 ; Ramsay). 

Anaces ("Ai/ofces). [Anax, No. 2.] 

Anacharsis ('Avctxopa-ij), a Scythian of 
princely rank, left his native country to travel 
in pursuit of knowledge, and came to Athens, 
about B.C. 594. He became acquainted with 
Solon, and by his talents and acute observa- 
tions, and his simplicity of life, he excited 
general admiration. The fame of his wisdom 
was such, that he was even reckoned by some 
among the seven sages. He was killed by his 
brother Saulius on his return to his native 
country : according to Herodotus, because he was 
introducing the Greek worsliip of Cybele ; 
according to Diogenes Laertius, by accident. 
(Hdt. iv. 76 ; Diog. Laert. i. 101 ; Plut. Sol. 5, 
Oonviv. Sept. Sap.; Lucian, Scytha, Ana- 
charsis ; Athen. pp. 159, 428, 437, 613.) Cicero 

P 



66 ANACREON 

(Tusc. Bisp. V. 32) quotes from one of his 

letters. Those whidi are ascribed to him are 

spurious (ed. Hercher, 1878, Epiatologr. 

Graec.) 

Anacreon {'AvaKpfuv), a celebrated lyric 
poet, born at Teos, an Ionian city in Asia 
Minor. He removed from his native city, with 
the great body of its inhabitants, to Abdera, in 
Tlirace, when Teos was taken by the Persians 
(about B.C. 540), but lived chiefly at Samos, 
undgr the patronage of Polycrates, in whose 
praise he wrote many songs. After the death 
of Polycrates (522), he went to Athens at the 
invitation of th6 tyrant Hipparchus, where he 
became acquainted with Simonides and other 
poets. Ho died ■ at the age of 85, choked, as 
was said, by a grape-stone (Plin. vii. 5 ; Val. 
Max. i.\. 12, 8), probably about 478 : the 
place of his death is uncertain. The Athenians 
set up liis statue in the Acropolis, as the type 
of age still constant to the pleasures of youth 
(Paus. i. 25). The universal tradition of anti- 
quity represents Anacreon as a consummate 
voluptuary ; and his poems prove the truth of 
the tradition. He sings of love and wine with 
hearty good will ; and we see in him the luxury 
of the Ionian inflamed by the fervour of the 
poet. The tale that he loved Sappho is very 
improbable. (Hdt. iii. 121 ; Plat. Charm, p. 
157 ; Hipparch. p. 228 ; Athen. p. 429, 599, 600 ; 
Strab. p. 638.) Of his poems only a few genuine 
fragments have come down to us; and these 
seem to show him as a poet light and graceful, 
but without force and passion. He probably 
followed the Lesbian poets as regards metre 
and style, but wrote in the Ionic dialect. The 
collection of love songs and drinking songs 
which bear his name are of various authorship 
and dates. — Editions : by Fischer, Lips. 1793 ; 
Bergk, Lips. 1878; Eose, 1876; Weise, Lips. 
1878. 

Anactoriiun {'AvcMrdpioV. 'AvaKrSpios), a 
town in Acamania, built by the Corinthians, 




Coin of Anactorium in Acarnania, 
06r., head of Athene, with legend AfaKropttau ; rev., 
Pegasus. 

upon a promontory of the same name (near La 
Madonna) at the entrance of the Ambracian 
gulf. Its inhabitants were removed by Augustus 
after the battle of Actium (b.c. 31) to Nicopolis. 

Anadyomene. [Apheodite.] 

Anagnia (Anagumus: Anagni), an ancient 
town of Latium, the chief town of the Hemici, 
and subsequently both a municipium (having 
first received the civitas sine suffragio as a 
punishment for disaffection) and a Roman 
colony. (Liv. ix. 43; Diod. xx. 80; Plin. iii. 
63.) It lay in a very beautiful and fertile 
country on a hill, at the foot of which the Via 
Xjavicana and Via Praenestina united 
{Compitum Anagninum). In the neighbour- 
hood Cicero had an estate, Anagninum (Gio. 
pro Dom. 30). ^ , 

AnagyrHs {'Avayvpovs, ovvros : 'Avayvpacios, 
'Avayvpovvrdetv. nr. Vari. Ru.), a demus of 
Attica, belonging to the tribe Erectheis, S. of 
Athens, near the promontory Zoster (Strab. p. 
898 ; Paus. i. 81). 



ANAURUS 

Anaitica ('AvaiTiirij), a district of Armenia, 
in wliich the goddess Anai'tis was worshipped • 
also called Acilisene. ' 

Al^ltis ( Ai/aiTij), an Asiatic divinity, whose 
name is also written Anaea, Aneitia, Tanais, 
or N anaea. Her worship prevailed in Armenia, 
Cappadocia, Assyria, Persis, &c., and seems to 
have been a part of the worship, bo common 
among the Asiatics, of the creative powers of 
nature, both male and female. The Greek 
writers sometimes identify Anaitis with 
Artemis, and sometimes with Aphrodite. (Strab 
pp. 512, 559, 733, 738 ; Plut. Artax. 27, Lucull. 
24 ; Paus. iii. 16 ; Amm. Marc, xxiii. 3 ; Clem. 
Alex. p. 43.) 

Anamari or -res, a Gallic people in the plain 
of the Po, in whose land the Romans founded 
Placentia (Polyb. ii. 32). Possibly, however, 
we should here read the name as Ananes 
instead of making this people distinct from the 
following. 

Ananes, a Gallic people, "W. of the Trebia, 
between the Po and the Apennines (Polyb. 
ii. 17). _ 

Ananias ("Ai'ai'ios), a Greek iambic poet, 
contemporary with Hipponax, about B.C. 540. 
(Fragjnents in Bergk, Poetae Lyrici, ii. 1878.) 

Anaphe i^Ava<prt : 'AvacpaTos : Anaphi, 
Nanfio), a small island in the S. of the Aegean 
sea, E. of Thera, with a temple of Apollo 
Aegletes, who was hence called Anapheus 
(Strab. p. 484 ; Ov. Met. vii. 461). 

Anapnlystus ('A>'£i(J)A.ii(rTos : 'AvcupXvffrtos : 
Anavyso), an Attic demus of the tribe Antiochis 
on the SW. coast of Attica, opposite the island 
Eleussa, called after Anaphlystus, son of 
Poseidon (Hdt. iv. 29 ; Strab. p. 398). 

Anapius. [Amphinomus.] 

Anapus i^Avairos). 1. A river in Acama- 
nia, flowing into the Achelous (Thuc. ii. 82). — 
2. (Anapo), a river in Sicily, flowing into the 
sea S. of Syracuse through the marshes of Lysi- 
melia (Thuc. vi. 96; Theocr. i. 68; Ov. Met. 
V. 416). 

Anartes or -ti, a people of Dacia, N. of the 
Theiss (Caes. B. G. vi. 25). 

Anas ("Avas : Guadiana), one of the chief 
rivers of Spain, rises in Celtiberia in the 
mountains near Laminium, forms the boundary 
between Lusitania and Baetica, and flows into 
the ocean by two mouths (now only one) 
(Strab. p. 139 ; Plin. iii. 1). 

Anatollus. 1. Bishop of Laodicea, a.d. 270, 
an Alexandrian by birth, was the author of 
several mathematical and arithmetical works, 
of which some fragments have been preserved, 
— 2. An eminent jurist, was a native of Berytus, 
and afterwards P. P. (praefectus praetorio) of 
niyricum. He died a.d. 361. A work on 
agriculture, often cited in the Geoponica, and a 
treatise concerning Sympathies and Anti- 
pathies, are assigned by many to this Anatolius. 
The latter work, however, was probably ^v^itten 
by Anatolius the philosopher, who was the 
master of lamblichus, and to whom Porphyry 
addressed Homeric Questions. — 3. Professor of 
law at Berytus, is mentioned by Justmion 
among those who were employed in compihng 
the Digest. He wrote notes on the Digest, and 
a very concise conunentary on Justinian's Code. 
Both of these works are cited in the Basilica. 
He perished a,d. 557, in an earthquake at 
Constantinople, whither he had removed from 
Berytus. . „, , . 

Anaurns ('Avavp6s), a river of Thessaly flow- 
uig into the Pagasaean gulf, in which Jason lost 
a Bondal (Ap. Rh. i. 8 ; Athen. p. 72). 



ANAVA 

Anava ("Avoua), an ancient, but early de- 
cayed city of Great Pbrygia, on tlie ealt lake o£ 
the same name, between Celaenae and Colossae 
(Haqee Ghioul) (Hdt. vii. 80). In Frederic 
Barbarossa's march (a.d. 1190) the country is 
described as near the sources of the Maeander 
• per loca desertissiina ubi lacus salinarum.' It 
is a mistake to identify it with Ascauia. 

Anax ("Aral). 1. Agiant, sonof UranuB and 
Gaea, and father of Asterius (Paus. i. 85, yni. 
2.)— 2. An epithet of protecting deities in_ the 
plural "AvaKes, or "Avajcres, or "AvaKts TroTSes, 
used to designate the Dioscuri especially, but 
also the Curetes or the Cabu-i, and the Trito- 
patres (Paus. ii. 22, 6, x. 38, 3 ; Cic. N. D. iii. 21, 
53). 

Anaxagoras ('Ava^aydpas), a Greek philoso- 
pher of the Ionian scliool, was born at Clazo- 
menae in Ionia, B.C. 500. He gave up his 
property to his relations, as he intended to 
devote his life to higher ends, and went to 
Athens at the age of 20 ; here he remained 80 
years, and became the intimate friend and 
teacher of the most eminent men of the time, 
such as Pericles and Euripides. His doctrine 
gave offence to the religious feelings of the 
Athenians ; and the enemies of Pericles avaUed 
themselves of this circumstance to accuse him 
of impiety, B.C. 450. It was only tlu-ough the 
eloquence of Pericles that he was not put to 
death ; but he was sentenced to pay a fine of 5 
talents and to quit Athens. He retired to 
Lampsacus, where he died in 428 at the age of 
72. Anaxagoras was dissatisfied with the 
systems of his predecessors, the Ionic philo- 
sophers, and struck into a new path. The Ionic 
philosophers had endeavoured to explain nature 
and its various phenomena by regarding matter 
in its different forms and modifications as the 
cause of all things. Anaxagoras, on the other 
hand, conceived the necessity of seeking a 
higher cause, independent of matter, and this 
cause he considered to be vovs — that is, mind, 
thought, or intelligence. 

Anazander ('Avaf^avlpos), king of Sparta, son 
of Eurycrates, fought in the second Messenian 
war, about B.C. 068 (Paus. iii. 14, 4, iv. 16, 2). 

Anaxandrides {'Ava.^av5pl5t]s). 1. Son of 
Tlieopompus, king of Sparta (Hdt. viii. 181). 
— 2. King of Sparta, son of Leon, reigned from 
about B.C. 560 to 520. Having a barren wife 
whom he would not divorce, the ephors made 
him take with her a second. By her he had 
Cleomenes; and after this by his first wife 
Dorieus, Leonidas, and Cleombrotus (Hdt. i. 
65, V. 39; Paus. iii. 3).— 3. An Athenian comic 
poet of the middle comedy, a native of Camirus 
in Ehodes, began to exhibit comedies in b.c. 
370. Aristotle held him in high esteem [Bhet. 
in. 10 ; Eth. Eud. vi. 10 ; Nicom. vii. 10) ; one 
of the best known fragments of his plays con- 
trasts the religious observances of Greeks and 
Egyptians (Athen. p. 874). He wrote also 
dithyrambs, which have not survived (Meineke 
Frag.). ' 

Anaxarchus {'Ava^dpxos), a philosopher of 
Abdera, of the school of Democritus (a pupil of 
Metrodorus), accompanied Alexander into Asia 
(B.C. 334), and gained his favour by flattery and 
wit. He was named 6 evSai/xoviKds, as being an 
optimist in temper. After the death of Alex- 
ander (323), Anaxarchus was thrown by ship- 
Wreck into the power of Nicocreon, king of 
Salamis in Cyprus, to whom he had given mortal 
offence, and who had him pounded to death in 
a stone mortar. (Cic. Tusc. ii. 22, 52, N. D iii 
88, 82 ; Arr. iv. 10 ; Plut. Alex. 52.) 



ANAXIMENES 



67 



Anaxarete ('Avajapcrr)), a maiden of Cyprus, 
remained unmoved by the love of Iphis, who 
at last, in despair, hanged himself at lier door. 
She looked with indifference at the funeral of 
the youth, but Venus changed her into a stone 
statue, which was preserved in the temple of 
Venus Prospiciens ('ArppoS. TrapaKvivTovaa] at 
Salamis in Cyprus. Ant. Liberalis tells us the 
same story of a Greek Arsinoe beloved by a 
Phoenician youth. It may be connected with 
the approach of the Greek colonists to the wor- 
ship of Astarte (Ov. Met. xiv. 698; Ant. Lib- 
39). 

Anaxibla {'Ava^ipla), daughter of PleistheneSj 
sister of Agamemnon, wife of Strophius, and 
mother of Pylades. 

Anaxiblus ("Arali'/Sios), the Spartan admiral 
stationed at Byzantium on the return of the 
Cyrean Greeks from Asia, B.C. 400. In 389 he 
succeeded Dercyllidas in the command in the 
Aegean, but fell in a battle against Iphicrates, 
near Antaudrus, in 888 (Xen. An. v. 1, vi. 1 ; 
Hell. iv. 8). 

Anaxidamus ('Ava^iSafios), king of Sparta, 
son of Zeuxidamus, lived to the end of the 
second Messenian war, B.C. 668 (Paus. iii. 7). 

Anaxilaus ('Ava^lf^aos) or Anaxilas ('Acoff- 
Aas). 1. Tjfrant of Ehegium, of Messenian 
origin, took possession of Zancle in Sicily about 
B.C. 494, peopled it with fresh inliabitants, and 
changed its name into Messene. He died in 
476 (Hdt. vi. 22, vii. 165 ; Thuo. vi. 4).— 2. Of 
Byzantium, surrendered Byzantium to the 
Athenians in B.C. 408. — 3. An Athenian comic 
poet of the middle comedy, contemporary with 
i Plato and Demosthenes. We have a few frag- 
! ments, and the titles of 19 of his comedies. 
(Meineke). — i, A physician and Pythagorean 
lahilosopher, bom at Larissa, was banished by 
Augustus from Italy, b.c. 28, on the charge of 
magic (Euseb. Chron. ad Olymp. 138). 

Anaximander ('Aua^ifiavSpos), of Miletus, 
was born b.c. 610, and died 547 in bis 64th 
year. He was one of the earliest philosophers 
of the Ionian school, and the immediate suc- 
cessor of Thales, its first founder. He first 
used the word apxv to denote the origin of 
things, or rather the material out of which they 
were formed : he held that this apx^ was the 
infinite {rh 6.TTeipov), everlasting, and divine, 
thoug:h not attributing to it a spiritual or 
intelligent nature ; and that it was the sub- 
stance into which all things were resolved on 
their dissolution. He was a careful observer of 
nature, and was distinguished by his astro- 
nomical, mathematical, and geographical know- 
ledge : he is said to have introduced the use of 
the gnomon into Greece. 

Anaximenes ('AvofiyUEj/Tjs). 1. Of Miletus, 
the third in the series of Ionian philosophers, 
flourished about B.C. 544; but as he was the 
teacher of Anaxagoras, b.c. 480, he must have 
lived to a great age. He considered air to be 
the first cause of all things, the primary form, 
as it were, of matter, into which the other ele- 
ments of the universe were resolvable. — 2. Of 
Lampsacus, accompanied Alexander the Great 
to Asia (B.C. 334), and wrote a history of Pliilip 
of Macedonia; a history of Alexander the 
Great; and a history of Greece in 12 books, 
from the earliest mythical ages down to the 
death of Epaminondas. Of these a few frag- 
ments remain. He also enjoyed great reputa- 
tion as a rhetorician, and is the author of a 
scientific treatise on rhetoric, the 'PTjTopi/cij 
vphs 'AKe^avSpov, usually printed in the works 
of Aristotle. He was an enemy of Theophrastus, 

F 2 



68 ANAZARBUS 

and published under his name a work calumniat- 
ing Sparta, Athens, and Thobes, which produced 
great exasperation against TheophrastuB. (Paus. 
vi. 18, 3 ; Diod. xv. 70, 89.) 

AnazarbUB or -a {"Ava^ap^ds or -o : 'Ava^ap- 
fievs, Anazarbenus : Anusarhaor Navcrsa,'R\i.), 
a considerable city of Cilicia Campestris, on the 
left bank of the river Pyramus, at the foot of a ' 
mountain of the same name. Augustus con- 
ferred upon it the name of Caesarea (ad Ana- 
zarbum) ; and, on the division of Cilicia into 
the two provinces of Prima and Secunda, it 
was made the capital of the latter. It was 
almost destroyed by eartliquakes in the reigns 
of Justinian and Justin. 

Ancaeus ('Ayicahs). 1. Son of the Arcadian 
Lycurgus and Creophile or Eurynome, and 
father of Agapenor. He was one of the Argo- 
nauts, and took part in the Calydonian hunt, 
in which he was killed by the boar (Ap. Rh. i. 
164 ; Paus. viii. 4 ; Ov. Met. viii. 391).— 2. Son 
of Poseidon and Astypalaea or Alta, king of the 
Leleges in Samos, husband of Samia, and father 
of Perilaus, Enodos, Samos, Alitherses, and 
Parthenope. His story shows pomts of resem- 
blance to that of the son of Lycurgus, for he 
also is represented as one of the Argonauts : 
but they differ in that the son of Lycurgus is 
celebrated for strength ; the son of Poseidon 
is noted for skilful seamanship : he became 
the helmsman of the ship Argo after the death 
of Tiphys (Ap. Bh. i. 188, ii. 867-900). A well- 
known proverb is said to have originated with 
this Ancaeus. He had been told by a seer 
that he would not live to taste the wine of his 
vineyard ; and when he was afterwards on the 
point of drinking a cup of wine, the growth of 
his own vineyard, he laughed at the seer, who, 
however, answered, ttoAAo /U6To|i/ TrdKei kvAikos 
Koi ^'^fos &Kpov, ' There is a many a shp be- 
tween the cup and the lip.' At the same instant 
Ancaeus was informed that a wild boar was 
near. He put down his cup, went out against 
the animal, and was killed by it (Ap. Rh. I.e. ; 
Tzetzes and Lycophr. 488). 

Ancalites, a people of Britain (Caes. B. G. v. 
21). They are placed by some writers at Hen- 
ley-on-Thames, on the Oxfordshire bank. 

ft. Ancharlus, tribune of the plebs, B.C. 59, 
took an active part in opposing the agrarian 
law of Caesar. He was praetor in 56, and suc- 
ceeded L. Piso in the province of Macedonia. 
(Cic. pro Sest. 53, 113 ; in Pis. 86, 89 ; ad Favi. 
x:iii. 40). 

Anchesmus ("Ayxf^M'^s). ^ ^^^^ 
Athens, with a temple of Zeus, who was hence 
called Anchesmius. 

Anchiale and -lus ('A7xiaA.T7). 1. {Akiali), 
a town in Thrace on the Black Sea, on the 
borders of Moesia (Strab. p. 329 ; Ov. Trist. i. 
9^ 36). — 2, Also Anchialos, an ancient city of 
Cilicia, W. of the Cydnus near the coast, said 
to have been built by Sardanapalus (Strab. p. 
672 ; Athen. p. 529 ; Arrian, ii. 5). 

Anchises {'Ayxio'ris), son of Capys and 
Themis, the daughter of Ilus, king of Dardanus 
on Mount Ida. As descended by the royal line 
from Zeus, he is called &va^ avSpHv (see II. v. 
268 ; XX. 215-240). In beauty he equalled the 
immortal gods, and was beloved by Aphrodite, 
by whom ho became the father of Aeneas, who 
is hence called Anchisiadcs (Hymn, ad Ven. 
45 seq. ; Hes. Thcog. 1008). The goddess warned 
him never to betray the real mother of the 
child ; but as on one occasion he boasted of his 
intercourse with the goddess, he was struck 
by a flash of lightning, which according to 



ANCU8 

some traditions killed, but according to others 
only blinded or lamed him. Virgil in his 
Aeneid makes Anchises survive the capture of 
Trojv and Aeneas carries his father on his 
shoulders from the burning city. He further 
relates that Anchises died soon after the first 
arrival of Aeneas in Sicily, and was buried on 
mount Eryx. This tradition seems to have 
been believed in Sicily, for Anchises had a 
sanctuary at Egesta, and the funeral games 
celebrated in Sicily in liis honour continued 
down to a late period. There is, however, the 
greatest difference of traditions as to his burial- 
place: it was in Ida, and honoured by herds- 
men (Eustath. ad II. xii. 98) ; in Pallene 
(Schol. ad II. xiv. 459) ; in Arcadia, where 
Aeneas was supposed to have settled for a while 
on his way to Sicily, having landed on the 
Laconian coast (Paus. viii. 12, 8) ; in Epirus 
(Procop. Goth. iv. 22) ; in Sicily (Verg. Aen. v. 
760 ; Hyg. Fah. 260) ; in Latium (see Serv. 
ad Aen. i. 570, iii. 711). This variation is 
accounted for by the variety of legends about 
the wanderings of Aeneas [see that article]. 

AncMsia ('A7X"''''''')i niountain in Arcadia, 
NW. of Mantiuea, where Anchises is said to 
have bsen buried [see above]. 

Anoon {AevKocrvpav 'AyKciv), a harbour and 
town at the mouth of the river Iris in Pontus. 

Anoona or Ancon ('A7xc6i' : Anconitanus : 
Ancona), a town in Picenum on the Adriatic 
sea, lying in a bend of the coast between two 
promontories, and hence called Ancon or an 
' elbow.' It was built by the Syracusans, who 




Coin of Ancona in Italy. 
Obv., head of Aphrodite ; rev., bent arm holding a palm 
branch. 

settled there about e.g. 392, discontented with 
the rule of the elder Dionysius ; and under the 
Romans, who made it a colony, it became one 
of the most important seaports of the Adriatic. 
It possessed an excellent harbour, completed 
by Trajan, and it carried on an active trade 
with the opposite coast of Ulyricum. The town 
was celebrated for its temple of Venus and its 
purple dye : the surrounding country produced 
good wine and wheat (Strab. p. 241 ; Plin. iii. 
§ 111 ; Caes. B. G. i. 11 ; Tac. Ann. iii. 9 ; Juv. 
iv. 40 ; Catull. 36, 18). The coin shows Apluo- 
dite as tutelary deity. 

Ancorarius Mons, a mountain in Mauretania 
Caesariensis, S. of Caesarea, aboundmg in citron 
trees, the wood of which was used by the Roman s 
for furniture (Phn. xiii. § 95). 

Ancore. [Nicaea.] 

Ancus Marcius, fourth legendary king of 
Rome, reigned 24 years, B.C. 640-616, and is 
said to have been the son of Numa's daughter. 
Like Numa he embodies the priestly or ponti- 
fical institutions of the regal period, but esi^ 
cially has assigned to him those religious cere- 
monies which belonged to war. He conquered 
the Latins, took many Latin towns, transported 
the inhabitants to Rome, and gave them the 
Aventine to dwell on : these conquered Latms 
formed the original Plebs. He also founded a 
colony at Ostia, at the mouth of the Tiber; 
built a fortress on the Janioulum as a protection 



ANCYRA 

against Etruria, and united it with the city by 
a bridge across the Tiber ; dug the ditch of the 
Quirites, which was a defence for the open 
OT^ound between the CaeUan and the Palatine ; 
^d built a prison. He was succeeded by Tar- 
quinius Priscus. {Liv. i. 82 ; Dionys. iii. 86; 
Cic. de llep. ii. 18.) _ 

Ancyra {'KyKvpa: 'AjKvpavds, Ancyranus). 
(Angora or Enguri), a city of Galatia in Asia 
Minor, in 39° 5C' N. lat. It was an important 
junction of roads both , pre-Roman and Konian, 
especially the roads from Byzantium and Chal- 
cedon to Tavium and Armenia beyond the 
Halys, and the roads southwards to CiUcia and 
westwards to Sardis. In the time of Augustus, 
when Galatia became a Roman province, Ancyra 
was the capital : it was originally the chief city 
of a Gallic tribe named the Tectosages, who 
came from the S. of France. Under the Roman 
empire it had the name of Sebaste, which in 
Greek is equivalent to Augusta in Latin. 
Hence the inhabitants of the district of which 
it was metropolis were called 2f /3aa-T7)col Ti/crti- 
aayfs, and Ancyra was called ^efiaarii Tckto- 
adyaiy, to distinguish it from two other Sebastes 
of Galatia, Tavium and Pessinus. When Au- 
gustus recorded the chief events of his life on 




Coin of Ancyra in Phrygia. 
Obv., head of the Senate ; rcB., -within wreath ankypanon. 

bronze tablets at Rome, the citizens of Ancyra 
had a copy made, which was cut on marble 
blocks and placed at Ancyra m a temple dedi- 
cated to Augustus and Rome. This inscription 
is called the Monumentum (or Marmor) Ancy- 
ranum (Mommsen, 1865; C.I.L.i.). It has 
erroneously been supposed that there was 
another Ancyra in Phrygia, for which Strab. 
pp. 567, 576, "and Ptol. v. 2, 22 have been cited, 
but the fact is that both these writers some- 
times (though not consistently) extend Phrygia 
so as to include part of Galatia. 

Andania ('Ai/Sacfo : 'Av^avi^vs, 'AvSavios), a 
town in Messenia, between Megalopolis and 
Messene, the capital of the kings of the race of 
the Leleges, abandoned by its inhabitants 
in the second Messenian war, and from that 
time a mere village. Pausanias found only 
ruins. Oechalia is identified by Strabo with 
Andania, but by Pausanias with Carnasium, one 
mile distant, where mysteries were celebrated. 
(See Oechalia ; Paus. iv. 33, 6 ; Strab. pp. 339, 
350 ; Liv. xxxvi. 31.) 

Andecavi, Andegavi, Andes, a Gallic people 
N. of the Loire, with a town of the same name, 
also called J uliomagus, now ^nf/ers (Caes. .B. G. 
ii. 35 ; Tac. Ann. iii. 40). 

Andeira (ra 'AfSfipa : 'AvSeiprji/rfs), a city of 
Mysia, celebrated for its temple of Cybele sur- 
named ' kvheipt]vi) (Plin. v. § 126). 

Andematunnum. [Lingones.] 

Anderida, a Roman station in South Britain 
on the site of Pevensey in Sussex. The district 
Anderida (which is said to be named from a 
Celtic word andred, meaning uninhabited or 
■forest' land) formed a wide tract of the 
Weald of Kent and Sussex, extending into 
Hampshire. 



ANDOCIDES 69 

Anderltum {Anterieitx), a town of the Gabali 
in Aquitania (Caes. B. G. vii. 75). 

Andes. 1. See Andecavi. — 2. A pagus or i 
township near Mantua, the birthplace of Virgil. 
Whether it was the name of a single vicus, or 
village, is not certain ; but an old tradition 
(Dante, Purg. xviii. 83) identifies it with Piatola 
on the Mincio, about 3 miles below Mantua. ; 
Whether this is correct or not, it cannot have I 
been many miles from Mantua, and it is hard I 
to account for the ' xxx milia ' in Probus, unless j 
he meant to say 30 miles from Cremona. I 

Andocides ('AfSo/flSTjs). 1. Son of Leogoras, 
wlio fought against the Peisistratidae (Andoc. 
de My St. § 106). He was one of the envoys for 
the truce with Sparta, is. c. 445, and held com- j 
mand with Glaucon at Corcyra B.C. 435 (Andoc. 
de Pace, § 6; Thuc. i. 51).— 2. Grandson of the 
preceding, son of another Leogoras, was the 
second in date of the Ten Attic Orators. He was ^ 
born about B.C. 440 (cf. Andoc. deBed.^ 7 ; [Lys.] 
in Andoc. ^ iOi). In 415 he was implicated in j 
the charge of mutOating the Hermae (he does 
not seem to have been connected with the other 
charge of profaning the mysteries), and being 
denounced by Diocleides along with his father 
and other relations and supposed accomplices 
(42 in all) was imprisoned. To save these per- 
sons he revealed what he knew : viz. that cer- 
tain persons previously nnmed by Teucros, and 
four others, were guilty. He and his relations 
thus escaped; but as he was regarded as impli- 
cated in the impiety the promise of indemnity 
did not save him from ari/xia, which involved 
his banishment. The truth seems to have been i 
that he admitted belonging to the club at which 
the mutilation had been proposed, and by the < 
members of wliich it was carried out, but he 
himself was ill at the time (so he stated in the 
speech 15 years afterwards), and took no part 
in the act. In his exile he traded in timber 
and supplied the fleet at Samos with oars. 
Hence when he attempted to live at Athens in 
411 he was denounced for supplying the de- 
mocracy at Samos and driven from Athens. 
He then despatched com from Cyprus to 
Athens, which facilitated his return to Athens 
in the following year, and it was at this time 
that he delivered the speech still extant, 0?i his 
Meturn, in which he petitioned for permission 
to reside at Athens, but in vain. He was thus 
driven into exile a third time, and went to reside 
at Elis. In 403 he again returned to Athens 
upon the overthrow of the tyranny of the Thirty 
by ThrasybuluB, and the proclamation of the 
general amnesty. He was now allowed to 
remain quietly at Athens for the next 4 years, 
but in 399 his enemies accused him of having 
profaned the mysteries : he defended himself 
in the oration still extant. On the Mysteries, 
and was acquitted. In 391 he was sent as 
ambassador to Sparta to conclude a peace, 
which on his return in 390 he defended unsuc- 
cessfully in the extant speech On the Peace 
with Lacedaemon. He seems to have died I 
soon afterwards, perhaps in exile. Besides the ' ' 
three orations already mentioned there is a , 
fourth against Alcibiades, said to have been j 
deUvered in 415, which is spurious. Andocides 
was not a trained rhetorician, and his speeches 
have not art or grace of style, and are lacking 
in skill of arrangement ; on the other hand, he 
is unaffected and natural, and has passages of i 
forcible and telling narrative (e.g. de Myst. \ 
§ 43 f., 48 f.). It is to his credit that his advice ' 
to accept the peace with Lacedaemon was sound i 
statesmanship, though rejected by his country- i 



70 ANDRAEMON 

men. — Editions. Oratures Attici, Bekker 1828, 
Baiter 1850 C. Miillei- 1808; text by Teubner, 
1871. 

Andraemon {'Kvipaitiuiv). 1. Husband of 
Gorge, daughter of Oeneus king of Calydon, in 
Aetolia, whom he succeeded, and father of 
Thoas, who is hence called /Indraemonidea {II. 
ii. 688 ; Od. xiv. '109 ; Paus. x. 88, 5).— 2. Son of 
Oxylus, and husband of Dryope, who was 
mother of Amphissus by Apollo (Ov. Met. ix. 
803 ; Ant. Lib. 32). 

Andriscus ['t^vhplaKos), a man of low origin, 
who pretended to be a natural son of Perseus, 
king of Macedonia, was seized by Demetrius, 
king of Syria, and sent to Rome. He escaped 
from Rome, assumed the name of Philip, and 
obtained possession of Macedonia, B.C. 149. 
He defeated the praetor Juventius, but was con- 
quered by Caecilius Metellus, and taken to 
Rome to adorn the triumph of the latter, 148. 
(Veil. Pat. i. 11 ; Plor. ii. 14 ; Amm. Marc. xiv. 
11, 31 ; Liv. Ep. 49, 50, 52.) 

Andrdcles ('Ai^Spo/cAjjs), an Athenian dema- 
gogue. He was an enemy of Alcibiades ; and 
it was chiefly owing to his exertions that Alci- 
biades was banished. After this event, An- 
drocles was for a time at the head of the 
democratical party ; but in B.C. 411 he was put 
to death by the oligarchical government of the 
Pour Hundred (Thuc. viii. 65 ; Aristoph. Vesp. 
1187 ; Pint. Ale. 19 ; Andoc. de M%jst. 27). 

Androclus, the slave of a Roman consular, 
was sentenced to be exposed to the wild beasts 
in the circus ; but a lion which was let loose 
upon him, instead of springing upon his victim, 
exhibited signs of recognition, and began licking 
him. Upon inquiry it appeared that Androclus 
had been compelled by the severity of his 
master, while in Africa, to run away from him. 
Having one day taken refuge in a cave from the 
heat of the sun, a lion entered, apparently in 
great pain, and seeing him, went up to him and 
held out his paw. Androclus found that a large 
thorn had pierced it, which he drew out, and 
the lion was soon able to use his paw again. 
They lived together for some time in the cave, 
the lion catering for his benefactor. But at 
last, tired of this savage life, Androclus left the 
cave, was apprehended by some soldiers, brought 
to Rome, and condemned to the wild beasts. 
He was pardoned, and presented with the lion, 
which he used to lead about the city. (Gell. v. 
14 ; Sen. de Belief . ii. 19 ; Aelian. V. H. vii. 48.) 

AndrogeOS (^Pi.vZp6y€a>s), son of Minos and 
Pasiphae, or Crete, conquered all his opponents 
in the games of the Panathenaea at Athens. 
This extraordinary good luck, however, became 
the cause of his destruction, though the mode 
of his death is related differently. According 
to some accounts Aegeus, fearing his strength, 
sent him to fight against the Marathonian bull, 
who killed him ; according to others, he was 
assassinated by his defeated rivals on his road 
to Thebes, whither he was going to take part in 
a solemn contest (Apollod. iii. 1. 2, 15. 7 ; Paus. 
i. 27, 9). Propertius (ii. 1. 61) speaks of his 
being recalled to life by Aesculapius. A third 
account related that he was assassinated by i 
Aegeus himself (Diod. iv. 60). Minos made j 
■war on the Athenians in consequence of the 
death of his son, and imposed upon them the 
tribute of seven youths and seven maidens 
from which they were delivered by Theseus. 
At Phalerum there was an altar called ' the : 
Altar of the Hero,' which Pausanias (i. 1) states ] 
to be really the altar of Androgeos. In the 
games of the Ceramicus for the son of Minos, 



ANDROMEDA \ 

he is Icnown as Eurygj-es (Hesych. a.v. itr' 
Evpuyvy^a'^uv: cf. Hes. _/r. 106). . 

Andromache ('AvSpoixdxv), a daughter of 
EctKj^i, king of the Cilician Thebes, and one of 
the nohloHt female characters in the Iliad. 
Her father and her 7 brothers were slaui by 
Achilles at the taking of Thebes, and her 
mother, who had purchased her freedom by a 
large ransom, was killed by Artemis {11. vi. 
414 fE.). She was married to Hector, by whom 
she had a son Scaraandrius (Astyanax), and for 
whom she entertained the most tender love 
(cf. II. xxii. 400, xxiv. 725). On the taking of 
Troy her son was hurled from the wall of the 
city, and she herself fell to the share of Neo- 
ptolemus (Pyrrhus), the son of Achilles, who took 
her to Epirus, and to whom she bore 8 sons, 
Molossus, Pielus, and Pergamus. Slie after- 
wards married Helenus, a brother of Hector, 
who ruled over Chaonia, a part of Epirus, and 
to whom she bore Cestrinus. (Verg. Aen. iii. 295 ; 
Paus. i. 11; Pind. Nem. iv. 82, vii. 50.) In 
Euripides, Androm., she lives until the death 
of Neoptolemus in Phthia. After the death of 
Helenus, she followed her son Pergamus to 
Asia, where an heroum was erected to her. 

Andromachus {'AvSpd/mxos). 1. Ruler of 
Tauromenium in Sicily about B.C. 344, and 
father of the historian Timaeus (Plut. Tim. 10 ; 
Diod. xvi. 7, 68). — 2. Of Crete, physician to the 
emperor Nero, a.d. 54-68 ; was the first person 
on whom the title of Archiater was conferred, 
and was celebrated as the inventor of a famous 
compound medicine and antidote called Theri- 
aca Andromachi, which retains its place in 
some foreign Pharmacopoeias to the present 
day. Andromachus has left the directions for 
making this mixture in a Greek elegiac poem, 
consisting of 174 lines, edited by Tidicaeus, 
Tiguri, 1607, and Leinker, Normib. 1754 ; Kiihn, 
1826. 

Andromeda ('Ai'Spo^te'57;), daughter of the 
Aethiopian king Cepheus and Cassiopea. [The 
story belongs also to Phoenicia and is localised 
at Joppa : see Strab. pp. 43, 759 ; Pans. iv. 35, 
9 ; Plin. v. § 59.] Her mother boasted that 
the beauty of her daughter surpassed that 
of the Nereids, who prevailed on Poseidon to 
visit the country by an inundation and a 
sea-monster. The oracle of Ammon promised 
deliverance if Andromeda was given up to 
the monster ; and Cepheus, obhged to yield to 




Andromeda and I'orseus. (From a Torra-ootta.j 



the wishes of his people, chained Andromeda 
to a rock. Here she was found and saved by 
Perseus, who slew the monster and obtained 
her as his wife. Andromeda had previously 
been promised to Phineus, and this gave rise to 
the famous fight of Phineus and Perseus at the 
wedding, in which the former and all his asso- 
ciates were slain (Ov. Met. v. 1 seq.). After 



ANDRONICUS 

I her death, she was placed among the stars. 
fApoUod. ii. i ; Hyg. Fab. 64 ; Poet. Ast. ii. 10 ; 
I Aiit. Phaen. 198 ; Ov. Met. iv. 662.) 

Andronicus {'AvSp6viKos). 1. Cyrrhestes, 

go colled from his native place, Cyrrha, probably 
I lived about b.c. 100, and built the octagonal 
tower at Athens, called ' the tower of the 
, winds ' (Vitr. i. 6, 4 ; of. Diet, of Ant. b.v. Horo- 
■ logium). — 2. Livius Andronicus, the earliest 
I Boman poet, was a Greek, probably a native of 
1 Tarentum. He was brought to Rome B.C. 275 
I and became the slave of M. Livius Salinator, 
by whom he was manumitted, and from whom 
he received the Roman name Livius. He 
obtained at Rome a perfect knowledge of the 
1 Latin language. He was employed by M. 
1 Livius to teach his sons (and perhaps other 
, children), and for the benefit of his pupils trans- 
1 lated the Odyssey into Saturnian verse (Cic. 
. Brut. 18, 71 ; Gell. xviii. 9), of which some 
I fragments remain (Wordsworth, Fr.). He also 
I translated tragedies and a few comedies from 
I the Greek, using in them some of the Greek 
metres, especially the trochaic. His first play 
was acted B.C. 240, and he himself was one of 
the actors (Liv. vii. 2). La B.C. 207 he was 
appointed by the Pontifex to write a poem on 
the victory at Sena (Liv. xxvii. 37). He cannot 
be called an original poet, but he gave the first 
impulse to Latin literature. From Horace {Ep. 
ii. 1. 69) we learn that his poems, probably the 
translation of the Odyssey in particular, long 
remained a school-book. (Fragments in Duntzer, 
1835 ; Ribbeck, Seen. Bom. 1871 ; Wordsworth.) 
— 3. Of Rhodes, a Peripatetic philosopher at 
Rome, about b.c. 58. He published a new 
edition of the works of Aristotle and Theo- 
phrastus, which formei-ly belonged to the 
library of Apellicon, and which were brought to 
Rome by Sulla with the rest of Apellicon's 
library in B.C. 84. Tyrannio commenced this 
task, but apparently did not do much towards 
it (Strab. 665 ; Gell. xx. 5 ; Aristoteles). The 
arrangement which Andronicus made of Ari- 
stotle's writings seems to be the one which 
forms the basis of our present editions. He 
wrote many commentaries upon the works of 
Aristotle ; but none is extant, for the para- 
phrase of the Nicomachean Ethics ascribed to 
him was not his work. 

Andropolis CAvSpwv ttSKis : Chabur), a city 
of Lower Egypt, on the W. bank of the Canopic 
branch of the Nile, was the capital of the Nonios 
Andropolites, and, under the Romans, the sta- 
tion of a legion. 

Andros ('AvSpos : 'AvSpios : Andro), the most 
northerly and one of the largest islands of the 
Cyclades, SE. of Euboea, 21 miles long and 8 
broad, early attained importance, and colonised 
Acanthus and Stagira about b.c. 654 (Thuc. iv. 
84, 88). It was taken by the Persians in their 
invasion of Greece, was afterwards subject to 
the Athenians, at a later time to the Mace- 
donians, and at length to Attains III., king of 
PergamuB, on whose death (b.c. 133) it passed 
with the rest of his dominions to the Romans 
(Hdt. viii. Ill, 121; Liv. xxxi. 45). It was 
celebrated for its wine, whence the whole island 
was regarded as sacred to Dionysus (Diet. Ant. 
s.v. Theoxenia). Its chief town, also called 
Andros, contained a celebrated temple of Dio- 
nysus, and a harbour of the name of Gaureleon, 
and a fort Gauriou. 

Androtion ('hvSporloov). 1. An Athenian 
orator, and a contemporary of Demosthenes, 
agamst whom the latter delivered an oration, 
which is still extant.— 2. The author of an 



ANIO 71 

Atthia, or a work on the history of Attica (Paus. 
vi. 7, 2, X. 8, 1). ' 

Anemdrea, afterwards Anemolea {'Avefidpeta, 
'Avf/xtiKdaj, a town on a hill on the borders of 
Phocis and Delphi {11. ii. 521 ; Strab. p. 423). 

Anemurium ('Ave/Mipiov : A7iamwr), a town 
and promontory at the S. point of Cilicia, oppo- 
site to CyjiruB. 

Angerona or Angeronia, a Roman goddess 
respecting whom we have different statements, 
some representing her as the goddess of silence, 
others as the goddess of anguish and fear — that 
is, the goddess who not only produces this state 
of mind, but also relieves men fi-om it. Her 
statue stood in the temple of Volupia, with her 
mouth bound and sealed up. Hence an ancient 
surmise that she was a protectress of Rome, 
keeping in silence a secret name of the city 
(Plin. iii. § 65). A modern theory is that she 
was a goddess of the new year, her festival 
falling at the winter solstice {C. I. L. i. p. 409), 
and in this view her name is derived ab an- 
gerendo, i.e. from the turning back of the sun. 
If so we can only suppose the attitude of silence 
to denote that none can reveal what the new 
year will bring. Her festival, called Angero- 
nalia, Divalia, or feriae divae Angeronae, 
was on Dec. 21. (Macrob. i. 10, 7 ; Varr. L. L. 
vi. 23; Plm. I. c. ; Kal. Praenest.) 

Angites {^Ayy'iT-qs : Anghista), a river in 
Macedonia, flowing into the Strymon (Hdt. vii. 
113). 

Angitia or Anguitia, a goddess worshipped 
by the Marsians and Marrubians, who lived 
about the shores of the lake Fucinus. Origi- 
nally an Italian deity, she was later made a sister 
of Medeia, or identified with Medeia herself 
(Verg. Aen. vii. 759 ; Serv. ad loc. ; Sil. Ital. 
viii. 500; Plin. \-ii. 15, xxv. 10; Gell. xvi. 11.) 

Angli or Anglii, a German people of the 
race of the Suevi, on the left bank of the Elbe, 
afterwards passed over with the Saxons into 
Britain, which was called after them England. 
[Saxones.] (Tac. Gertn. 40 ; Ptol. ii. 11.) 

Angrivarii, a German people dwelling on 
both sides of the Visurgis {Weser), separated 
from the Cherusci by an agger or mound of 
earth (Tac. Ann. ii. 19). They were generally 
on friendly tei-ms with the Romans, but rebelled 
in A.D. 16, and were subdued. Towards the end 
of the first century they extended their terri- 
tories southwards, and, in conjunction with the 
Chamavi, took possession of part of the territory 
of the Bructeri, S. and E. of the Lippe, the 
Angaria or Engem of the middle ages. (Tac. 
Germ. 84.) 

Anicetus, a freedman of Nero, and formerly 

his tutor, was employed by the emperor in the 
execution of many of his crimes ; he was after- 
wards banished to Sardinia, where he died. 

Anicius Gallus. [G.ajllus.] 

Anigrus ("Aviypos : Ma-yro-Potomo), a small 
river in the Triphylian Elis, the Minyetus (M(- 
vviiios) of Homer {11. xi. 721), rises in M. Lapi- 
thas, and flows into the Ionian sea near Sami- 
cum ; its waters are sulphurous, and have a 
disagreeable smeU, and its fish are not eatable. 
This, according to the legend, was caused by 
the wounded Centaurs bathing in it to wash 
out the poison from the aiTows of Heracles 
(Strab. pp. 344-347 ; Paus. v. 5 ; Ov. Met. xv. 281). 
Near Samicum was a cave sacred to the Nymphs 
Anigrides {'AvtyplSes or 'A;'i7pio66s), "where 
persons with cutaiveous diseases were cured by 
the waters of the river. 

Anio, anciently Anien (hence Gen. Anienis • 
Teverone or VAniene), in Greek 'Avlicv and 



72 ANIUS 

'Avlns, a river, the most celebrated of the tri- 
butaries of the Tiber, rises in the mountains of 
the Hernioi near Treba (Trevi), flows first NW. 
and then SW. through narrow mountain- valleys, 
receives the brook Digentia {Licenza) above 
Tibur, forms at Tibur beautiful waterfalls (hence 
praeceps Anio, Hor. Od. i. 7, 13 ; of. Strab. 
p. 288 ; Stat. Silv. i. 3. 73), and flows, form- 
ing the boundary between Latium and the land 
of the Sabines, into the Tiber, 3 miles above 
Rome, where the town of Anteranae stood. The 
water of the Anio was conveyed to Rome by 
two aqueducts, the .4 mo vetus svciAAnio iiovua. 
(See Diet, of Ant. s.v. Aqaaediictiis.) 

Anius ("Avios), son of Apollo (according to 
others, of Zaiex, who afterwards married his 
mother), and priest of Apollo at Delos. His 
motlier was Rhoio ( = pomegranate), daughter 
of Staphylus ( = grapes), and granddaughter of 
Dionysus. Staphylus, seeing his daughter with 
child, placed her in a chest and set her adrift. 
She came to land, as variously stated, in Delos 
or Euboea, and bore her son Anius. By Dryope 
he had three daughters, Oeno, Spermo, and 
Elais, to whom Dionysus gave the power of 
producing at will any quantity of wine, corn, 
and oil — whence they were called Oenotrupae. 
With these necessaries, being taken to Troy by 
Palamedes (or by Menelaus), they are said to 
have supplied the Greeks during the first 9 
years of the Trojan war. According to Ovid 
they were changed into doves to escape from 
Agamemnon. Roman legends make them and 
their father entertain Aeneas at Delos. Anius 
represents the connexion which was imagined 
between Apollo and Dionysus, and the names 
of liis kindred point the same way (Tzetz. ad 
Lyc. 580 ; Diod. v. 62 ; Verg. Aen. iii. 80 ; Ov. 
Met. xiii. 632 ; Dionys. i. 59). 

Anna, Anna Perenna, Anna was daughter 
of Belus and sister of Dido. After the death 
of the latter, she fled from Carthage to Italy, 
where she was kindly received by Aeneas. 
Here she excited the jealousy of Lavinia, and 
being warned in a dream by Dido, she fled and 
threw herself into the river Numicius. Hence- 
forth she was worshipped as the nymph of that 
river under the name of Anna Pebenna. [In 
a mime of Laberius the names are Anna Per- 
anna, and in a satire of BI. Varro Anna ac 
Feranna : Gell. xiii. 23.] There are various 
other stories respecting the origin of her wor- 
ship. Ovid relates that she was considered by 
some as Luna, by others as Themis, by others 
as lo, daughter of Inachus, by others as the 
Anna of Bovillae, who supplied the plebs with 
food when they seceded to the Mens Sacer. 
Her festival was celebrated on the 15th of 
March, when plebeian men and women met in 
couples and feasted and drank, either under 
extemporised booths or in the open. According 
to Martial, there had once been a maiden sacri- 
fice. A special place was at the first milestone 
on the Via Flaminia. The identification of this 
goddess with Anna, the sister of Dido, is un- 
doubtedly of late origin. Some have regarded 
her merely as the goddess of flowing waters; 
others, in view of her legendary reference to 
Luna, and lo, and Themis, the mother of the 
Hours, treat her, with greater probability, as the 
goddess of the year, worshipped in the spring. 
But the opinion of Usener deserves considera- 
tion—that she represents the union of two 
goddesses (Anna ac Peraiina), one the goddess 
of the year in its course, the other of the com- 
pleted year; and the story of the wooing of 
Minerva through Anna by Mars is regarded as 



ANTAEUS 

a corruption of the myth of Mars and Nerio 
(Ov. Fast. iii. 523-693; Mart. iv. 64, 16; Mo- 
crob. Sat. i. 12, 6 ; C. I. L. i. p. 322). 

Anna Coninena, daughter of Alexis I. Com- 
neniR) (reigned a.d. 1081-1118), wrote the life 
of her father Alexis in 15 books, which is one 
of the most valuable histories of the Byzantine 
literature. — Editions. By Possinus, Paris, 
1651 ; Schopen, Bonn, 1839 ; Reifterscheid, 1878. 

Annalis, a cognomen of the Villiu Gens, first 
acquired by L. Villius, tribune of the plebs, in 
B.C. 179, because he introduced a law fixing the 
year {annus) at which it was lawful for a per- 
son to be a candidate for the public offices. 

M. Anneius, legate of M. Cicero during his 
government of Cilicia, B.C. 51 (Cic. Fam. xiii. 
55, 57 ; XV. 4). 

T. Annianus, a Roman poet, hved in the time 
of Trajan and Hadrian, and wrote Fescennine 
verses, and also a poem (Faliscum) about 
country life at Falerii (Gell. vi. 7 ; Auson. 
Id. 13). _ _ 

Anniceris {'AvnKepis). There were two Cy- 
renaic philosophers of this name : 1. A. the 
elder, ransomed Plato for 20 minae when he 
was sold as a slave by Dionysius about B.C. 388 
(Diog. Laert. ii. 86). — 2. A. the younger, pupil 
of Antipater, and contemporary of Hegesias, 
about B.C. 320-280. He limited the doctrine of 
pleasure as the only principle so far that he 
allowed the wise to make sacrifices for friend- 
ship, gratitude, and patriotism. 

Annius Cimber. [Cimbeb.] 

Annius Milo. [Milo.] 

Anser, a poet of the Augustan age, a friend 
of the triumvir M. Antonius (Cic. P/tiZ. xiii. 5, 11). 
As a writer of light and wanton verse he is 
called procax by Ovid {Trist. ii. 435). There 
does not seem much ground for the theory of 
Servius, Donatus, &c., that he is alluded to as 
anser in Verg. Eel. ix. 30, and that he was a 
detractor of Vu-gil's fame ; or for supposing that 
the line of Propert. iii. 32, 83, refers to him. 

Ansibarii or Ampsivarii, a German people, 
originally dwelt S. of the Bructeri, between the 
sources of the Ems and the Weser ; driven out 
of their country by the Chauci in the reign of 
Nero (a.d. 59), they asked the Romans for per- 
mission to settle in the Roman territory be- 
tween the Rhine and the Yssel, but when their 
request was refused they wandered into the 
interior of the country to the Cherusci, and 
were at length extii-pated, according to Tacitus. 
We find their name, however, among the Franks 
in the time of Juhan. (Tac. Attn. xiii. 55, 56; 
Amm. Marc. xx. 10.) 

Antaedpdiis ("Ai/TOKiTroA.is : nr. Gau-el-Ke- 
bir), a city of Upper Egypt (the Thebais), on 
the E. side of the Nile, but at some distance 
from the river, was one of the chief seats of the 
worship of Osiris (Ptol. iv. 5, 71 ; Plin. v. 49). 

Antaeus {'AvTa7os), son of Poseidon and Ge, 
a mighty giant and wrestler in Libya. The 
strangers who came to his country were com- 
pelled to wrestle with him ; the conquered were 
slain, and out of their skulls he built a house 
to Poseidon. He was vanquished by Heracles. 
According to some accounts he was invincible 
as long as he remained in contact with his 
mother earth; therefore Heracles lifted hmi 
and strangled him in the air. This seems to be 
a later addition, for in works of art the older 
examples show the ordinary wrestling (Antiveus 
vanquished by being thrown) ; the lifting, only 
in later monuments. The tomb of Antaeus 
(Antaei coUis), which formed a moderate hill in 
the shape of a man stretched out at full length, 



ANTAGORAS 
, was shown near tlie town of Tingis in Maure- 
r,ia (Piud- i>^thm. iii. 70 ; Plat. Theaet. 169 ; 
Sod. ii. 5, 11; Hyg. Fab. 81 ; Ov. /6is,393; 
Luc. Phars. iv. 590 ; Juv. iii. 89 ; Strab. p. 829.) 

Antagoras huTaySpas), of Rhodes, flourished 
about B.C. 270, a friend of Autigonus Gonatas, 
and a contemporary of Aratus. He wrote an 
epic poem entitled Thebais, and also epigrams, 
of which specimens are still extant {Anth. Fal.). 

Aataloidas ('AvToA/ci'5as), a Spartan, son of 
Leon, is chiefly known by the treaty concluded 
with Persia in B.C. 387, usually called the peace 
of Antalcidas, since it was the fruit of his 
diplomacy. According to this treaty all the 
Greek cities in Asia Minor, together with Clazo- 
menae and Cyprus, were to belong to the Per- 
sian king ; the Athenians were allowed to retain 
only Lemnos, Imbros, and Scyros, and all the 
other Greek cities were to be independent. 

Antander ("Ai/Toi/Spos), brother of Agathocles, 
king of Syi-acuse, wrote the life of his brother. 

Antandrus (" A.vTavhpos : 'AvravSpios: An- 
tandro), a city of Great Mysia, on the Adramyt- 
tian Gulf, at the foot of Mount Ida ; an Aeolian 
colony. Virgil represents Aeneas as touching 
here after leaving Troy. [Aen. iii. 106; Strab. 
p. 606 ; Thuc. viii. 108 ; Hdt. v. 26, vii. 42.) 

Antaradus ['Avrapatos : Tortosa), a town on 
the N. border of Phoenicia, opposite the island 
of Aradus. 

Antea or Antia i^Kvreia), daughter of the 
Lycian king lobates, wife of Proetus of Argos. 
She is also called Stheneboea. Respecting her 
love for Bellerophontes, see Bellebophontes. 

Antemnae (Aiitemnas, atis), an ancient Sa- 
bine town at the junction of the Anio and the 
Tiber, destroyed by the Romans in the earliest 
times (Varr. L. L. v. 28; Verg. Aen. vii. 631 ; 
Liv. i. 10 ; Dionys. ii. 32 ; Strab. p. 230). 

Antenor ('Avrrivaip). 1, A Trojan, husband 
of Theano, was one of the wisest among the 
elders at Troy, and a companion of Priam ; he 
received Menelaus and Ulysses into his house 
when they came to Troy as ambassadors, and 
advised his fellow-citizens to restore Helen to 
Menelaus {II. iii. 148, 262, vii. 347 ; cf . Plat. Syjnp. 
221 c). In post-Homeric story he is a traitor 
to his country who concerted a plan of deliver- 
ing the city, and even the palladium, into the 
hands of the Greeks. Hence on the capture of 
Troy he was spared by the Greeks (Dar. Phryg. 
5; Diet. Cret. v. 1, 4, 8; Serv. ad Aen. i. 246, 
651, ii. 15; Tzetz. Lyc. 339; Pans. x. 27). His 
history after this event is related difierently. 
Some writers relate that he founded a new 
kingdom at Troy ; according to others, he em- 
barked with Menelaus and Helen, was carried 
to Libya, and settled at Gyrene ; while a third 
account states that he went with the Heneti to 
Thrace, and thence to the western coast of the 
Adriatic, where the foundation of Patavium and 
several towns is ascribed to him. (Pind. Fytli. 
V. 83 ; Strab. pp. 212, 543, 552 ; Liv. i. 1 ; Serv. 
ad. Aen. i. 1, ix. 264.) — 2, Son of Euphranor, an 
Athenian sculptor, made the first bronze statues 
of Harmodius and Aristogiton, which the Athe- 
nians set up in the Ceramicus, B.C. 509. These 
statues were carried off to Suf a by Xerxes, and 
their place was supplied by others made either 
by Callias or by Praxiteles. After the conquest 
of Persia, Alexander the Great sent the statues 
back to Athens, where they were again set up 
in the Ceramicus. 

Anteros. [Eros.] 

Antevorta, also called Porrima or Proraa, 

and Postvorta, are described either as the two 
sisters or as companions of the Roman goddess 



ANTICYRA 



78 



Carmenta ; but originally they were only two 
attributes of the one goddess Carmenta, the 
former describing her knowledge of the future, 
and the latter that of the past, analogous to 
the two-headed Janus (Ov. Fast. i. G38; Gell. 

xvi. 16 ; Macrob. Sat. i. 7 ; Indigitamenta). 
Anthedon ('AvflriStic : ' AvdnZdvios : Liihisil), 

a town of Boeotia with a harbour, on the coast 
of the Euboean sea, at the foot of M. Messa- 
pius, said to have derived its name from a 
nymph Anthedon, or from Anthedon, son of 
Glaucus, who was here changed into a god 
{Ov. Met. vii. 232, xiii. 905). The inhabitants 
Hved chiefly by fishing. (Strab. pp. 4G0, 404, 
445 ; Paus. ix. 22 ; II. ii. 508.) 

Anthemius, emperor of the West, a.d. 467- 
472, was killed on the capture of Rome by Eici- 
mer, who made Olybrius emperor. 

Anthemiis ('Affle/ioCi, ovvtos : 'Avdefjiovaios), 
a Macedonian town in Chalcidice (Hdt v. 94 ; 
Thuc. ii. 99). 

Anthemusia or Anthemus {'Avd(fiovtrta), a 
city of Mesopotamia, SW. of Edessa, and a 
little E. of 'the Euphrates. The surrounding 
district was called by the same name, but was 
generally included under that of Oskhoene." 

Anthene {'AvB^'ivri), a place in Cynuria, in the 
Peloponnesus (Thuc. v. 41 ; Paus. iii. 38). 

Anthylla (^AuBvWa), a considerable city of 
Lower Egypt, near the mouth of the Cauopic 
branch of the Nile, below Naucratis, the reve- 
nues of which, under the Persians, were assigned 
to the wife of the satrap of Egypt, to provide 
her with shoes (Hdt. ii. 97 ; Athen. p. 33). 

Antias, Q. Valerius, a Roman annalist, wrote, 
about B.C. 90, a history of Rome from the earliest 
times in more than 70 books (GeU. vi. 9, 17). 
He is mentioned by Dionysius among the well- 
known annalists (i. 7, ii. 13), but not by Cicero. 
Livy mentions him more than any other (35 
times), and apparently without misgiving in the 
first decade {e.g. vii. 36, ix. 27, 37, 43); but 
having later the means of comparing him with 
more trustworthy authorities, such as Polybius, 
he stigmatises him as the most mendacious of 
the annalists (xxvi. 49, xxx. 19, xxxiii. 10, xxxviii. 
28, xxxix. 43 ; cf. Gell. Ic. ; Oros. v. 16). He 
seems to have been reckless in his invention of 
precise numbers, obviously exaggerated, and of 
circumstantial details. — Fragments by Krause 
1833, Roth 1852, Wordsworth 1874. 

Anticlea ('AvT'iKAaa.) daughter of Autolycus, 
wife of Laertes, and mother of Odysseus, died of 
grief at the long absence of her son {Od. xi. 85, 
152, XV. 356), or, according to Hyginus {Fab. 243), 
put an end to herself. A story is mentioned 
by Plutarch {Q. Gr. 43) and Hyginus {Fab. 201) 
that before marrying Laertes she lived on inti- 
mate terms with Sisyphus ; whence Ulysses is 
called a son of Sisyphus (Soph. Aj. 190 ; Eur. 
Iph. Atil. 524, Gycl. 104 ; Ov. Met. xiii. 31). 

Antiolides ('A»'TiKA.efS7)i), of Athens, lived 
after the time of Alexander the Great, and 
was the author of several works, the most im- 
portant of which was entitled Nosti {Nda-roi), 
containing an account of the return of the 
Greeks from tlieir mythical expeditions (Plut. 
Alex. 46j Athen. pp. 157, 384, 446). 

Antloyra, more anciently Anticirrha {'Avrl- 
Kippa, or 'AvrlKupa : 'AvTiKupevs, 'AvTiKvpa7os). 
1. {Aspra Spitia), a town in Phocis, with a 
harbour, on a peninsula on the W. side of the 
Sinus Anticyranus, a bay of the Crissaean Gulf, 
called in ancient times Cyparissus. It con- 
tinued to be a place of importance under the 
Romans (Strab. p. 418; Paus. x. 3, 30; Gell. 

xvii. 13 ; Liv. xxii. 18).— 2. A town in Thessaly, 



7i 



ANTIGENES 



on the Spercheus, not far from its mouth (Hdt. 
vii. 1S)8; Strab. pp. 418, 428, 484).— Both towns 
were celebrated for their hellebore, the chief 
remedy m antiquity for madness (and, accord- 
ing to Phny, for epilepsy). It is not to be sup- 
posed from Horace .4. P. 800 that there was a 
tlurd place of the name : he means that even 
three, if they existed, would be too few (Hor 
Sat. ii. 3, 83, lOG ; Ov. Font. iv. 8, 53 ; Pers. 
IV. IC ; J uv. xiii. 97 ; Plut. de Ooh. Ira, 18 ■ 
Plin. xxv;. § 47). 

Antigenes {'Afriyevris), a general of Alex- 
ander the Great, on whose death he obtained 
the satrapy of Siisiana, and espoused the side of 
Eumenea. On the defeat of the latter in d.c. 
816, Antigenes fell into the hands of his enemy 
Antigonus, and was burnt alive by him (Plut 
Ale.v. 80, Euiii. 13; Diod. xix. 44). 

Antigenidas {' Avny fvlSas), a Theban, a cele- 
brated flute-player, and a poet, lived in the 
time of Alexander the Great. 

Antigone {'AunySpT)), daughter of Oedipus 
by his mother Jocaste, and sister of Ismene, 
and of Eteooles and Polynices. In the tragic 
story of Oedipus Antigone appears as a noble 
maiden, with a truly heroic attachment to her 
father and brothers. Wlien Oedipus had blinded 
himself, and was obliged to quit Thebes, he was 
accompanied by Antigone, who remained with 
him till he died in Colonus, and then returned 
to Thebes. After her two brothers had killed 
each other in battle, and Creon, the king of 
Thebes, would not allow Polynices to be buried, 
Antigone alone defied the tyrant, and buried the 
body of her brother. Creon thereupon ordered 
lier to be shut up in a subterranean cave, where 
she killed herself. Haemon, the son of Creon, 
who was in love with her, killed himself by her 
side. This is the story of Sophocles. In a lost 
Antigone of Euripides Creon is induced (by the 
intercession of Dionysus) to give her in mar- 
riage to Haemon, and she bears a son named 
Maeon. In Hyginus {Fab. 72) Antigone is de- 
livered by Creon to Haemon to be put to death, 
ljut he marries her and lives with her in con- 
cealment in a shepherd's hut, where she bears 
a son. When this son is grown up he is recog- 
nised in Thebes by Creon as having the mark 
borne by all the dragon race. Hence he dis- 
covers that Antigone still lives, and rejects the 
intercession of Heracles. Haemon kills Anti- 
gone and then himself. The intercession of 
Heracles seems to be the subject of a vase- 
painting belonging to the fourth century B.C. (see 
Baumeister). Some have thought that Hyginus 
is giving the story of Euripides' play; but it 
does not seem to agree with the slight notices 
which we possess of that play, and probably 
reproduces the plot of a later drama. It should 
be observed that the stories followed by the 
tragedians seem to be of late, probably Attic, 
origin. Homer does not mention Antigone 
(though he names ' Maeon son of Haemon ' in 11. 
iv. 394). Pindar speaks of burial given to all 
seven Argive iirmies {01. vi. 15; Nem. ix. 24; 
cf. Pans. ix. 18, 3) without exception. The first 
notice of burial refused is in Aesch. Th. 1017. 

Antigonea and -ia {'Aintydvtia, 'AvTiyovia). 
1. (Tpptleni), a town in Epirus (Illyricum), at 
the junction of a tributary with the Aous, and 
near a narrow pass of the Acroceraunian moun- 
tains (Liv. xxxii. 5, xliii. 23). — 2. A Macedonian 
town in Chalcidice.— 3. See Mantinea. — 4, A 
town on the Orontes in SjTia, founded by Anti- 
gonus as the capital of his empire B.C. 300, but 
moat of its inhabitants were transferred by 
Seleuous to Antiochia, which was built in its 



ANTIGONUS 
neighbourhood (Strab. p. 750 ; Diod. xx. 47 • 
Dio Cass. xl. 29 ; Liban. Antioch. p. 349).— 6 A 
town m Bithynia, afterwards Nicaea.— 6. A 
tovvn^^i the Troas. [Alexandria, No. 2.1 

AntigonuB {'AMyovos). 1. King of Asia, 
surnamed the One-eyed (Lucian, Macrob. 11 
Po . V. 07), son of Philip of Elymiotis, and 
Uther of Demetrius Poliorcetes by Stratonir e 
He was one of the generals of Alexander tho 
threat, and m the division of the empire after 
the death of the latter (b.c. 328), he received 
the provinces of the Greater Phrygia, Lycia 
and Pamphylia (Curt. x. 25, 2). On the death 
of the regent Antipater in 319, he aspired to the 
sovereignty of Asia. In 310 he defeated Eumenes 
and put him to death, after a struggle of nearly 
3 years (Nep. Bum.; Plut. Euvi. ; Diod. xix. 
48 ; Eumenes). Prom 315 to 311 he carried on 
war, with varying success, against Seleucus, 
Ptolemy, Cassander, and Lysimachus. By the 
peace made in 311, Antigonus was allowed to 
have the government of all Asia; but peace 
did not last more than a year. After the defeat 
of Ptolemy's fleet in 306, Antigonus assumed the 
title of king, and his example was followed by 
Ptolemy, Lysimachus, and Seleucus. In the 
same year Antigonus, hoping to crush Ptolemy, 
invaded Egyjjt, but was compelled to retreat. 
His son Demetrius Poliorcetes carried on the 
war with success against Cassander in Greece, 
but he was compelled to return to Asia to the 
assistance of his father, against whom Cas- 
sander, Seleucus, Ptolemy, and Lysimachus 
had formed a fresh confederacy. Antigonus 
and Demetrius were defeated by Lysimachus at 
the decisive battle of Ipsus in Phrygia, in 301. 
Antigonus fell in the battle in the 81st year of 
his age (Diod. xx. 46-86 ; Plut. Demetr. 15-30 ; 
Just. XV. 2-4). — 2. Gonatas, son of Demetrius 
Poliorcetes, and grandson of the preceding. He 




Coin of Antigonus Gonatas, ob. B.C. 2.S9. 
Obi'., head of Poseidon ; rcr., .\pollo with bow, seated on a 
prow. Probably refers to a naval success at Cos. [Some 
have called it a coin of the 1st Antigonus, referring to 
his victory at Cyprus, B.C. SOG.] 

assumed the title of king of Macedonia attei 
his father's death in Asia, in B.C. 283, but ha 
did not obtain possession of the throne till 277. 
He defeated an army of the Gauls (part of the 
reserves left by Brennus) b.c. 276 (Just. xxv. 2 : 
cf. Diog. Laert. ii. 140). He was driven out of 
his kingdom by Pyrrhus of Epirus in 273, but 
recovered it in the following year : he was again 
expelled by Alexander, the son of Pyrrhus, 
and again recovered his dominions. After a 
long war with Athens lie besieged and took the 
city, and placed a IMacedonian garrison in it, 
B.C. 263. He died in 239. He was succeeded 
by Demetrius II. His surname Gonatas is 
usually derived from Gonnos or Gonni in Tlies- 
saly ; but some think that the name means 
having an iron plate protecting the Icnee. (Plut. 
Dcmctr. 51, Pyrrh. 26 ; Just. xxiv. 1, xxv. 
1-3 ; Polyb. xxii. 43 f., Lucian, Macrob. 11.) — 
3. Doson (so called because he was always about 
to give but never did), nephew of the preceding, 



ANTILIBANUS 

„ nf -Demetrius of Cyiene, and grandson of 
Dome rSrPoliorcetes. On the death of Deme- 
fj^ ll in B.C. 229, he was left guardian of his 
fon Philip, but he married the widow o Deme- 
and became king of Macedonia himself. 
Stus, by an unfortunate policy, called m the 
assistancJof Aiatigonus against Sparta, and put 
1 V, in r,r,^>^ession of the Acrocorinthus. Anti- 
XBdSrcleomenesatSellaB^^ 
took Sparta. On his return to Macedonia, he 
defeated the niyrians, and died a few days 
afterwards 220. (Polyb. ii. 45 f . ; Just xxviu. d ; 
PluTTml CleoL)li. King of Judaea, son 
of Aristobulus II., was placed on the throne by 
the Parthians in B.C. 40, but was taken prisoner 
bv Sosius, the lieutenant of Antony, and was 
Tjit to death by the latter in 37 (Dio Cass. .xbx. 
22- Jos. B. J. i. 13).— 5. Of Carystus, lived at 
Alexandi-ia about B.C. 250, and wrote a work 
still extant, entitled ffistoriae Mirabiles, which 
is only of value from its preserving extracts 
from other and better wox's.s— Editions. By 
J Beckmann, Lips. 1791 ; by Westermann m his 
Paradoxographi, Bruns. 1839 ; Keller, 1377. 

Antilibanus {'AvriAifiavos : Jehel-es- Sheikh 
or Anti-Lehanon), a mountain on the confines 
of Palestine, Phoenicia, and Syi'ia, parallel to 
LibanuK {Leba?wn), which it exceeds in height. 
Its highest summit is M. Hemion (also Jebel- 
es-Sheikh). (Strab. p. 754 ; Ptol. v. 15.) 

Antilochus {'KvtI\oxos), son of Nestor and 
Anaxibia or Eurydice (Orf. iii. 452), accompanied 
his father to Troy, and distinguished himself by 
his bravery. He was a favourite of Zeus and 
of AchiUes (II. xviii. 16, xxiii. 506, 607). He 
was slain before Troy by Memnon the Ethio- 
pian ; according to Pindar be had come to help 
his father, who was hard pressed by Memnon, 
and saved him at the cost of his own life (Od. 
iii. Ill, iv. 188 ; Pind. Pijth. vi. 28 ; cf. Xen. 
Venat. i. 14), and was buried by the side of his 
friends AchiUes and Patroclus [Od. xxiv. 72), 
and with them received honours of sacrifice in 
after times (Strab. p. 596). The grief of his 
father and of the whole army at his death is 
mentioned in Soph. Phil. 424 ; Hor. Od. ii. 9, 
13 ; Q. Smym. iii. 516. 

Antlmaohus ('Aj/TiVaxos). 1. A Trojan, per- 
suaded his countrymen not to surrender Helen 
to the Greeks. He had three sons, two of whom 
were put to death by Menelaus {II. xi. 123, 128). 
— 2. Of Glares or Colophon, a Greek epic and 
elegiac poet, was probably a native of Claros, 
but was called a Colophonian, because Claros 
belonged to Colophon [Clarius poeta, Ov. 
Trist. i. 6. 1). He flourished towards the end 
of the Peloponnesian war ; his chief work was 
an epic poem of great length called Thebais 
(07) /Sail). Antimachus was one of the fore- 
ruimers of the poets of the Alexandrine school, 
who wrote more for the learned than for the 
public at large. Though he seems to have been 
little regarded by writers nearer to his time, the 
Alexandrine grammarians assigned to him the 
second place among the epic poets, and the 
emperor Hadrian preferred his works even to 
those of Homer. (Dio Cass. lix. 4.) He also 
wrote a celebrated elegiac poem called Lyde — 
which was the name of his wife or mistress — as 
well as other works. There was likewise a tra- 
dition that he made a recension of the text of 
the Homeric poems, from which also he seems 
to have borrowed. — Fragments by ScheUenberg, 
1786 ; Bergk, 1866. 

Antinoopolis {'AvrivSov irSKis or 'Avrivdeia : 
Enseneh, Eu.) , a splendid city, built by Hadrian, 
in memory of his favourite Antinous, on the E. 



ANTIOCHIA 



75 



bank of the Nile, upon the site of the ancient 
Besa, in Middle Egypt (Heptanomis). It was 
the capital of the Nomos Antmoites, and had 
an oracle of the goddess Besa. (Ptol. iv. 5, 61 , 
Pans. viii. 9 ; Dio Cass. hx. U.) , , 
Antlnous CAurlyoos). 1. Son of Eupithes of 
Ithaca, and one of the suitors of Penelope, was 
slain by Ulysses.— 2. A youth of extraordinary 
beauty, born at Olaudiopolis in Bithynia was 
the favourite of the emperor Hadrian, and his 
companion in his journeys. He was drowned 
in the Nile, a.d. 122. This, as seems probable, 
was an act of suicide from melancholy; though 
some regarded it as caused by a superstition 
that the sacrifice of Ills life would avert evd 
from the emperor. The grief of the emperor 
knew no bounds. He enrolled Antinous amongst 
the gods, caused a temple to be erected to him 
at Mantinea, and founded the city of Antinoo- 
polis in honour of him. Festivals in his honour 
were celebrated in Bithynia and at Athens, 
Argos, and Mautmea. A large number of works 




Antinous. (From a bas-rolief in Villa Albani.) 



of art of all kinds were executed in his honour, 
and many of them are still extant. (Dio Cass, 
lix. 11 ; Spartian. Hadr. 14 ; Paus. viii. 9. 4.) 

Antiochla and -ea (^AvTidx^^o. : 'Avnox^vs 
and -(ixfios, fem. 'Avtlox^s and -dxicca, Antio- 
chenus), the name of several cities of Asia, 16 of 
which are said to have been built by Seleucus I. 
Nicator, and named in honour of his father An- 
tiochus. 1. A. Epidaphnes, or ad Daphnem, 
or ad Orontem ("A. eirl Ad<pvri : so called from a 
neighbouring grove : 'A. eVi 'OpdvTri : Antakia, 
Bu.), the capital of the Greek kingdom of Syria, 
and long the chief city of Asia and perhaps of 
the world, stood on the left bank of the Orontes, 
about 20 miles (geog.) from the sea, in a beau- 
tiful valley, about 10 miles long and 5 or 6 
broad, enclosed by the ranges of Amanus on the 
NW. and Casius on the SE. It was built by 
Seleucus Nicator, about B.C. 300, and peopled 
chiefly from the neighbouring city of Anti- 
GONIA. It flourished so rapidly as soon to need 
enlargement ; and other additions were again 
made to it by Seleucus II. Callinicus (about B.C. 
240), and Aiitiochus IV. Epiphanes (about B.C. 
170). Hence it obtained the name of Tetrapolis 
(T6Tpair(i\ij, i.e. 4 cities). It had a considerable 
commerce, the Orontes being navigable up to 
the city, and the high road between Asia and 
Europe passing through it. Under the Romans 



76 



ANTIOCHIA 



it was metropolis of the province and the resi- 
dence of the proconsuls of Syria ; it was fa- 
voui-ed and visited by emperors"; and was made 

acolonia with the 
Jus Italicuni by 
Antoninus Pius. 
Though far in- 
ferior to Alexan- 
dria as a seat of 
learning, yet it 
derived some dis- 
tinction in this 
resi^ect from the 
teaching of Li- 
banius and other 
sophists ; and its 
eminence in art 
is attested by the 
beautiful gems 
and medals still 
found among its 
ruins. The an- 
nexed figure, re- 
presenting the 
Genius of An- 
tioch, was the 
work of Euty- 
ohides of Sicyon, a pupil of Lysippus. It repre- 
sents Antioch as a female figure, seated on the 
rock Silpius and crowned with towers, with ears 
of corn in her hand, and with the river Orontes 
at her feet. This figure appears constantly on 
the later coins of Antioch. — Antioch was de- 




Genius of .\utioch. 




Coin of Antioch. 
Oov., head of city ; ret., ram running to right ; above 
crescent and star and magistrate's name ■ date 105 = 
B.C. GO. 

stroyed by the Persian king Chosroes (a.d. 
540), but rebuilt by Justinian, who gave it the 
name of Theupolis {@€ovn6\is). The ancient 
walls, which still surround the insignificant 
modern town, are probably those built by 
Justinian. The name of Antiochia was also 
given to the surrounding district, i.e. the NW. 
part of Syria, which bordered upon Cilicia. 
(Strab. pp. 749-751 ; Tac. Hist. ii. 80 ; Procop. 
B. P. ii. 8 ; Liban. p. 321.) — 2. A. ad Maeandrum 
{'A. Trphs MaiavSpcj}) ; nr. Yenishehr, Ru.), a city 
of Caria, on the Maeander, built by Antiochus 1. 
Soter on the site of the old city of Pythopolis 
(Strab. p. 630). — 3. A. Pisidiaeor ad Pisidiam 
('A. nicTiSi'ay or nphs XlttTiSla), a considerable 
city on the borders of Phrygia Paroreios and 
Pisidia; built by colonists from Magnesia ; 
declared a free city by the Romans after their 
victory over Antiochus the Great (b.c. 189) : 
made a colony under Augustus, and called 
Caesarea. It was celebrated for the worship 
and the great temple of Men Ascaenus (the 
Phrygian Moon-god), which the Romans sup- 
pressed. Its remains are still considerable, 
denoting a strong fortress of the Hellenistic 
type. It is thought that a semicircular rock- 
cutting marks the Phrygian temple. (Strab. p. 
577.)— 4. A. Margiana ('A. Mapyiavr}: Merit. 
Shah-JcJum?), a, city in the Persian province 
of Margiana, on the river Margus, founded by 
Alexander, and at first called Alexandria ; de- 



ANTIOCHUS 
stroyed by the barbarians, rebuilt bv Antiochus 
I. Soter, and called Antiochia. It'was beauti- 
fully situated, and was surrounded by a wall 70 
stadia (about H miles) in circuit. Among tlie 
less important cities of tlie name were : (6.) A. 
ad Taurum in Commagene : this according to 
some is tlie modern Marash, which otliers witli 
greater probability make the site of Gi u- 
MANiciA ; (6.) A. ad Cragum, and (7.) A. ad 
Pyramum, in Cilicia. The following Antiochs 
are better known by other names : A. ad Sarum 
[Adana ;] A, Characenes [Charax i : A. Callir- 
rhoe [Edessa]; A. ad Hippum [GadahaI; A. 
Mygdoniae [NiBinisJ ; in Cilicia [TaksusJ; i;i 
Cana or Lydia [Tralles]. 
Antioclius ('KvtIoxos). I. Kings of Syria 
1. Soter (reigned u.c. 280-261), was tlie h„n 
of Seleucus Nicator, the founder of the Syrian 




Coin of Antiochus I. Soter, King of Syria, E C. 2S0-2ljl. 
Retl., Apollo seated on the Omphalos, a bow in his left 
hand, an arrow in his right. 

kingdom of the Seleucidae. He married his 
stepmother Stratonlce, whom his father sm- 
rendered to him on the representation of the 
physician that it would restore him to health. 
He succeeded his father B.C. 280. He gained 
his surname from successful contest against the 
Gauls, but eventually fell in battle against them 
B.C. 261. (Just. xvii. 2; V\\it. Demetr. 38, 31); 
Appian, Syr. 59-05.) — 2. Tlieos (b.c. 261-246), 
son and successor of No. 1. The Milesians 
gave him the surname of Theos, because he 
delivered them from their tyrant, Timarchus. 
He carried on war witli Ptolemy Philadelphus, 
king of Egypt, which was brought to a 
close by his putting away his wife Laodlce, 
and marrying Berenice, the daughter of 
Ptolemy. After the death of Ptolemj^, he 
recalled Laodice, but, in revenge for the insult 
she had received, she caused Antiochus and 
Berenice to be murdered. During the reign of 
Antiochus, Arsaces founded the Parthian em- 
pire (250) and Theodotus established an inde- 
pendent kingdom at Bactria. He was succeeded 
by his son Seleucus Callinicus. His younger 
son Antiochus Hierax also assumed the crown, 
and carried on war some years with his brother. 
[Seleucus II.] (Just, xxvii. 1 ; Val. Max. ix. 
14 ; Athen. p. 45.)— 3. The Great (b.c. 223-187), 
second son of Seleucus Callinicus, succeeded to 
the throne on the death of his brother Seleucus 
Ceraunus, when he was only in his 15th year. 
After defeating (220) Molonj satrap of Media, 
and his brother Alexander, satrap of Persis, who 
had attempted to make themselves inde])endent, 
he carried on war against Ptolemy Philopator, 
king of Egypt, in order to obtain Coele-Syria, 
Phoenicia, and Palestine, but was obliged to 
cede these provinces to Ptolemy, in conse- 
quence of his defeat at the battle of Rapliia 
near Gaza, in 217. (Polyb. v. 82 ; Just. xxxi. 1.) 
Ho next marched against .\chaeus, who had 
revolted in Asia Minor, and whom he put to 
death, when he fell into his hands in 214. 
f AcH.\EUS.] Shortly after this he was engaged 
for 7 years (212-205) in an attempt to regam 



ANTIOCHUS 



77 

the E. provinces of A«ia, ,vMoh ^^iXl^JX^m^'S^ 
during the reign of ^ so° ^ °f Epiphane«, was nine 

he met with ' «"';<r«^^' ho^ 'ears old at his father's death, and reigned 

to effect the subjugation of ti e Paithian and y^^'^ °^ ^^^3ij^„glu f Lysias. He was de- 
^t:ZS^: ^TT^fS^'l^ toitl t^one^put to dU by^e.etrius Soter. 
renewed his war against Egypt witli more 
success, and in 198 conquered Palestine and 
Coele-Syria, which he afterwards gave as a 
dowry with his daughter Cleopatra upon her ; 
marriage with Ptolemy Epiphanes. In 196 he 
crossed over into Europe, and took possession 
of the Thracian Chersonese. This brought him 
into contact with the Eomiins, who commanded 
him to restore the Chersonese to the Macedo- 
nian king ; but he refused to comply with their 
demand ; in which resolution he was strength- 
ened by Hannibal, who arrived at his court in 
195. Hannibal urged him to invade Italy 
without loss of time; but Antiochus did not 
foUow his advice, and it was not tiU 192 that 
he crossed over into Greece, at the request of 
theAetolian League,. of which he was named 
general. (Polyb. xviii. 32, xx. i. ; Liv. xxxiv. 60, 
XXXV. 45.) In 191 he was defeated by the 
Eomans at Thermopylae, and compelled to re- 
turn to Asia ; his fleet was also vanquished in 
•two engagements. In 190 he was again defeated 





Coin of Antiochus III. the Great, King of Syria, B.C. 223-187. 
(Rev. as above.) 

by the Romans under L. Scipio, at Mount 
Sipylus, near Magnesia, and compelled to sue 
for peace, which was granted in 188, on condi- 
tion of his ceding all his dominions E. of 
Mount Taurus, paying 15,000 Euboic talents 
within 12 years, giving up his elephants and 
ships of war, and surrendering the Roman 
enemies ; but he allowed Hannibal to escape. 
In order to raise the money to pay the Romans, 
he attacked a wealthy temple in Elymais, but 
was killed by the people of the place (187). He 
was succeeded by his son Seleucus Philopator. 
(Liv. xxxvii. 25-44 ; Polyb. xxi. 9-20 ; Just, 
xxxii. 2 ; Diod. xxix. 18.) — i. Epiphanes (b. c. 
175-164), son of Antiochus III., was given as a 
hostage to the Romans in 188, and was released 
from captivity in 175 through his brother 
Seleucus Philopator, whom he succeeded in the 
same year. He carried on war against Egypt 
from 171 to 168 with great success, in order to 
obtain Coele-Syria and Palestine, which had 
been given as a dowry with his sister, and he 
was preparing to lay siege to Alexandria in 
1G8, when the Romans compelled him to retire. 
He endeavoured to root out the Jewish religion 
and to introduce the worship of the Greek 
divinities; but this attempt led to a rising of 
the Jewish people, under Mattathias and his 
heroic sons the Maccabees, which Antiochus 
was unable to put down. He died, b.c. 163, in 
the course of an unsuccessful campaign, at 
Tabae in Persia in a state of raving madness, 
which the Jews and Greeks equally attributed 
to his sacrilegious crimes. (Liv. xli.-xlv. ; 
Polyb. xxvi.-xxxi. ; Just. xxiv. 3 ; Joseph. A7it. 
xii. 5.) His subjects gave him the name of 



Coin ol Antiochus IV. Epiplianes, King of Syria, B.C. 176-104. 
lUi\, Zeus holding Victory. 

the son of Seleucus Pliilopator, who had 
hitherto lived at Rome as a hostage. (Polyb. 
xxxi. 12 ; Just, xxxiv. 3.)— 6. TheoB or Dioaysus 
Epiphanes, son of Alexander Balas. He was 
brought forward as a claimant to the crown in 
144, against Demetrius Nicator by Tryphon, 
but he was murdered by the latter, who 
ascended the throne h im self in 142 (Just 




Coin of Antiochus VI. Theos, or DlonyBuo, King of Syria, 
B.C. 144-142. 

Obv., Antiochus with diadem and the rayed crown -which 
passed from Ptolemy Euergetes to the Seleucidae ; rev.. 
the Dioscuri, whom some interpret as symbolising the 
divided power of .\ntiochus and Tryphon, part of whose 
name appears as TPV. 

xxxvi. 1).— 7. Sidetes (b.c. 187-128), so called 
from Side in Pamphylia, where he was brought 
up, younger son of Demetrius Soter, dethroned 
Tryphon. He married Cleopatra, wife of his 
elder brother Demetrius Nicator, who was 
a prisoner with the Parthians. He carried on 
war against the Parthians, at first with suc- 
cess, but was afterwards defeated and slain in 
battle in 128. (Just, xxxviii. 10 ; Athen. 449, 540). 
— 8, Grypus, or Hook-nosed (b.c. 125-96), 
second son of Demetrius Nicator and Cleopatra. 
He was placed upon the throne in 125 by bis 
mother Cleopatra, who put to death his eldest 
brother Seleucus, because she wished to have 
the power in her own hands. He poisoned his 
mother in 120, and subsequently carried on 
war for some years with his half-brother A. IX. 
Cyzicenus. At length, in 112, the two brothers 
agreed to share the kingdom between them, A. 
Cyzicenus having Coele-Syria and Phoenicia, 
and A. Grypus the remainder of the provinces. 
Grypus was assassinated in 96. (Just, xxxix. 
1-3 ; Liv. Bp. 60 ; Athen. p. 540.)— 9, Cyzicenus, 
from Cyzious, where he was brought up, son of 
A. VII. Sidetes and Cleopatra, reigned over 
Coele-Syria and Phoenicia from 112 to 96, but 
fell in battle in 95 against Seleucus Epiphanes, 
son of A. VIII. Grypus (Appian, Syr. 69). — 
10, Eusebes, son of A. IX. Cyzicenus', defeated 
Seleucus Epiphanes, who had slain his father in 
battle, and maintained the throne against the 
brothers of Seleucus. He succeeded his father 



78 ANTIOCHUS 
Antioohus IX. in 95. (Appian, Syr. 09 ; Diod. 
xxxiv. 38.)— 11. Epiphanes, son of A. VIII. 
Grypus and brother of Soleucns Epiphanes, 
carried on war against A. X. Eusebes, but was 
defeated by the latter, and drowned in the 
river Orontes (Appian, I.e., Diod. I.e.). — 

12. Dionysus, brother of No. 11, held the 
crown for a short time, but fell in battle 
against Aretas, king of the Arabians. The 
Syrians, worn out with the civil broils of the 
Seloucidae, offered the kingdom to Tigranes, 
king of Armenia, who united Syria to liis own 
dominions in 83, and held it till his defeat by 
the Eomans in 69 (Joseph. Ant. xiii. 15). — 

13. Asiaticus, son of A. X. Eusebes and Selene 
(or Cleopatra) daughter of Ptolemy Physcon, 
became king of Syria on the defeat of Tigranes 
by Luoullus in 69 ; but he was deprived of it in 
65 by Pompey, who reduced Syria to a Roman 
province, in this year the Seleucidae ceased to 
reign. (Appian, Syr. 49, 70 ; Cic. Verr. iv. 27, 
61 fi.) 

II. Kings of Commagene. 
1. Son of Mithridates I. CaUinicus, the step- 
son of Antiochus Epiphanes (above, No. 11). 
Made an alliance with the Romans, about B.C. 
64. He assisted Pompey with troops in 49, 
had friendly communications with Cicero, then 
proconsul of Cilicia ; was attacked by Antony 
in 38. He was succeeded by Mithridates II. 
about 31. (Dio Cass. xxxv. 2, xlix. 20 ; Appian, 
Mithr. 106 ; Cic. Fam. xv. 1, 2 ; Cass. B. C. iii. 
5.) — 2. Succeeded Mithridates II., and was 
put to death at Rome by Augustus in 29 (Dio 
Cass. lii. 43). — 3. Succeeded No. 2, and died 
in A.D. 17. Upon his death, Commagene 
became a Roman province, and remained so till 
A.D. 38 (Tac. Ann. ii. 42, 56). — 4. Surnamed 
Epiphanes Magnus son of Antiochus III. 
received his paternal dominion from Caligula in 
A.D. 38. He was subsequently deposed by 
Caligula, but regained his kingdom on the 
accession of Claudius in 41. He was a faithful 
ally of the Romans, and assisted them in their 
wars against the Parthians under Nero, and 
against the Jews under Vespasian. At length 
in 72, he was accused of conspiring with the 
Parthians against the Romans, was deprived of 
his kingdom, and retired to Lacedaemon, where 
he passed the remainder of his lite. His sons 
Epiphanes and Callinious lived at Rome. (Dio 
Cass. lix. 8, Ix. 8; Joseph. Ant. xix. 9, B.J. v. 
11, vii. 7 ; Tac. Ann. xiii. 7-) 

III. Literai'y. 
1. Of Aegae in Cilicia, a sophist, or, as he 
himself pretended to be, a Cynic philosopher. 
He flourished about A.D. 200, during the reign 
of Severus and Caracalla. During the war of 
CaracaUa against the Parthians, he deserted to 
the Parthians together with Tiridates. He was 
one of the most distinguished rhetoricians of 
his time, and also acquired some reputation as 
a writer. — 2. Of Ascalon, the founder of the 
fifth Academy, was a friend of Lucullus and 
the teacher of Cicero during his studies at 
Athens (b.c. 79) ; but he had a school at Alex- 
andria also, as well as in Syria, where he seems 
to have ended his life (b.c. 68). His prmcipal 
teacher was Philo, who succeeded Plato, Arce- 
silas, and Carneades, as the founder of the 
fourth Academy. He is, however, better known 
as the adversary than the disciple of Philo ; and 
Cicero mentions a treatise called Sosus, written 
by him against his master, in which he re- 
futes the scepticism of the Academics {Acad. 
iv. 4, 11). He was in his own philosophy an 



ANTIPATER 

Eclectic, seeking a middle course between Zeno, 
Aris^jftle, and Plato. He made truth rest upon 
authority whenever he could find points agreed 
upon by these philosophers, and laboured to 
show that they differed in expression rathet 
than in essentials. (Cic. Acad. ii. 18, 43, &c. ; 
de Fin. v. 25 ; Tusc. v. 8.)— 3. Of Syracuse, a 
Greek historian, lived about b.c. 423, and wrote 
a history of Sicily in 9 books from the mythical 
Sicanian king Cocalus to his own date, to which 
it is not improbable that Thucydides was to 
some extent indebted in the beginning of book 
vi. Ho wrote also a history of the Greek colo- 
nies in Italy. (Diod. xii. 71 ; Dionys. i. 12 ; a 
few fragments in C. Miiller's Frag. Hist. 
Graec.) 

Antiope {'AvTiSwri). 1. Daughter of Nycteus 
and Polyxo, or of the river god Asopus in Boeotia, 
became by Zeus the mother of Amphion and 
Zethus. Dionysus threw her into a state of 
madness on account of the vengeance which 
her sons had taken on Dirce. [Amphion.] In 
this condition she wandered through Greece, 
until Phocus, the grandson of Sisyphus, cured 
and married her. — 2. An Amazon, sister of 
Hippolyte, wife of Theseus, and mother of Hip- 
polytus. [Theseus.] 

Antipater {'AvTlTrarpos). 1. The Macedo- 
nian, an officer greatly trusted by Philip and 
Alexander the Great, was left by the latter 
regent in Macedonia when he crossed over 
into Asia in B.C. 334. In this office he quelled 
the Thracians on one hand, and on the other 
suppressed the Spartan rising by a victory at 
Megalopolis (b.c. 330). Inconsequence of dissen- 
sions between Olympias and Antipater, the 
latter was summoned to Asia in 324, and Cra- 
terus appointed to the regency of Macedonia, 
but the death of Alexander in the following 
year prevented these arrangements from taking 
effect. Antipater now obtained Macedonia 
again, and in conjunction with Craterus, who 
was associated with him in the government, 
carried on war against the Greeks, who endea^ 
voured to establish their independence. This 
war, usually called the Lamian war, from Lamia, 
where Antipater was besieged in 323, was ter- 
minated by Antipater's victory over the con- 
federates at Crannon in 322. This was followed 
by the submission of Athens and the death of 
Demosthenes. In 321 Antipater crossed over 
into Asia in order to oppose Perdiccas ; but the 
murder of Pebdiccas in Egypt put an end to 
this war, and left Antipater supreme regent. 
Antipater died in 319, after appointing Poly- 
sperchon regent, and his own son Cassandeb 
to a subordinate position. (Diod. xvii., xviii. ; 
Just. xiii. 4-6.) — 2. Grandson of the preceding, 
and second son of Cassander and Thessalonica. 
After the death of his elder brother Pliilip IV. 
(B.C. 295), great dissensions ensued between 
Antipater and his younger brother Alexander, 
for the kmgdom of Macedonia. Antipater, 
believing that Alexander was favoured by his 
mother, put her to death. The younger 
brother upon this applied for aid at once to 
Pyrrhus of Epirus and Demetrius Poliorcetes. 
The remaining history is related differently: 
but so much is certain, that both Antipater 
and Alexander were subsequently put to death 
—Alexander by Demetrius and Antipater by 
Lysimachus (Just. xvi. 1, 2; Plut. Veinctr.), 
and that Demetrius became king of Macedonia. 
—3. Father of Herod the Great, son of a noble 
Idumaean of the same name, espoused the cause 
of Hyrcanus against his brother Aristobulus. 
He ingratiated himself with the Romans, and 



ANTIPATER 

in B.C. 47 was appointed by Caesar procurator 
of Judaea, which appointment ho held till his 
death m 43, when he was carried off by poison 
which Malichua, whose life he had twice saved, 
bribed the cup-bearer of Hyi-canus to adminis- 
ter to him. {Jos. Ant. xiv. d; B. J. i. 10.) — 
4. Eldest son of Herod the Great by his first 
wife, Doris, brought about Uie death of his two 
half-brothers, Alexander and Aristobulus, in 
B.C. 6, but was lumself condemned as guilty of 
a'conspiracy against his father's life, and was 
executed five days before Herod's death. (Jos. 
Ant- xvii. 1 ; B.J. i. 28.)— 5. Of Tarsus, a Stoic 
philosopher, the successor of Diogenes in the 
chair at Athens, and the teacher of Panaetius, 
about B.C. 144 (Cic. Off. iii. 12, 50 ; Div. i. 3, 6). 
—6. Of Tyre, a Stoic philosopher, died shortly 
before B.C. 45, and wrote a work on Duties 
{de Officiis) (Cic. Off. ii. 24).— 7. Of Cyrene, 
a pupil and follower of Aristippus (Diog. 
Laert. ii. 96 ; Cic. Tusc. v. 38, 112).— 8. Of 
Sidon, the author of several epigrams in the 
Greek Anthology, flourished about B.C. 108-100, 
and hved to a great age. — 9. Of Thessalonica, 
the author of several epigrams in the Greek 
Anthology, lived in the latter part of the reign 
of Augustus. 

Antipater, L. Caelius, a Roman jurist and 
historian, and a contemporary of C. Gracchus 
(B.C. 123), and L. Crassus, the orator, wrote 
Annales, which were epitomised by Brutus, 
and which contained a valuable account of the 
second Punic war. He seems to have been 
honest and trustworthy, but too prone to rheto- 
rical ornament. [Cic.Biv. i. 24, 49, ad Att. xiii. 
8; Liv. xxi. 46, xxvii. 27). 

Antipatrla ('AvTnraTpia : Berat ?), a town in 
myricum on the borders of Macedonia, on the 
left bank of the Apsus (Liv. xxxi. 27). 

Antlphanes ('AvTi^dj/Tjs). 1. A comic poet, 
next to Alexis the most important, of the 
middle Attic comedy, born about B.C. 404, and 
died 330. He wrote 865, or at the least 260 
plays (titles of 150 remain), which were distin- 
guished by elegance of language. Probably 
many were recited, but not produced on the 
stage. (Fragments in Meiueke.) — 2, Of Berga in 
Thrace, a Greek writer on marvellous and 
incredible things (Strab. pp. 47, 102, 104 ; Polyb. 
xxxiii. 12). — 3. An epigrammatic poet, several of 
whose epigrams are still extant in the Greek 
Anthology^, lived about the reign of Augustus. 

Antiphates {'Avt Lipdrris), king of the mythical 
Laestrygones in Sicily, represented as giants 
and cannibals. They destroyed 11 of the ships 
of Ulysses, who escaped with only one vessel 
{Od. X. 80; Ov. Met. x. 233; Juv. xiv. 20). 

Antiphellus {'At'Ti<pf\\os : Antiphilo), a 
town on the coast of Lycia, between Patara and 
Aperlae, originally the port of Phellus (Strab. 
p. 006). 

Antiphemus {'AvTl<pnixos), the Rhodian, 
founder of Gela, in Sicily, B.C. 690. 

Antiphilus ('A>'ti>iA.oj). 1. Of Byzantium, 
an epigrammatic poet, author of several excel- 
lent epigrams in the Greek Anthology, was a 
contemporary of the emperor Nero.— 2. Of 
■e-gypt, a distinguished painter, the rival of 
Apelles, painted for Philip and Alexander the 
trreat (Quint, xii. 10; Plin. xxxv. § 114, 138). 

Antiphon i'AvTKpiiv). 1. The most ancient 
" the 10 orators in the Alexandrine canon 
was a son of Sophilus the Sophist, and born at 
«hamnu8 in Attica, in B.C. 480. He belonged 
K) the oligarchical party at Athens, and took an 
active part in the establishment of the govern- 
ment of the Four Hundred (b.c. 411), after the 



ANTISTHENES 



79 



overthrow of which he was brought to trial, 
condemned, and put to death. The oratorical 
powers of Antiplion are highly praised by the 
ancients. He introduced great improvements 
in public speaking, and was the first who laid 
down theoretical laws for practical eloquence ; 
he opened a school in which he tauglit rhetoric, 
and the historian Thucydides is said to have 
been one of his pupils. The orations which he 
composed were written for others ; and the only 
time that he spoke in public himself was when 
he was accused and condemned to death. This 
speech, which was considered in antiquity a 
masterpiece of eloquence, is now lost. (Thuc. 
viii. 68; Cic. Brut. 12.) We still possess 15 
orations of Antiphon, 3 of which were written 
by him for others, and the remaining 12 as 
specimens for his school, or exercises on 
fictitious cases of trials for homicide. They are 
printed in the collections of the Attic orators, 
and separately, edited by Baiter and Sauppe, 
Zurich, 1838; C. Muller, 1868.-2. A tragic 
poet, whom many writers confound with the 
Attic orator, lived at Syracuse, at the court of 
the elder Dionysius, by whom he was put to 
death (Arist. Bhet. ii. 6). — 3, Of Athens, a 
sophist and an epic poet, wrote a work on the 
interpretation of dreams, referred to by Cicero 
and others. He is the same person as Antiphon 
an opponent of Socrates. (Xen. Mem. i. 6.) 

Antiplius {''Ai'Ti<l>os). 1. Son of Priam and 
Hecuba, slain by Agamemnon {II. iv. 489, xi. 
101). — 2. Son of Thessalus, and one of the 
Greek heroes at Troy {II. ii. 676). 

Antipolis {'Avrlirohis : Aniibes, pronounced 
by the inhabitants Antiboul), a town in Gallia 
Narbonensis on the coast, in the territory of 
the Deciates, a few miles W. of Nioaea, was 
founded by Massilia, and received Jm Latinmn 
after B.C. 46 ; the muria, or salt pickle made of 
fish, i^repared at this town, was very celebrated 
(Strab. pp. 180, 184; Tac. Hist. ii. 15; Mart, 
xiii. 103). 

AntirrMum {'A'MppioV. Castello di Bome- 
lia), a promontory on the borders of Aetolia 
and Locris, opposite Rhium {Castello di Morea) 
in Acliaia, with which it formed the narrow 
entrance of the Corinthian gulf : the straits are 
sometimes called the Little Dardanelles. 

Antissa {"AvTio-cra: 'AvTicr&aios: lialas Lim- 
neonas), a to-ivn in Lesbos with a harbour, on 
the W. coast between Methymna and the pro- 
montoi-y Sigrium, was originally on a small 
island opposite Lesbos, which was afterwards 
united with Lesbos (Plin. ii. § 204 ; Ov. Met. 
XV. 287). It joined Mitylene in the revolt 
(Thuo. iii. 18, 28). It was destroyed by the 
Romans, b.c 168, and its inhabitants removed 
to Methymna, because they had assisted Antio- 
ohus (Strab. p. 618 ; Liv. xiv. 81). 

Antisthenes {'AvTiaeivris). 1. An Athenian, 
founder of the sect of the Cynic philosophers. 
His mother was a Thracian. In his youth he 
fought at Tanagra (b.c. 420), and was a disciple 
first of Gorgias, and then of Socrates, whom 
he never quitted, and at whose death he was 
present. He died at Athens, at the age of 70. 
Among his pupils were Crates of Thebes and 
Diogenes of Sinope. He taught in the Cynos- 
arges, a gymnasium for the use of Athenians 
born of foreign mothers ; whence probably his 
fo lowers ^yere called Cynics {kwikqI), though 
others derive their name from their dog-like 
neglect of all forms and usages of society His 
writings have perished, except two declama- 
tions, named .'Jjaa; and Ulysses, about the 
arms of AchiUes, the genuineness of which is 



80 ANTISTIUS 
disputed. He was an enemy to all Hpeoulation, 
and thua was opposed to Plato, whom he 
attacked furiously in one of his dialogues; in 
especial he denied ideas, and asserted tluit the 
individual alone existed. He paid little regard 
to art, learning, and scientific researcli. His 
philosophical system was confined almost en- 
tirely to ethics, and he taught that virtue is the 
sole tiling necessary : and virtue consisted in 
complete independence of surroundings, in 
avoiding evil and having no needs. Hence it 
amounted to apathy. The later Cynics, such 
as Diogenes, sank to a lower depth both of igno- 
rance and disregard of conventional morality. 
He showed his contempt of all the luxuries and 
outward comforts of life by his mean clothing 
and hard fare. From his school the Stoics 
subsequently sprang. In one of his works 
entitled Physicus, he contended for the Unity 
of the Deity (Cic. de Nat. Dear. i. 18, 82). 
Fragments edited by Winckehnann, 1842. — 
2. A Greek historian of Bhodes about B.C. 200 
(Polyb. xvi. 14). Ed. by C. Miiller in Frag. 
Hist. Graec. — 3. A Si^artan admiral mentioned 
in B.C. 412 and 399 (Thuo. viii. 39 ; Xen. Hell. 
iii. 2, 6). 

Antistius, P., tribune of the plebs, b.c. 88, 
a distinguished orator, supported the party of 
Sulla, and was put to death by order of young 
Marius in 82. His daughter Antistia was mar- 
ried to Pompeius Magnus (Cic. Brut. 63, 226, 
pro Bosc. Am. 32, 90 ; Veil. Pat. ii. 26 ; Appian, 
B. C. i. 88). Others of this name are mentioned 
by Livy at vaj-ious dates, of whose history no- 
thing important is preserved. 

Antistius Labeo. [Labec] 

Antistius Vetus. [Vetus.] 

Antltaurus ('Ai/TiVaupos : Ali-Dagh), a chain 
of mountains, which strikes ofi NE. from the 
main chain of the Taurus on the S. border of 
Cappadocia, in the centre of which district it 
turns to the E. and runs parallel to the Taurus 
as far as the Euphrates. Its average height 
exceeds that of the Taurus ; and one of its 
summits, Mount Argaeus, near Mazaca, is the 
loftiest mountain of Asia Minor. 

Antium (Antias : Torre or Porto d' Anzo), a 
very ancient town of Latium on a rocky pro- 
montory running out some distance into the 
Tyrrhenian sea. It was founded by Tyrrhenians 
and Pelasgians, and in earlier and even later 
times was noted for its piracy. Although united 
by Tarquinius Superbus to the Latin League, 
it generally sided with the Volscians against 
Kome (Liv. ii. 33, 63, 65 ; Dionys. iv. 49, vi. 92, 
ix. 58). It was taken by the Eomans in b.c. 
467, and was made a Latin colony (Liv. iii. 1 ; 
Dionys. ix. 59), but it revolted, was taken a 
second time by the Romans in b.c. 338, was 
deprived of all its ships — the beaks of which 
(rostra) served to ornament the platform of the 
speakers in the Boman forum — was forbidden 
to have any ships in future, and was made a 
Roman colony (Liv. vii. 27, viii. 12-14). But it 
gradually recovered its former importance, was 
allowed in course of time again to be used as a 
seaport, and in the latter times of the republic 
and under the empire, became a favourite 
residence of many of the Roman nobles and 
emperors. The emperor Nero was bom here, 
and in the remains of his palace the celebrated 
Apollo Belvedere was found (Strab. p. 282 ; Cic. 
Att. ii. 1, 7, 11; Suet. Aug. 58, Ner. 6; Tac. 
Ann. xiv. 27, xv. 23). Antium possessed a 
celebrated temple of Fortune (0 Diva, gratum 
quae regis Antium, Hor. Od. i. 35), of Aescu- 
lapius, and at the port of Ceno, a little to the 



ANTONINUS 

E. of Antium, a temple of Neptune, on which 
account the place is now called Nettuno. 

intius Restio. [Restio.J 

Antonia. 1, Maiur. elder daughter of M. 
Antonius and Octavia, wife of L. Domitius 
Ahenobarbus, and mother of Cn. Domitius, the 
father of the emperor Nero. Tacitus calls this 
Antonia the younger daughter. (Tac. Arm. iv. 44 
xii. 64; Suet. Ner. 5; Plut. Arit. 87; cf. Die 
Cass. li. 15.) — 2, Minor, younger sister of the 
preceding, wife of Drusus, the brother of tlie 
emperor Tiberius, and mother of Germanicus, 
the father of the emperor Caligula, of Livia or 
Livilla, and of the emperor Claudius. She died 
A.D. 38, soon after the accession of her grandson 
Caligula. She was celebrated for her beauty 
and virtue (Plut. Ant. 87; Tac. ^wji. xi. 3 ; Val. 
Max. iv. 8, 8). — 3. Daughter of the emperor 
Claudius, married first to Pompeius Magnus, 
and afterwards to Faustus Sulla. Nero wished 
to marry her after the death of his wife Poppaea, 
A.D. 66 ; and on her refusal he caused her to 
be put to death on a charge of treason (Suet. 
Claud. 27, Ner. 85 ; Tac. Ann. xii. 2, xiii. 23, 
XV. 53 ; Dio Cass. Ix. 5). 

Antonia Turris, a castle on a rock at the 
NW. comer of the Temple at Jerusalem, which 
commanded both the temple and the city. It 
was at first called Baris : Herod the Great 
changed its name in honoilr of M. Antonius. 
It contained the residence of the Procurator 
Judaeae. 

Antonini Itineraria, There are two lists of 
stations on Roman roads and their distances 
bearing this name. The most probable account 
of them is that they are based on work done in 
the time of Antoninus Caracalla (a.d. 211-217) 
and that additions were made at various times 
to this groundwork. The recension which we 
now have belongs to the early part of the 4th 
century, for on the one hand it contains the town 
Diocletianopolis ; on the other, distances are 
not reckoned from Constantinople. — Editions 
by Toblor, St. Gall, 1868 ; Parthey, 1848. 

Antoninopolis {^KvrwvivoTroKis \ -iTTjs, anus), 
a city of Mesopotamia, between Edessa and 
Dara, aft. Blaximianopolis, and aft. Constantia. 

Antoninus, M. Aurelius. [M. Atjkelius.] 

Antoninus Pius, Roman emperor, a.d. 138- 
161. His name in the early part of his life, at fuU 
length, was Titus Aurelius Fulvius Boionius 
Arrius Antoninus. These names probably 
imply inheritance from various relations. His 
father and grandfather, both of consular rank, 
both bore the names Aurelius Fulvius; his 
mother was an Arria, and he reckoned a 
Boionius also among his maternal ancestors. 
His paternal ancestors came from Nemausus 
(Nismes) in Gaul ; but Antoninus himself was 
bom near Lanuvium, September 19th, a.d. 86. 
From an early age he gave promise of liis future 
worth. In 120 he was consul, and subsequently 
proconsul of the province of Asia : on his return 
to Rome he lived on terms of the greatest 
intimacy with Hadrian, who adopted him on 
February 25th, 138. Henceforward he bore 
the name of T. Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus 
Caesar, and on the death of Hadrian, July 2nd, 
188, he ascended the throne. The senate con- 
ferred upon him the title of Pt!/5, or the duti- 
fully affectionate, because be persuaded theni 
to grant to his father Hadrian the apotheosis 
and the other honours usually paid to deceased 
emperors, whioh they had at first refused to 
bestow upon Hadrian. The reign of Antoninus 
is almost a blank in history— a blank caused 
by the suspension for a time of war, violencev 



ANTONINUS 

juid crime. He was one of the best princes that 
ever mounted a throne, and all his thoughts 
and energies were dedicated to the happiness 
of liis people. No attempt was made to achieve 
new conquests, and vai-ious insurrections among 
the Germans, Dacians, Jews, Moors, Egyptians, 
and Britons, were easily quelled by his legates. 
The ' wall of Aaitonine ' between the Clyde and 
the Forth was raised by the praefect Lollius 
Urbious at this time. In all the relations of 
private life the character of Antonuius was 
without reproach. He was faithful to his wife 
Faustina, notwithstanding her profligate life, 
and after lier death loaded her memoi-y with 
honours. He died at Lorium, March 7th, 161, 
in his 75th year. He was succeeded by M. 



ANTONIUS 



81 




AntoninuB Plus. Roman Emperor, A.D. 138-161. 
(The legend ou the obverse, in full, is Antoninus Augustus 
Mus, Pater Patriae, Tribunitia Potestas, Consul III.) 

Am-elius, whom he had adopted, when he liim- 
self was adopted by Hadrian, and to whom he 
gave his daughter Faustina in marriage (Life 
in Scriptores Hist. August., usually attributed 
to Capitolinus, but by some assigned to Spar- 
tianus). 

Antoninus Liberalis, a Greek grammarian, 
probably lived in the reign of the Antoniues, 
about A.D. 147, and wrote a work on Meta- 
morphoses {yieTafiop(p<i(rea>v (Tuvayuyfi), in 41 
chapters, which is extant, derived from ancient 
sources, and valuable for tracing variations 
of mythology. — Editions: by Verheyk, Lugd. 
Bat. 1774; by Koch, Lips. 1832; by Wester- 
mann, in his Paradoxographi, Brunsv. 1839. 

Ant5nlu8. 1. M., the orator, born B.C. 143; 
quaestor in 113 ; praetor in 104, when lie fought 
against the pirates in Cilicia ; consul in 99 ; and 
censor in 97. He belonged to Sulla's party, and 
was put to death by Marius and Cinna when 
they entered Bome in 87 : his head was cut off 
and placed on the Eostra. Cicero mentions 
him and L. Crassus as the most distinguished 
orators of their age ; and he is introduced as 
one of the speakers in Cicero's De Oratore. — 
2. M., sumamed Cbeticus, elder son of the 
orator, and father of the triumvir, was praetor 
in 75, and received the command of the fleet 
and all the coasts of the Mediterranean, in 
order to clear the sea of pirates ; but he did not 
succeed in his object, and used his power to 
plunder the provinces. He died shortly after- 
wards in Crete, and was called Creticus in de- 
rision (Plut. Ant. 1; Diod.xl. 1).— 3. C, younger 
«on of tlie orator, and uncle of the triumvir, 
•was expelled the senate in 70 for extortion ; but 
afterwards was the colleague of Cicero in the 
praetorship (O,-;) and consulship (63). He was 
one of Catiline's conspirators, but deserted the 
latter on Cicero's promising him the province 
of Macedonia. He had to lead an army against 
Vatihne, but unwUling to figlit against his for- 
save the command on the day of 
•Dattle to liis legate, M. Petreius. At the con- 
Oinsion of the war Antony went into his 
province, which he plundered shamefully; and 



on his return to Borne in 59 was accused both 
of taking part in Catiline's conspiracy and of 
extortion in his province. He was defended by 
Cicero, but was condemned, and retired to tlie 
island of Cephallenia. He was subsequently 
recalled, probably by Caesar, and was in Borne 
at the beginning of 44 (Cic. Clu. 42, Cat. iii. 6, 
Gael. 31, Flacc. 88; Dio Cass, xxxvii. 40, 
xxxviii. 10). He was sumamed Hybrida, possi- 
bly as being seiiiiferus (Plin. viii. 213).— 4. M., 
the Triumvir, was son of No. 2 and J ulia, the 
sister of L. Julius Caesar, consul in 64, and 
was born about 83. His father died while he 
was still young, and he was brought up by 
Cornelius Lentulus, who married his mother 
Julia, and who was put to death by Cicero in 63 
as one of Catiline's conspirators : whence he be- 
came a personal enemy of Cicero. Antony in- 
dulged in his earliest youth in evei-y kind of 
dissipation, and his affairs soon became deeply 
involved. In 58 he went to Syria, where he 
served with distinction under A. Gabiiiius. 
He took part in the campaigns against Aristo- 
bulus in Palestine (57, 56), and in the restora- 
tion of Ptolemy Auletes to Egypt in 55. In 54 
he went to Caesar in Gaul, and by the influence 
of the latter was elected quaestor. As quaestor 
(52) he returned to Gaul, ond served under 
Caesar for the next two years (52, 51). He re- 
turned to Bome in 50, and became one of the 
most active partisans of Caesar. He was tri- 
bune of the plebs in 49, and in January fled to 
Caesar's camp in Cisalpine Gaul (with another 
tribune, Q. Cassius Longinus), after putting a 
veto upon the decree of the senate which de- 
prived Caesar of his command. He accom- 
panied Caesar in his victorious march into 
Italy, and was left by Caesar in the command of 
Italy, while the latter carried on the war in 
Spain. In 48 Antony brought the troops left in 
Italy to join Caesar in Epirus, after several 
delays, for which he was rebuked, and was 
present at the battle of Pharsalia, where he 
commanded the left wing ; and in 47 he was 
again left in the command of Italy during 
Caesar's absence in Africa. In 44 he was con- 
sul with Caesar, when he offered him the kingly 
diadem at the festival of the Lupercalia. After 
Caesar's murder on the 15tli of March, Antony 
endeavoured to succeed to his power. He 
therefore used every means to appear as his 
representative ; as surviving consul he pro- 
nounced the speech over Caesar's body and read 
his win to the people ; and he also obtained the 
papers and private property of Caesar. But he 
found a new and unexpected rival in young Oc- 
tavianus, the adopted son and great-nephew of 
the dictator, who came from ApoUonia to Bome, 
assumed the name of Caesar, and at first joined 
the senate in order to crush Antony. Towards 
the end of the year Antony proceeded to Cisal- 
pine Gaul, which had been previously granted 
him by the senate ; but Dec. Brutus refused to 
surrender the province to Antony and threw 
himself into Mutina, where he was besieged by 
Antony. The senate approved of the conduct 
of Brutus, declared Antony a public enemy, and 
entrusted the conduct of the war against him to 
Octavianus. Antony was defeated at the battle 
of Mutina, in April 43, and was obliged to cross 
the Alps. Both the consuls, however, had 
fallen, and the senate now began to show their 
jealousy of Octavianus. Meantime Antony was 
j joined by Lepidus with a powerful army : 
I Octavianus became reconciled to Antony ; and 
j it was agreed that the government of tlie state 
should be vested in Antony, Octavianus, and 



02 ANTONIUS 
Lepidus, under Uie title of Triumviri lieijnib- 
licae Conatituendae, for the next 5 years. Tlie 
mutual enemies of each were proscribed, and in 
the numerous executions that followed, Cicero, 
who had attacked Antony in the most un- 
measured manner in his Philijiiyic UnUionn, 
fell a victim to Antony. In 42 Antony and 
Octavianus crushed the republican party by the 
battle of Philippi, in which Brutus and Cassius 
fell. Antony then went to Asia, which he had 
received as his share of the Eoman world. In 
Cilicia he met with Cleopatra, and followed her 
to Egypt, a captive to her charnis. In 41 Fulvia, 
the wife of Antony, and his brother L. Antonius, 
made war upon Octavianus in Italy. Antony 
prepared to support his relatives, but the war 
was brought to a close at the beginning of 40, 
before Antony could reach Italy. The oppor- 
tune death of Fulvia facilitated the reconcili- 
ation of Antony and Octavianus, which was 
cemented by Antony marrying Octavia, the 
sister of Octavianus. Antony remained in Italy 
till 39, when the triumvirs concluded a peace 




M. Antonius and Cleopatra; 
06y., head of Antonius — legend 'Avtoh'ioc AvroKparwp rptrov rptSv Avdpalv 
(=third time triumvir) ; rev., head of Cleopatra — legend JiaatXtima KXeo. 

Trarpa 6ei vccurepa, 

with Sext. Pompey, and he afterwards went to 
his provinces in the East. In this year and the 
following Ventidius, the lieutenant of Antony, 
defeated the Parthians. In 37 Antony crossed 
over to Italy, when tlie triumvirate was renewed 
for 5 years. He then returned to the East, and 
shortly afterwards sent Octavia back to her 
brother, and surrendered himself entirely to 
the charms of Cleopatra. In 36 he invaded 
Parthia, but he lost a great number of his 
troops, and was obliged to retreat. He was 
more successful in his invasion of Armenia in 
34, for be obtained possession of Artavasdes, the 
Armenian king, and carried him to Alexandria. 
Antony now laid aside entirely the character of 
a Koman citizen, and assumed the pomp and 
ceremony of an Eastern despot. His conduct, 
and the unbounded influence which Cleopatra 
had acquired over him, alienated many of his 
friends and supporters ; and Octavianus thought 
that the time had now come for crushing his 
rival. The contest was decided by the memor- 
able sea-fight off Actium, September 2nd, 31, in 
which Antony's fleet was completely defeated. 
Antony, accompanied by Cleopatra, fled to 
Alexandria, where he put an end to his own life 
in the following year (30), when Octavianus 
appeared before the city. (See Plut. Avf. ; index 
to Cicero ; Appian. B. C. iii., iv. ; Dio Cass, 
xliv. ff.). — 5 C, brother of the triumvir, was 
praetor in Macedonia in 44, fell into the hands 
of M. Brutus in 43, by whom he was put to 
death in 42, to revenge the murder of Cicero 
(Plut. Brut. 28; Dio Cass, xlvii. 23).— 6. L., 
youngest brother of the triumvir, was consul in 
41, when he triumphed for success over soino 
Alpine tribes, and in the following winter en- 



ANUBIS 

gaged in war against Octavianus at tlie instiga- 
tion of Fulvia, his brother's wife. He was 
unaUle to resist Octavianus, and threw himself 
into the town of Perusia, which he was obliged 
to surrender in the following year : hence the 
war IS usually called that of Perusia. His life 
was spared, and he was afterwards appointed 
by Octavianus to the command of Iberia. His 
character is painted by Cicero in dark colours, 
perhaps with some exaggeration (Cic. Phil, iii 
12, V. 7, 11, xii. 8 ; Appian, B. 0. v. ll)-4i)).— 
7. M., called by the Greek writers Antyllua — 
which is probably only a corrupt form of Aii- 
tonillus (young Antonius)— elder son of the 
triumvir by Fulvia, was executed by order of 
Octavianus, after the death of his father in 30 
(Suet. Aug. G3; Plut. Ant. 81).— 8. Julus, 
younger son of the triumvir by Fulvia, was 
brought up by his stepmother Octavia at Rome, 
and received great marks of favour from Augus- 
tus. Horace notices him as a poet (Orf. iv. 2). 
He was consul in B.C. 10, but was put to death 
in 2, in consequence of his adulterous inter- 
course with Julia, the daughter of 
Augustus (Dio Cass. hv. 36, Iv. 10 ; 
Tac. iv. 44; Veil. Pat. ii. 100). 

Antonius Felix. [Feljx.] 
Antonius Musa. [Musa.] 
Antonius Primus. [Piiiirus.] 
Antron ('Avrpuv : Fano), a town 
in Phthiotis in Tliessaly, at the en- 
trance of the Sinus Maliocus (II. 
ii. 697 ; Strab. p. 435). 

Antunnacum {Andernach), a 
town of the Ubii on the Bhine 
(Amm. Marc.'xviii. 2). 

Anubis {"Avov^is), an Egyptian 
divinity (the Egyptian Anjiii), the 
ruler of the dead. He watched over 
the rites of embalming, and con- 
ducted the dead m their course to the western 
realm of shades. In the Osiris myths he is 
subordinate to Osiris, and is repi'esented as his 
son by Nephtliys, 
and he is sup- 
posed, together 
with Horns, or 
Thoth, to weigh 
the actions of 
the dead in their 
judgment befoi'e 
Osiris, besides 
acting as then' 
guide. Hence of 
course followed 
his identifioa- 
tion with Her- 
mes (Hermanii- 
bis). He was 
figured with the 
head of a jackal, 
because that ani- 
mal, as haunt- 
ing the gi-aves, 
seemed the in- 
carnation of the 
dead. The Ro- 
mans imagined 
him with a clog's 
head (Plut. de Is.; 
Verg. Aoi. viii. 
698; Ov. Met. ix. 

690; Prop. iii. 9. Auubls. iWUkluson s K<(W'<i'i"*.) 
41 ; Juv. XV. 8 ; „. , . 

Dionvs. i. 18, 87 ; Strab. p. 805). His worsluR 
with 'that of Isis and Serapis, was introduced 
both at Rome and in Greece, under the einperorS. 




I 



ANXUR 
Anxur. [Tabracina.] 

Anxurus, an Italian divinity, who was wor- 
shipped in a grove near Anxur (Tarracina) to- 
gether witli Feronia. He was regarded as a 
youtliful Jupiter, and Feronia as Juno. On 
coins liis name appears as Axur or Anxur. 

Anysis {'Awa-ts), according to Herodotus ii. 
187, an ancient blind king of Egypt, in whose 
reign Egypt was invaded by the Etliiopians 
under their king Sabaco. He is supposed to 
come from a city Anysis, and to take refuge 
from the invaders in the marshes for 50 years, 
during which he increased his island by making 
malefactors add earth to it by way of penalty. 
It is clear that Herodotus has misinterpreted 
his information, whether it was about the city 
or the man. He makes Anysis succeed Asykis 
(=Aseskaf or Shepseskaf), who reigned in the 
fourth dynasty, about B.C. 8600, nearly 3000 
years before Sabaco. 

Anyte ('Avuttj), of Tegea, the authoress of 
several epigi-ams in the Greek Anthology, 
flourished about B.C. 100.— Edition. Kinkel, 
1877. 

Anytus ('Avutoj), a wealthy Athenian, son of 
Anthemion, the most influential and formidable 
of the accusers of Socrates, B.C. 399 (hence 
Socrates is called Amjti reus, Hor. Sat. ii. 4. 3). 
He was a leading man of the democratical 
party, and had taken an active part, along with 
Thrasybulus, in the overthrow of the 30 Tyrants. 
The Athenians, having repented of their con- 
demnation of Socrates, sent Anytus into banish- 
ment to Heraclea in Pontus (Xen. Hell. ii. 3, 42). 

A5ll ("hoiv), son of Poseidon), and an ancient 
Boeotian hero, from whom the Aones, an ancient 
race in Boeotia, were believed to have derived 
their name {Strab. pp. 401, 412 ; Pans. ix. 5). 
Aijnia was the name of the part of Boeotia, near 
Phocis, in which were Mount Hehcon and the 
fountain Aganippe {Aoniae aquae, Ov. Fast. 
iii. 456). The Muses are also called Aonides, 
since they frequented Helicon and the fountain 
of Aganippe (Ov. Met. v. 333). 

Aonides, [Aon.J 

Aornus. 1. A rocky stronghold in the country 
between Cabul and the Indus, captured with 
difficulty by Alexander. It was said to rise to 
a height of more tlian 7,000 feet (Arriiin, A.'YI. iv. 
28; Curt. viii. 11; Strab. p. 688).— 2. A lake in 
Thesprotian Epirus, where there was a v^kvo- 
Havrdov, or oracle of the dead, visited by 
Orpheus (Paus. ix. 30, 6). It is not clear 
whether this is another name for Lake Aohe- 
rusia, or, rather, for the spot on its banks where 
the oracle stood, or whether it is a neighbouring 
lake (cf. Hdt. v. 92, 7 ; Diod. iv. 22 ; Achebusia). 

Aorsi ("Aopo-oi) or Adorsi, a powerful people 
of Asiatic Sarmatia, who appear to have had 
Mieu- original settlements on the NE. of the 
Caspian, but are chiefly found between the 
Palus Maeotis (Sea of Azof) and the Caspian, 
to the SE. of the river Tanais [Don), whence 
tney spread far into European Sarmatia. They 
carried on a considerable traffic in Babylonian 
• merchandise, which they fetched on camels out 
01 Media and Armenia (Strab. pp. 492, 506 ; 
i-&c._Ann. xii. 15). 

Aous or Aeas ('A^or or Afas : Viosa, Viussa, 
orvovussa), the principal river of the Greek 
n f t IJlyricum, rises in M. Lacmon, the N. 
no^ A Pindus, and flows into the Ionian sea 
near Apollonia. 

Apamea or -ia CATrrf/^eia : ■ATra/.iftir, Apa- 
•eus, -onus, -ensis), the name of several Asiatic 
cities, some of which were founded by Seleucus 
^- itioator, and named in honour of his wife 



APELLES 



88 



Apama. 1. A. ad Orontem [Famieh), the capi- 
tal of the Syrian province Apamene, and, under 
the Bomans, of Syria Secunda, was built by 
Seleucus Nicator on the site of the older city of 
Pella, in a very strong position on the river 
Orontes or Axius, the citadel being on the left 
(W.) bank of the river, and the city on the right. 
It was surrounded by rich pastures, in which 
Seleucus kept a splendid stud of horses and 500 
elephants (Strab. p. 752). As Famieh it was 
occupied by Tancred in the Crusades. — 2. In 
Osroene in Mesopotamia (Balasir), a town built 
by Seleucus Nicator on the E. banlc of the 
Euphrates, opposite to Zeugma, with which it 
was connected by a bridge, commanded by a 
castle, called Seleucia.— 3. A. Cibotus or ad 
Maeandrum ('A. ri KifiurSs, or irphs Maiavipov), 
a great city of Phrygia, on the Maeander, close 
above its confluence with the Marsyas. It waa 
built on a site easy of access, yet defensible, by 
Antiochus I. Soter, wlio named it in honour of 
his mother Apama, and peopled it with the 
inhabitants of the neighbouring Celaenae. It 
became one of the greatest cities of Asia west of 
the Euphrates, and under the Eomans it was 
the seat of a Conventus Juridicus. Standing 
at a junction of several Eoman roads, it had a 
great commerce, until the change of roads under 
the Byzantine system, after the end of the 4th 
century A.D., caused it to decline in prosperity. 
The great routes from Constantinople and Ni- 
comedia did not pass through Apamea, and the 
older Eoman routes had lost their importance. 
The surrounding country, watered by the Mae- 
ander and its tributaries, was called Apamena 
Eegio. — 4. A. Myrleon, in Bithynia. [Myblea.] 
— 5. A town built by Antiochus Soter, in the 
district of Assyria called Sittacene, at the junc- 
tion of the Tigris with the Eoyal Canal which 
connected the Tigris with the Euphrates, and 
at the N. extremity of the island called Mesene, 
which was formed by this canal and the two 
rivers. — 6. A. Mesenes [Korna], in Babylonia, 
at the S. point of the same island of Mesene, 
and at the junction of the Tigris and Euphrates. 
—7. A. Khagiana ('A. tj vphs 'Payais), a Greek 
city in the district of Choarene in Farthia (for- 
merly in Media), S. of the Caspian Gates. 

Apelles ('A7reA.A.T)j), one of the most cele- 
brated of Grecian painters, son of Pythras, was 
born, most probably, at Colophon in Ionia. He 
studied first at Bphesus under Ephorus ; then 
at Sicyon under Pamphilus. Thence he went 
to Pella and became the court painter to Philip 
and Alexander from b.c. 336 onwards. When 
Alexander set out for Asia Apelles returned to 
Ephesus, and lived both there and at Ehodes, 
the home of Protogenes, his greatest contempo- 
rary. Being driven by a storm to Alexandria, 
after the assumption of the regal title by 
Ptolemy (b.c. 306), whose favour he had not 
gained while he was with Alexander, his rivals 
laid a plot to ruin him, which he defeated by an 
ingenious use of his skill in drawing. We are 
not told when or where he died. Throughout 
his life Apelles laboured to improve himself, 
especially in drawing, which he never spent a 
day without practising. Hence the proverb 
Nulla dies sine tinea. This and other sayings 
attributed to him, whether genuine or not, indi- 
cate his fame as an authority. A list of his 
works is given by Pliny. They are for the most 
part single figures, or groups of a very few 
figures. Of his portraits the most celebrated 
was that of Alexander wielding a thunderbolt, 
painted for the temple of Artemis at Ephesus' 
but the most admired of all his pictures was the 

G 2 



I 



Si APELLICON 

'Venus Anadyoraene' avaSvofjL4t>r) 'A<ppoSirn), 
or Aphrodite rising out of the sea, painted for a 
temple at Cob, and placed in the temple of 
Caesar at Rome by Augustus, who remitted a 
tribute of 100 talents to the Coans as equivalent 
value. There can be no doubt that Apelles 
stands at the head of painters of the Hellenistic 
period. His work was chiefly portraiture — it 
was said that Alexander would sit to no other 
painter — and therefore it is possible that earlier 
painters such as Polygnotus or Zeuxis may have 
surpassed him in composition ; but Apelles 
was probably the greatest Greek painter in 
technique, and brought colouring to a perfec- 
tion unequalled in Greek art. (Plin. xxxv. 
79-100 ; Diet. Ant. s.v. Pictura) 

Apellicon ('ATreAA.iifiDc), of Teos, a Peripatetic 
philosopher and great collector of books. His 
valuable library at Athens, containing the auto- 
graphs of Aristotle's works (which Apellicon is 
said to have discovered hidden in a cellar: 
Strab. p. 609 ; Plut. Bull. 26), was carried to 
Rome by Sulla (b.c. 83) : Apellicon had died 
just before. 

Apenninus Mons (& ^Kiriwivos and rb 'AirtV- 
vivov opos, probably from the Celtic Pen ' a 
height'), the Apennines, a chain of mountains 
which runs throughout Italy from N. to S., and 
forms the backbone of the peninsula. It is a 
continuation of the Maritime Alps [Axpes], 
begins near Genua and ends at the Sicilian sea, 
and throughout its whole course sends off nume- 
rous branches in all directions. It rises to its 
greatest height in the country of the Sabines, 
where one of its points (now Monte Corno, or 
Gran Sasso d' Italia) is 9521 feet above the sea; 
and further S., at the boundaries of Sanmium, 
Apulia, and Lucania, it divides into two main 
branches, one of which runs E. through Apulia 
and Calabria, and terminates at the Salentine 
promontory, and the other W. through Brut- 
tium, terminating apparently at Rhegium and 
the straits of Messina, but in reality continued 
tliroughout Sicily. The greater part of the 
Apennines is composed of limestone, abound- 
ing in numerous caverns and recesses, which in 
ancient as well as in more recent times were the 
resort of numerous robbers : the highest points 
of the mountains are covered with snow, even 
during most of the summer {nivali vertice se 
attollens Apenninus, Verg. Aen. xii. 703). For 
a general description see Polyb. ii. 16, iii. 110 ; 
Strab. pp. 128, 211 ; for the storms of the Apen- 
nines, Liv. xxi. 58. 

M. Aper, a Roman orator and a native of 
Gaul, rose by his eloquence to the rank of 
quaestor, tribune, and praetor, successively. He 
is one of the speakers in the Dialogue de Ora- 
toribus attributed to Tacitus. 

Aper, Arrius, praetorian prefect, and son-in- 
law of the emperor Numerian, whom he was 
said to have murdered : he was himself put to 
death by Diocletian on his accession in a.d. 284. 

Aperantla, a town and district of Aetolia near 
the Achelous, inhabited by the Aperantii (Polyb. 
xxii. 8 ; Liv. xxxviii. 3). 

Aperlae ("AwepXai : on a coin the mscr. is 
'ATrepAaeiTcSi/), a town in Lycia a few miles west 
of Simena. It formed with three others, Simena, 
Apollonia and Isinda, a single Sij/ioj or district 
with a common fiovK-h (Waddington, 1292, 1296). 
In later times it was the seat of a bishopric 
including the above towns. The inscriptions 
show the true spelling in Plin. v. 100. 

Aperopia, a small island oft the prom. Bu- 
porthmus in Argolis (Paus. ii. 84,9 ; Plin. iv. 50). 

Apesas ('AireVas : Ftika ?), a mountain on the 



APHRODITE 

borders of Phliasia and Argolis, with a temple 
of Zeus, who was hence called Apesantius, and 
to w*iom Perseus hero first sacrificed. 

Aphaca (ri 'A^a/ca : Afta ?), a town of Coele- 
Syria, between Heliopolis and Byblus, cele- 
brated for the worship of Aphrodite Aphacltis. 

AphareuB ('A<pap€vs). 1. Son of the Messenian 
king Perieres, and founder of the town of Arene 
in Messenia, which he called after his wife. 
Lyons, son of Pandion, took refuge there and 
initiated Aphareus in the mysteries (Paus. iii. 

I, iv. 2, 4.) He was buried at Sparta (Paus. iii. 

II, 11 ; Tlieocr. xxii 141). His two sons Idas and 
Lynceus, the Aphai-etidae (Aphareia proles, 
Ov. Met. viii. 804), are celebrated for their fight 
with the Dioscuri, which is described by Pindar 
(Nem. X. 111). — 2. An Athenian orator and 
tragic poet, flourished B.C. 369-342. After the 
death of his father, his mother married the 
orator Isocrates, who adopted Aphareus as his 
son. He wrote 35 or 37 tragedies, and gained 
4 prizes. (Plut. Vit. X. Or. 889.) 

Aphetae ('A<|)€Taj and 'A<p6Tat: 'A^erdios), a 
seaport and promontory of Thessaly, at the en- 
trance of the Sinus Maliacus, from which the 
ship Argo is said to have sailed (Hdt. vii. 193, 
196, vin. 4 ; Strab. p. 436 ; Ap. Rh. i. 591). 

Aphidas ('A<pelSas), son of Areas, obtained 
from his father Tegea and the surrounding 
territory. He had a son, Aleus. 

ApMdna ("AipiSva and "AcptSvai : ' Kipihvcuoi), 
an Attic demus not far from Decelea, originally 
belonged to the tribe Aeantis, afterwards to 
Leontis, and last to Hadrianis. It was one of the 
12 towns and districts into which Cecrops is 
said to have divided Attica ; in it Theseus con- 
cealed Helen, but her brothers Castor and 
Pollux took the place and rescued their sister. 
(Hdt. ix. 73 ; Plut. Thes. 32 ; Paus. i. 17, 6.) 

Aphrodisias ('A<f)po5i(n'os : 'AcppoSKTids '■ 
Aphrodisiensis), the name of several places 
famous for the worship of Aphrodite. 1 A. 
Cariae (Gheira, Ru.), on the site of an old town 
of the Leleges, named Ninoe : under the Ro- 
mans a civitas foederata et libera, with immu- 
nity from taxation, and independence of local 
government secured by ancient treaty. It was 
the chief town of Caria under Diocletian. (Strab. 
p. 576 ; Plin. v. 109 ; Tac. Ann. iii. 62 ; C. I. G. 
2737 ; C. I. L. iii. 449.)— 2. Veneris Oppidiim, a 
town on the coast of Cilicia, opposite to Cyprus 
(Liv. xxxiii. 20). — 3. A town, harbour, and island, 
on the coast of Cyrenaica in N. Africa. — 4. See 
Gades. 

AphrSdite ('A<^)po5/t7)), the Greek goddess 
of beauty and love, and of fruitful increase, 
whether of animal or vegetable life, worshipped 
by the Romans as Venus. In the Iliad (though 
apparently in the later portions only) she is • 
called the daughter of Zeus and Dione : another • 
myth represented her as sprung from the foam ' 
of the sea [see Ub.vnus]. She was wedded to ; 
Hephaestus. For the myths of her relations to i 
others, and of her children, see Abes, Dionysus, ,' 
Hebmes, Poseidon, Eros, AxcmsES, Anoxis, , 
CiNTO^vs, BuTES. In the Homeric poems she ■ 
took the side of the Trojans, interfering to pro- 
tect Paris and Aeneas, and to save from defile- 
ment the body of Hector (II. iii. 880, v. 311, , 
xxiii. 185). [See also under P.vris and VExrs.] 

Eastern Origin.— The myths of Aplirodite ■ 
as presented in Greek literature result from a . 
mixture of Greek and Oriental (chiefly Semitic) ' 
mythology. Many Eastem nations worshipped i 
a deity who was at once the goddess of fruit- 
fulness and generation and also of the moon or • 
of the star Venus. Such was the Babylonish i 



Belit (the feminine of Baal), who appears in 
ilfrodotus i. 190, 199 as Mylitta; the Assyrian 
I^itar (who was also to the Chaldeans the star 
\',Mius), the Phoenician Astarte or Aslitoreth, 
.aul the Syrian Atargates. This goddess, under 
ii.-r various names, was in each case the su- 
Picine deity of the female sex, whence probably 
11-086 that she was regarded as the giver of 
fruitful increase. But a leading idea in her 
i ,iiship was that (perhaps as being, so to speak, 
l^)aeen of Heaven) she was the goddess of the 



APHBODITE 88 
on their own. In the Homeric age Aplu-odite 
was accepted as a genuine Greek deity, yet 




Ashtoreth, or the Moon Goddess. 

Layard.) 



(.^.ssyrian Cylinder : 



moon (see Hdt. i. 105 ; Strab. p. 807 ; Lucian, de 
Dea Syr. 4, 82 ; Herodian, v. 6, 10), for which 
reason some prefer to derive her worship as 
the goddess of fruitfulness from the idea that 
the moon was connected with menstruation, and, 
moreover, was supposed to control the dew 
which gave fertility to plants. The latter 
idea is traced in the story of the dew sent by 
Aphrodite to her altar at Ei-yx (Ael. N. A. n.^O; 
cf. Tac. Hist. ii. 3 ; Pervig. Ven. ii. 15). This 
worship of natural increase was degraded in 
the East to rites such as tliose of Mylitta 
described by Herodotus, a degradation which 
pervaded generally the worship of Astarte, and 
was transferred to some Greek temples, such as 
those at Corinth and Eryx. The animals and 
plants sacred in the worship of the Oriental, as 
of the Greek, deity were symbolical of fertility 
— the ram, the goat, the deer, the partridge, the 
purple mussel and various fish, the myrtle and 
Cyprus. Again, perhaps alike from the in- 
fluence of the moon upon the sea, and also from 
the dependence of mariners upon the stars, 
arose the connexion of the Eastern deity with 
the sea ; and the fact that the goddess Derceto 
(Atargates), worshipped at Hieropolis (Bam- 
byce), at Ascalon, and at other places in Syria, 
was represented as a goddess of fish, may be 
explained as due either to this connexion with 
the sea or to the idea that fish represented 
abundance and fruitfulness. Another very 
noticeable characteristic is the descent of this 
deity into the underworld of tlie dead, an idea 
which may be connected with the waning of 
the moon, but more probably with the death 
of vegetation in winter. In the celebrated 
myth of Ishtar there are many points of resem- 
blance to the story of Persephone. Lastly, it 
should be observed that Astarte was an 
armed goddess, in Phoenicia, at Babylon, and at 
l^arthage sometimes represented with a spear 
and a bow. Whether we are to regard this 
Idea as suggested by the moonbeams, or, more 
simply, as showing the power of the nature- 
goddess to punish those who neglect her, the 
same is traceable in the Greek Aphrodite. 

Onqm in Greece.— The above are the cha- 
racteristics which the Greeks seem to have 
Dorrowed from Eastern religions and engrafted 



traces of Eastern origin remained in the names 
Kvirpis, na(pia, Kvdepeia in the Iliad, and 
KvKpoyeviis in Hesiod. It is clear that under 
tliese names lies the truth that the Phoenicians 
established this worship, or a part of it, in the 
islands of Cyprus and Cythera, where they 
planted trading stations, especially for the 
trade in the purple mussel, and that it spread 
thence to Greece, as it also passed from Car- 
thage to Eryx in Sicily. [It has, however, been 
observed that all the passages in the Iliad 
and Odyssey, where Aphrodite is represented 
either as a daughter of Zeus and Dione, or as 
named from Cyprus and Cythera, belong to the 
latest portions of those poems, and hence it is 
deduced that the oldest Homeric poems know 
nothing of the origin of the deity.] In Greek 
myths the connexion of the goddess with the 
moon, as a recognised attribute, disappears, 
because the Greeks already comiected with the 
moon the names Hecate, Selene, and Artemis, 
and also because it was not her main charac- 
teristic ; yet it survives in the terms Ovpavla 
(see below), ' regina siderum,' and in the star 
Venus ; it has, moreover, been pointed out that 
the Greek name Artemis has, possibly from this 
confusion, been given to the goddess of gene- 
ration whom the old, non-Semitic, Babylonians 
worshipped as Nanai. If, however, the con- 
nexion with the moon has almost vanished, the 
main attribute of power over all fruitfulness 
and offspring, whether of the animal or of the 
vegetable world, belongs to Aphrodite through 
all Greek literature, and to Venus in Koman 
writers. It is only necessary to cite, among 
many passages, Horn. II. v. 430, Hymn, ad 
Aphr. 3, 69 ; Hes. Th. 200 ; Bur. Hipp. 477 ; 
Lucret. i. 1; Hor. Od. i. 4; Fer vigil. Ven. 




Aphrodite and Eros. 
(Causel, Museum Itomamm vol. 1, tav. 40. 

Hence Aphrodite was attended by the Horae 
(Paus. V. 15, 3) ; hence she was the goddess of 
gardens (cf. Strab. p. 843), called Up6KT,iros, wor- 
shipped m the 'gardens' at Athens, wheva 



stood the noted statue by Alcamenes (Paus i. 
19, 2 ; Plin. xxxvi. 16), and in the marsh or 4v 



86 



APHRODITE 




Aphrodite issuing from the sea, and 
received by Eros. (From a silver 
relief. GazHle Arch. IHia.) 



KaKafiots, as suggesting rich growth of vegetation 
(Atlien. p. 572) ; hence also the animals sacred 
to Aphrodite were usually, as in the East above 
noticed, those which were regarded as specially 
prolific— the ram, the goat, the rabbit, the hare, 
the deer, the partridge, the sparrow : similarly 
the myrtle, the cyprus, and the pomegi-anate 
are stated by Pliny to produce fertility (xxii. 
107, 160, xxiv. 14, xxviii. 102). [For the degrada- 
tion — increased, no doubt, if not originated, by 
Eastern influence — of this form of worship to 
a patronage of Hetaerae and the services of the 
tfp6Sou\oi ( Venm-ei) in certain temples, see Strab. 
pp. 272, 878, 745; Cic. Div. in Caec. 17, 55.] 

Her connexion 
with the sea is 
traced in Hes. 
Th. 188 in the 
story of her 
birth from the 
mutilation of 
Uranus (He- 
aiod making 
her di'ift to Cy- 
prus eastward 
from Cythera 
instead of west- 
ward from Sy- 
ria) ; so also in 
Plat. Crat. 406 
c. It is also 
preserved in 
the epithets avaSvofievrj, a.(ppoy€vi]S, daAaaffla, 
■Kovrla, ireAayla, evTr\ola, yaKriuaia: in the 
special regard paid by mariners, and in the 
choice of the dolphin as sacred to her. 
Aphi-odite, like her Eastern counterpart, is 
in some degree connected with the under- 
world : the traces of this appear in the statue 
at Delphi to an 'AcppoS. eViru/u/S/a (Plut. Q. B. 
23) ; in the grave of Aphrodite-Ariadne at 
Naxos and at Amathus [Amabne], and in the 
myth of Adonis. It is preferable to see in this 
the death of vegetation in winter rather than 
the phases of the moon. Lastly, for the armed 
Aphrodite who can revenge breaches of the 
laws of natural production (cf. Hom. II. iii. 413) 
we have the epithet ejx^tos (Hesych.), ev6ir\ios 
{C. I. G. 1444), and the armed statues at 
Cythera, Coi'inth, Epidaiirus, and Sparta (Pans, 
ii. 5, 1, ii. 27, 4, iii. 15, 8, iii. 28, 1). 

All the above characteristics seem to be 
borrowed from the East, though the theory 
cannot be positively rejected that many of 
them at least may have grown up in Greece 
itself as the genuine attributes of a goddess of 
natural powers, therefore called y^veruWis and 
KOvpoTpo<j)os. At any rate it must be recognised 
that we can trace an earlier Greek goddess to 
whom such characteristics as were Oriental 
were transferred because she was through some 
likeness identified with the deity of Oriental 
religions. In the Aphrodite daughter of Zeus 
and Dione, as she appears to us in Homer and 
Sappho, we see a deity who was mainly a 
Greek conception. There was assuredly always 
a deity of love and birth for the Greeks, a power 
ruling over mortals and immortals alike, and 
therefore ' the oldest of the Fates ' (Pans. i. 19, 
2). The original of the daughter of Zeus and 
Dione ( = Juno) may, as some think, have been 
Hebe, who remains as the goddess of Youth, 
while her chief powers have passed to Aphro- 
dite. Again, in the stories of the marriage of 
Hephaestus with Aphrodite, and also with 
Charis — a legend probably starting from Lem- 
nos— may lurk the truth that Aplrrodite, as 



goddess of love and beauty, has taken the place 
of a Greek deity Charis. 

It remains to notice the distinction in Greek 
literature and art between 'A^poS/ttj Ovpavia. 
and 'A<()poS/T7) navtt\fios. There can be little 
doubt that the familiar distinction in philo- 
sophers was a later conception. Originally 
'A<\>poUti) Ovpavia was the Queen of the Hea- 
vens, equivalent to that Eastern goddess who 
ruled the moon and stars, 
who guided the mariners, 
and who ruled the sea. She 
is represented in Greek art 
seated on a flying swan 
(also on a globe, or stand- 
ing on a tortoise), some- 
times with a star-spangled 
sky as backgi-ouud. A stele 
found at Kertsch is dedi- 
cated to 'Aphrodite Oura- 
nia, who rules the Bospo- 
rus.' On the other hand, 
'A<ppoSlTr) TldvSiqjxos (who is 
represented riding on a 
goat) was no less recog- 
nised as an honoured deity 
in the state cult, nor was 
her worship committed to 
priestesses of low repute ; 
she is called (rf/xuri, and her 
priestess in one inscription 
is specially stated to be a 
married woman and not a 
courtesan. The probability 
is that she represents the 
original goddess of love 
worshipped in Greece, and 
that the statement of Pausanias that she 
was so called when the demes of Attica were 
united, should be accepted. It was a later idea 
of philosopliers and moralists to give to ovpavia 
the sense of ennobling, and to iravST)p.os ol de- 
basing, love, and again to make the former the 




Aphrodite of Melos. 
(Venus of Milo : Louvre 
in Paris.) 





Aphrodite of Ciiidus 
(Munich) . 



Aphrodite 
(Venus de' Jlcdiol : Florence.) 



patroness of the lawfully married, the latter of 
courtesans (see Plat. Si/m]). 180, 181 ; Paus. vi. 
25, 2, ix. 16, 2; Theocr. Epicj. 18). In art the 
nude statues are the later development, the 
weaker types of ordinary feminine beauty being 
later tliim the stronger; the more archaic 
statues were fully clothed, the earliest of all 



APHRODITOPOLIS 

•probably ending in a quadnvngnlar base, such 
JIB that at Deles, which Pausanias (ix. 40) calls 
liiie work of Daedalus. Of the numerous nude 
statues of Aphi-odite, three of the most famous 
,,vre here given. The first is an original statue 
found at Melos (Milo), and now in the Louvre 
4i,t Paris, called the "Venus of Milo. The second 
is a copy of the Aphrodite of Cnidus by Praxi- 
teles, now at Munich. The third (Venus de' 
Medici) is evidently an imitation of the Cnidian 
Aphrodite : it was ascribed to Cleomenes until 
Michaelis showed that the inscription witli that 
name is a vei-y late addition. For the Roman 
. goddess of love see Venus. 

Aphroditdpolis {'AcppoSlTrjs ttoAis), the name 
of several cities in Egypt. 1. Li Lower Egypt : 

(1) In the Nomos Leontopolites, in the Delta, be- 
tween Artlmbis and Leontopolis (Strab. p. 802) ; 

(2) (Cliybiii-el-Koum) in the Nomos Prosopites, 
in the Delta, on a navigable branch of the Nile, 
between Naucratis and Sais ; probably the 
same as Atarbechis, which is an Egyjjtian name 
of the same meaning as the Greek Aphrodito- 
polis (Strab. p. 802).— 2. In Middle Egypt, or 
Heptanomis, (Atfyh) a considerable city on the 
E. bank of tlie Nile ; the chief city of the 
Nomos Aphroditopolites (Strab. p. 809).— 3. In 
Upper Egj'pt, or the Thebai's : (1) Veneris 
Oppidum (Tachta), a little way from the W. 
bank of the Nile ; the chief city of the Nomos 
Aphroditopohs (Strab. p. 813 ; Plin. v. 61). (2) 
In the Nomos Hermonthites (Deir, NW. of 
Esneh), on the W. bank of the Nile (Plin, v. 
60; Strab. p. 817). 

Aphthonius {'A<t>e6vtos), of Antioch, a Greek 
rhetorician, lived at the end of the 3rd century 
A.D. and wrote the introduction to the study of 
rlietoric, entitled Frogymnasmata [irpoyuixv- 
da-fiaToj. It was constructed on the basis of the 
Frogymnasmata of Hermogenes, and became 
so popular that it was used as the common 
school-book in this branch of education for 
several centuries, — In Walz's Bhetores Gi-aeci, 
vol. i. ; Spengel's Bhet. Graec. vol. ii. 1853. 
Aphthonius also wrote some Aesopic fables, 
which are extant. 

Aphytis {'A<pvTis: Athyto), a town in the 
peninsula Pallenein Macedonia, with a cele- 
brated temple and oracle of Jupiter Amnion 
(Hdt. vii. 123; Thuc. i. 64; Strab. p. 830; 
Paus. iii. 18). 

Apia ('Air[a, sc. yij), the Apian land, an 
Ancient name of Peloponnesus, especially 
Argolis, said to have been so called from Apis, 
a mythical king of Argos. The name is prob- 
ably from the root ap (whence aqua), and coiTe- 
sponds with the Slavonic Morea from more = 
marc. If originally apphed to the Western plain 
of Argolis, ' Waterland ' would be appropriate, 
and, as its application extended, the significance 
was lost (cf . Apullv). [Peloponnesus ; Apis.] 
Apicata, wife of Sejanus, was divorced by 
him, \. D. 23, and put an end to her own life on 
the execution of Sejanus in 31 (Tac. Ann. iv. 3, 
11 ; Dio CasH. Iviii. 11). 

Apicius, tlie name of three notorious glut- 
tons.— 1, The first lived in the time of Sulla, 
and IS said to have procured the condemnation 
of Rutihus Rufus, B. c. 92.-2. Tlie second and 
■most renowned, M. Gahius Apicius, flourished 
under Tiberius. After squandering upwards 
of i800,000 upon his stomach he found that 
•iittle more than 80,000 remained ; upon which 
^espainng of being able to satisfy the cravings 
«i hunger from such a pittance, he forthwith 
hanged himself. But he was not forgotten. 
«un(lry cakes {Ajncia) and sauces long kept 



APIS 



87 



alive his memory, and his name passed into 
a proverb in all matters connected with the 
pleasures of the table. (Tac. Ann. iv. 1 ; Dio 
Cass. Ivii. 19; Athen. p. 7 ; Plin. viii. 209, ix. 66, 
xix. 187 ; Juv. iv. 28 ; Sen. do. Vit. Beat. 11, 4.) 
— 3, A contemporary of Trajan, sent to this 
emperor, when he was in Parthia, fresh oysters, 
preserved by a skilful process of liis own 
(Athen. p. 7). — The treatise we now possess, 
bearing the title Caelii Apicu de Opsoniis 
et Condimentis, sive de Be Culinaria, Libri 
decern, is a sort of Cook and Confectioner's 
Manual, containing a multitude of receipts for 
cookery. It was probably compiled in the 3rd 
centm-y a.d. by some Caelius wlio entitled it 
Apicius to indicate its subject, and should 
perhaps correctly be called Caelii Apicius. — 
Edit. Schuch. Heidelb. 1874. 

Apidanus {'AiriSavds, Ion. 'UiriSavSs), a river 
in Thessaly, which flows into the EnTpeus near 
Pharsalus. 

Apiolae, a town of Latium, destroyed by 
Tarquinius Prisons (Liv. i. 35 ; Diony. iii. 49). 

Apion ('Att/wj'), a Greek granunarian, and a 
native of Oasis in Egypt, studied at Alexandria, 
and taught rhetoric at Rome in the reigns of 
Tiberius and Claudius. In the reign of Caligula 
he left Rome, and in a.d. 88 he was sent by the 
inliabitants of Alexandi-ia at the head of an 
embassy to Caligula to bring forward complaints 
against the Jews residing in their city. Apion 
was the author of many works, all of which are 
now lost. Of these the most celebrated were 
upon the Homeric poems. Tlie extant glosses 
bearing his iiiune are not genuine, but those 
which he did write were used by Apollonius the 
Sophist in his Homeric Lexicon. He also 
wrote a work on Egypt in 5 books, ana a work 
against the Jews, to which Josephus replied in 
his treatise Against Apion. 

Apion, Ptolemaeus. [Ptolem.usus Apiok.] 

Apis f Attis). 1. The Bull of Memphis, wor- 
shipped as a god among the Egyptians. This 
Apis was regarded as the incarnation of the 
supreme god Ptah, the god of the sun, and 
identified with Osiris, whence Apis is called by 
Greek writers an incarnation of Osiris (Strab. p. 
807 ; Diod. i. 85 ; Plut. Is. 20, 29). The Egyptians 
held the new Apis to be born from a cow ujion 
whom a spark from heaven fell at the death of 
the original Apis [see Seeapik]. The symbol of 




Apis (Wilkinson's i:<jyiitians). 



Apis was a bull with the sun-disk between its 
horns, the regular Egyptian symbol for the sun 
ihe worship was maintained of tlie livine 
incarnate Apis (as well as of the dead Osiris^ 
Apis, or Serapis) and the great temple for his 
honour was at Memphis. He was called 
Epaphus by the Greeks and regarded as the 



88 



APIS 



Boii of Isis (Hdt. ii. 153). There were certain 
Bigns by which ho was recogiiiBed to be the god. 
It was requisite that lie should be quite black, 
have a white square mark on the forehead, on 
his back a figure similar to that of an eagle, 
have two kinds of hair in his tail, and on his 
tongue a knot in the shaiie of a beetle. When 
all these signs were discovered, the animal 
was consecrated with great jiomp, and was 
conveyed to Memphis. His birthday, which 
was celebrated every year, was his most solemn 
festival ; it was a day of rejoicing for all 
Egypt (Hdt. iii. 28 ; Aelian, H. A. xi. 11). The 
god was allowed to live only a certain number 
of years (Athen. p. 168). If he had not died 
before the expiration of that period, he was 
killed and buried in a sacred well, the place 
of which was unknown except to the initiated. 
But if he died a natural death, he was 
buried publicly and solemnly ; and as his birth 
filled all Egypt with joy and festivities, so 
his death threw the whole country into grief 
and mourning. (Plin. viii. 184 ; Plut. Is. 56.) 
This account of his being put to death is not 
borne out by the monumental representations 
of the Serapeum. Pliny {I.e.) tells the story 
that the refusal to take food from the hand of 
Germauicus was an omen of death. — 2. Son of 
Phoroneus and Teledice or Laodice, succeeded 
his father in the kingdom of Argos and the 
Peloponnesus generally, which was called Apia 
after him. He ruled tyranically and was slain 
by Thelxion and Telchin. From an confusioti 
with the Egyptian Apis, he is further stated to 
have migrated to Egypt, founded Memphis, and 
to have been deified as Serapis (ApoUod. ii. 1, 
1 ; Euseb. Chron. 271).— 3. Son of Telchin of 
Sicyon, also credited with giving the name 
Apia to Peloponnesus (PauR. ii. 5, 7). — 4. Son 
of the Arcadian Jason, slain by Aetolus (Pans. 
V. 1, 6). — 5. Son of Apollo, endowed with the 
arts of healing and prophecy, born at Naupao- 
tus, freed Argos from monsters. He also was 
said to have been the origin of the name Apia 
(Aesch. Sup2)l. 262). No doubt the converse 
was the truth and the name of the land was 
accomited for by the various local traditions. 

Apis C^ATTty), a city of Egypt, on the coast of 
the Mediterranean, on the border of the 
country towards Libya, about 10 stadia W. of 
Paraetonium ; celebrated for the worship of the 
god Apis. 

Apobatllini {'AirdfiaO/xot), a place in Argolis 
on the sea not far from Tyrea, where Danaus is 
said to have landed (Pans. ii. 38, 4). 

Apodoti and Apodeotae {'AttSSuitoi and 
'AiroSoTo'i), a people in the SE. of Aetolia, 
between the Evenus and Hylaethus. 

ApoUinaris, Sidonius. [Sidonius.] 

Apollinis Pr. ('ATrdWuvos &Kpov : C. Zibeeb 
or C. Farina), a promontory of Zeugitana in 
N. Africa, forming the W. point of the Gulf of 
Carthage = the Pulchri Promont. Liv. xxix. 27. 

Apollo ('AirdAA.tDi'), one of the gi-eat divinities 
of Greece. In literature he is the son of Zeus 
and Leto, born with his twin sister Artemis in 
Delos under Mount Cynthus, whither his 
mother had fled from the jealous anger of 
Hera. The three deities Zeus, Apollo and 
Athene were regarded as embodying in a 
special degree the divine powers, so_ that the 
solemn appeal in oath or prayer is Zfv re wdrfp 
Ka\ 'AOr/i/olrj Kcil •'AiroWov (II. ii. 871, itc.) In 
Homer, however, we find Apollo only as the 
god of prophecy and as the god who sends 
plagues. The manifold attributes which will 
bo described were the result partly of develop- 



APOLLO 

ment, but still more of the sweeping together of 
various local traditions and forms of worship 
intoHhe religion of this deity, who became their 
representative. It is ])robably right to find the 
origin of most of these attributes in the nature- 
worship of the god of Light, and though in 
Homer the sun was a separate deity [Heliosj, 
Apollo becomes afterwards identified with the 
sun itself as well as with ideas belonging gener- 
ally to light. The physical conception, however, 
was gradually lost (though revived sometimes 
in art), and Apollo's special provinces are pro- 
phecy, music, poetry and the preservation of 
the state from maladies. It is very doubtful if 
we should refer the epithets \vKftos, &c. to this 
original idea of light ; but there is little doubt 
that the names (poifios and xP^'^OKSfios have 
this meaning. Hence Apollo is (1) the god of 
the year and its months, with epithets 
iipoixeSuv, iipirris, veo/x-fivios, efiSo/Myfrrjs (cf. 
Hdt. vi. 57 ; Aesch. Th. 781) : the new and full 
moon, the 7th and 20th of each month were 
sacred to him [cf. Diet. Ant. s. v. Daphne- 

2) horia]. He is the god who brings back sun- 
shine and light in spring : according to Hes. 
Op. 526 the sun went to Ethiopia in winter (cf. 
Hdt. ii. 24). This return was celebrated at 
Delphi in the Theophania on the 7th of the 
mouth Bysios which began the ApoUinean year 
(see Diet. Ant. s.v. Theophania.) It is now 
the general theory, and is very likely correct, 
that the victory of Apollo over dragons and 
serpents at Delphi and Delos (Hymn, ad Ap. 
122, 178; Eur. I. T. 1250) symbolises the 
driving away of winter and darkness by the 
return of spring and light. In this view the 
dragon is darkness ; the arrow which slew it is 
the ray of the sun (cf. Eur. H. F. 1090). It is 
possible also that the slaying of the giants 
Tityus and the Aloidae ma5' refer to the same 
battle against winter. It may be observed, 
however, that these legends may also signify the 
prevalence of a new Greek religion over an 
older local worship. Apollo seems to have been 
once the rival of Asclepius, to whom the 
serpent was sacred, and to have prevailed over 
him [Asclepius] : it is not improbable that at 
Delphi, at Delos, at Plilegyae and elsewhere, 
there was an old serpent-worsliip, possibly 
a relic of tribes to whom the serpent was a 
totem, which the ApoUinean worsliip overthrew, 
and this would explain the expiation which 
Apollo had to make for the slaughter of the 
Python. Such an explanation would not 
exclude the probability that the dragon or ser- 
pent was regarded in the worship of Apollo as 
the symbol of darlmess and winter, and that 
the armed dances at the Ephesian Ortygia and 
at Delos, like those of the Salii at Rome, 
represent an attempt of savage superstition to 
frighten away the powers of darkness (cf. 
Strab. p. 640 ; Diet. Ant. s. v. Salii). (2) As god 
of the sun and of the warmer part of the year 
ApoUo was honoured partly, though not solely, 
in the character of a god of harvest in certain 
festivals belonging to the summer and early 
autumn (Diet. Ant. s.v. Carnea, Delia, Hyacm- 
thia,Pyanepsia, Thargelia) : hence also comes, 
the epithet ffnaKKas (Pans. x. 15, 2). (8) The 
god ivho semis plagues (II. i. 42 ; Pans. ix. 36, 

3) ; and, by a common sequence, he was also 
the god of healing who averted plagues (Eur. 
Ale. 220). This connexion witli sickness and 
death is no doubt owing to the observation that 
the heat of the sun favoured the spread of 
plagues, and that the sunstroke sometimes 
IviUed directly: for his healing character, besides 



Ithe belief that the god who brought sickness 
could also remove it, his identification with the 
.worship of AsclepiuH is also answerable. Here 
belong the exjithets oi}\ios, Aol/uios, iraitivioj, 
cueetTios, irataiy, aKf^kaKos (which was said to 
'refer to liis staying the phigue of Athens, Pans. 
, 8, 4), eviKovpios, opifer. Apollo's arrows slay 
men, as those of Artemis slay women (see the 
■ story of Niobe). (1) The god of oracles. The 
prophetic power of Apollo is by some supposed 
to express the idea that his light penetrated all 
idarkijess : if it belongs to him as siin-god it 
might better be regarded as a characteristic of 
the all-seeing sun is iravr' e(popa Kal iravr' 
eiraKovei. It is possible, however, that he 
became the deity of more oracular temjjles 
than any other god merely because he was 
eventually regarded as the vicegerent and 
mouthpiece of Zeas (cf . Aesch. Etivi. 19 ; II. i. 
72) and thus absorbed many local oracles. The 
oracle of Zeus at Dodona was an earlier Greek 
oracle than that of Apollo at Delphi, of which 
the notice in II. ix. 404 belongs to a late portion 
of the Iliad. It is said that Zeus and Ai^oUo 
shared the oracle of Branchidae, wliich may 
' account for his name Didymaeus there (Steph. 
s. V. AiSuna) ; or it may only express his 
twinship with Artemis. It is probable that 
Apollo occupied an oracular seat at Delphi 
once sacred to other deities in succession : to a 
nature-deity such as earth {Eicm. 1) ; to Posei- 
don, whence the symbol of the dolphin and the 
names S€\<j)lvios, Se\<t>€7os /3o)jU(is ; and probably 
to Dionysus. (Hymn, ad Apoll. 319; Diet. 
Ant. s. V. Oracidnm, where also an account of 
the numerous oracles of Apollo in Greece and 
Asia Minor will be found.) From oracular 
temples he has many surnames, such as Clarius, 
Lycius, Ismenius, Patareus. (5) Tlie founder- 
of States and the leader of colonies. This at- 
tribute is commonly derived from the fact that 
navigation began in spring and that colonies 
started then, led by the god of spring. It is 
better to assign a twofold reason : that Apollo's 
oracle sanctioned the enterprise of the colonists, 
and also that in most cases Apollo was the 
representative Hellenic god whose worship 
they carried with them, 
expressed in the epithets 
&c. (see Thuc. vi. 3), 
because he presided over 

of States founded by his sons and grandsons, 
such as Ion, Dorus, Chaeron, &c. (see also 
Paus. i. 42, 2; Callim. Hynm. ad Apoll. 55). (6) 
The god of expiation and purification : 
(TuTTjp, KaBdpa-ios, larpd/xavTis. This appears 
especially in the atoning rites at Delphi, and in 
the atonement at the Thargelia (see Diet. Ant. 
8. v.), and is dwelt upon in the Etmienides. 
This attribute may belong to him equally as 
the god of healing, as the god of oracles, and as 
the god of light. (7) Apollo as the god of 
.prophecy and oracular wisdom [Od. viii. 488) 
was recognised also as the leader of the Muses, 
as the god of music and poetry (II. i. 003 ; Pind. 
Nem. V. 28 ; Paus. v. 18. 4, x. 19. 4). (8) The 
ideal of manly youth and beauti/ {Od. viii. 
86 ; Hes. Th. 347) ; hence a patron of athletes 
with the epithet Spofj.a7os. (9) Borne have oon- 
pected with the preceding the attribute of 
aype/is, iypdr-qs, itc, which he had as god of 
hunting (Soph. O. C. 1091 ; Paus. i. 41. 3) ; but 
it IS more probable that this, as in the case of 
Artemis, arose from the fact that in various 
ancient local religions certain animals were 
sacred to him. On the whole it is most prob- 
that in the consecration of the wolf to 




Apollo Sauroctonos. 



These functions are 
iroTpi^os, apx7)7fT7;s, 
in that of ayvievs, 
the city, in traditions 



APOLLO 89 
Apollo, and in his names KvKetos, \vKriyfvi]S we 
have, not the misinterpretation of a name 
meaning light, but the relic of an ancient 
totemistic religion in which a tribe whose totem 
was the wolf and whose animal worship was 
transferred to Apollo, at first imagined as the 
wolf-god and receiving 
special sacrifice of the 
sacred animal of the 
tribe, and then re- 
garded as the wolf- 
slayer (\vkokt6vos, 
Soph. iTZ. G, cf. Paus. 
X. 14, 7 ; Xen. Anah. 
ii. 2, 9.). To this the 
story of the victory of 
the wolf (i.e. a wolf- 
tribe) over the bull at 
Argos [Dan.-ius], and 
the figure of a wolf on 
Argive coins (Paus. ii. 
19, 3) seem to point ; 
and to tliis belongs the 
name of the Lyceum 
at Athens. The shep- 
herds, of whom m 
some districts he was 
a patron (cf. his ser- 
vice to Laomedon and 
Admetus), may have 
been glad to suppose 
liim the slayer of 
the wolf rather than 

its protector. It is remarkable that Mars, 
between whom and Apollo a connexion has 
been traced, has the same sacred animal. — 
Other attributes. It is probably best to ac- 
count in the same way for the story of the 
Telmissians that Apollo took the fonn of a 
dog, and also for the better known stories of 
Apollo Smiiitheus (i. e. the mouse-god), wor- 
shipped in several places under this title (Strab. 
pp. 480, 604, Ael. H. A. xih. 5; cf. II. i. 39), 
and represented by Scopas with a mouse at his 
foot. Some have supposed this to mean that as 
harvest-god he destroyed the mice to save the 
crops : it is more likely that the mouse was the 
sacred animal, and that the idea of its destruc- 
tion by Apollo came later when the animal 
worship was transferred to him. The dolphin 
may have been sacred to him for a similar 
reason, or from an association of Poseidon with 
Delphi mentioned above : other reasons sug- 
gested are, that the dolphin symbolised his 
claim to spring, when navigation began, or that 
it was merely a misinterpretation of the local 
name Delphi. [For the laurel see Daphne.] — 
Worshij) of Apollo at Borne. This was intro- 
duced under Tarquinius Superbus, when the 
Sibylline books were brought to Rome. 
(Dionys. iv. 62 ; Diet. Ant. s. v. Libri Sibyllini). 
Hence he is called Cumaeus Apollo : a temple 
was built to him B.C. 430 (Liv. iv. 25) ; the 
Ludi AiJoUinares (Diet. Ant.) were celebrated 
from 212 B.C. onwards, and the worship of 
Apollo, the giver of victory at Actium, was 
especially favoured by Augustus, who was even 
said to be the son of Apollo (Suet. Aug. 94). 
As a Greek divinity he was honoured by the 
Lectisternium (Diet. Ant. s. v.). Apollo is in 
the more matured periods of Greek art gener- 
ally represented as a liandsome beardless youth. 
As god of music with the lyre he is always 
clothed, and wears the long tunic (xiroiv 



able 



of music 

and wears 

opQoarahios), as in the Vatican statue of Apollo 
Citharoedus (p. 90), a copy of the statue by 
Scopas placed by Augustus in the Palatine 



00 



APOLLOCRATES 



temple. As the arclier god, slayer of tlio dragon 
he IS represented naked ; - 




Apollo Cltharoedus (in the 
Vatican). 



highly idealiHed 
Praxiteles, as in 
the ' Sauroctonos ' 
(p. 89) ; a typo 
which in later 
works approaches 
more nearly a fe- 
minine character. 
The so-called ' Bel- 
vedere ' Apollo is 
a beautiful marble 
copy of an ori- 
ginal in bronze ; 
from a comparison 
with a small bronze 
copy now at St. 
Petersburg, it is 
seen that the left 
hand held the 
aegis ; the right was 
empty. It is now 
generally thought 
that the original 
was made after the 
Gallic repulse from 
Delphi B.C. 278, and 
that Apollo is here 
the indignant war- 
like god repelling 
the barbarians from his temple. The attri- 
butes of Apollo in art are the dolphin, the 

griffin [sup- 
posed to be 
derived from 
his connexion 
with Hyperbo- 
rean lands], the 
wolf (Paus. X. 
14), and the 
mouse (as 
Apollo Smin- 
theus), the 
laurel crown, 
the bow, the 
lyre, and the 
tripod. A fa- 
vourite subject 
with vase-pain- 
ters is the 
carrying off of 
the tripod by 
Heracles and 
its restoration 
to Apollo 

The Belvedere Apollo (in the Vatican). (P>'^US. X. 13 ; 

Heracles.) 

Apolldcrates ('ATroAAo/cpctTTjs), elder son of 
Dionysius the Younger, was left by his father 
in command of the citadel of Syracuse, but was 
compelled by famine to surrender it to Dion, 
about B.C. 35-t (Plut. Diontjs. 37 ; Strab. p. 259.) 

ApoUoddrus {'kiroWdhwpos). — 1. Of Amphi- 
polis, one of the generals of Alexander the Great, 
was intrusted in B.C. 331, together with Menes, 
with the administration of Babylon and of all 
the satrapies as far as Cilicia (Curt. v. 1 ; Diod. 
xvii. 54). — 2. Tyrant of Cassandrea (formerly 
Potidaea) in the peninsula of Pallene, obtained 
the supreme power in B.C. 879, and exercised it 
with tlie utmost cruelty. He was conquered 
and put to death by Ant igon us Gonatas. (Polyb. 
vii. 7 ; Polyaen. vi. 7 ; Paus. iv. 5, 1.) — 3. Of 
Carystus, a comic poet, probably lived n.c. 
300-200, and was one of tlie most distinguished 
of the poets of tlie new Attic Comedy. It was 
from him that Terence took his Hocijra and 




APOLLONIA 
Phormio.-A. Of Gelain Sicily, a comic poet 
«?lonn''""*i';'"I'™''"'y °f Menander, lived B.c. 
»4(F-2yo. He IS frequently confounded with 
Apollodorus of Carystus. The fragments of both 
are edited by Meineke.— 6. A Grammarian of 
Athens, son of Asclepiades, and pupil of \ri. 

" u "^'"^ Panaotius, flourished about b.c. 
140. He wrote a great number of works, wliich 
have perished, among tliem the Chronica, a 
history of the world from the fall of Troy to liig 
own time, and a geographical treatise— both in 
'''™eter iambics. His surviving work is the 
Bihkothcva, which consists of three books and 
IS of considerable value. It contains a well- 
arranged account of the mythology and the 
heroic age of Greece : it begins with the origin 
of the gods, and goes down to the time of 
Theseus, when the work suddenly breaks off. — 
Editions. By Heyne, Giittingen, 1803, 2d ed. ; 
by Clavier, Paris, 1805, with a French transUv- 
tion ; by Westermann in the MythograjM, 
Brunswick, 1843 ; by Hercher, 1874. Its genu- 
ineness is, however, doubted by some writers 
(see Hercher, and C. Robert, Berlin, 1873.) — 
6. Of Pergamus, a Greek rhetorician, taught 
rhetoric at Apollonia in his advanced age, and 
I had as a pupil the young Octavius, afterwards 
the emperor Augustus (Strab. p. 625 ; Suet. Aug. 
89). — 7. A painter of Athens, flourished about 
B.C. 408, with whom commenced a new period in 
the history of the art. He made a great advance 
in colouring, and invented aerial perspective, 
the treatment of different planes, and the riglit 
management of chiaroscuro (Plin. xxxv. 69 : see 
further Diet. Ant. ii. 409). Hence he was the 
founder of the art of landscape painting. — 8. An 
architect of Damascus, lived under Trajan and 
Hadrian, by the latter of whom he was put to 
death. He built the forum and the column of 
Trajan. 

Apolldma {'AiroWaivta : 'ATroWaiViOLTris). 1. 

(PoUina or Pollona), an important town in 
Illyria or new Epirus, not far from the mouth 
of the Aous, and 60 stadia from the sea. It was 
founded by the Corinthians and Corcvraeans, 
and was equally celebrated as a place of com- 
mei'ce and of learning ; many distinguished 
Romans, among others the young Octavius, 
aftenvards the emperor Augustus, pursued their 
studies here. Persons travelling from Italy to 
Greece and the E., usually landed either at 
Apollonia or Dyrrhacliium ; and the Via Egna- 
tia, the great high road to the East, commenced 
at Apollonia or, according to others, at Dyrrha- 
cliium (Thuc. i. 26 ; Strab. pp. 316, 322; Paus. v. 
21, 12). [Egnatia Via.]— 2, {Polina), a. town 
in Macedonia, on the Via Egnatia, between 
Thessalonica and Amphipolis, and S. of the lake 
of Bolbe (Plin.iv. 38; Athen. p. 834).— 3. [Siee- 
boU), a town in Thrace on the Black Sea, with 
two harbours, a colony of Miletus, afterwards 
called SozopoUs, whence its modern name ; it 
had a celebrated temple of ApoUo, from which 
Lucullus earned away a colossus of this god, 
and erected it on tlie Capitol at Rome (Hdt. iv. 
90 ; Strab. pp. 819, 541). — 4. A castle or fortified 
town of the Locri Ozolae, near Naupactus. — 
5. A town in Sicily, on tlie N. Coast. It lay 
near Haluntium, a little way inland, and seems 
to have been a Sikol town whose name was 
changed when the neighbouring Greek colonists 
brought in the worship of Apollo. It is probably 
the modem Pollina. (Cic. Vcrr. iii. 43, v. 33; 
Diod. xiv. 72.) — 6. (Ahidlionte), a town in 
Bithynia on tlie lake ApoUoniatis, through 
whicli the river Rhyndacus flows (Strab. y. 575). 
— 7. A town on the borders of Mysiaand Lydia, 



APOLLONIS 

in tlio Caious valley, between Pergiunus and 
Savdis (Strab. p. 625).— 8. A town m falestma, 
between Caesarea and Joppa.— 9. A town m 
Assyria, in the district of Apolloniatis, throu^i 
wiiich the Delas or Duras {Diala) flows.— 10, 
(Marzn Susa), a town in Cyrenaica and the 
harbour of Cyrene, one of the 5 towns of the 
Peutapolis in Libya: it was the birthplace of 
Eratosthenes. — 11. A Lycian town on an island, 
probably the island Dolichiste. 

Apollonis [Palaviut], a city in Lydia, be- 
tween Pergamus and Sardis. It was one of the 
Vi cities of Asia which were destroyed by an 
earthquake in the reign of Tiberius (a.d. 17). 
(Strab. p. 625 ; Tac. Ann. ii. il.) Its original 
name was Doidya : it was a colony of Macedo- 
nian soldiers under the Seleucids about 260 B.C. ; 
and was refounded by Attains II., who named 
it Apollonis after his mother, about 159 B.C. 

Apollonius ['KiroKK<i)Vios). 1. Of Alabanda 
in Caria, a rhetorician, taught rhetoric at Ehodes, 
about B.C. 120. He was a very distinguished 
teacher of rhetoric, and used to ridicule and 
despise philosophy. Scaevola was present at 
his lectures (Cic. de Oraf. i. 17, 75). He was 
surnamed 6 MaAaKos, and must be distinguished 
from the following. — 2. Of Alabanda, suniamed 
Molo, likewise a rhetorician, taught rhetoric at 
Rhodes, and also distinguished liimself as a 
pleader in the courts of justice (Strab. p. 655). 
In B.C. 81, when Sulla was dictator, Apollonius 
came to Home ae ambassador of the Rhodians, 
on which occasion Cicero heard him ; Cicero 
also received instruction from Apollonius at 
Rhodes a few years later (Cic. Brut. 89-91), and 
later still Caesar (Suet. Jul. 4). — 3. Son of 
Archebulus, a .grammarian of Alexandria, in 
the first century of the Christian aera, and a 
pupil of Didymus. He wrote a Homeric Lexi- 
con, based on glossaries of Apion, which is still 
extant, and though much interpolated, is a work 
of gi-eat value. — Editions. By Villoison, Paris, 
1773 ; by H. Tollius, Lugd. Bat. 1788 ; and by 
Bekker, Berlin, 1833. — 4. Surnamed Dyscolus, 
' the ill-tempered,' a grammarian at Alexandria, 
in the reigns of Hadrian and Antoninus Pius 
(.t.D. 117-161), taught at Rome as well as Alex- 
andria. He and liis son HERODLiNUS are called 
by Priscian the greatest of all gi-ammarians. 
Apollonius was the first who reduced gi-ammar 
to anytliing like a system. Of his numerous 
works only 4 are extant. 1. ITepi (rvvTa^eus tov 
\6yov ixepav, ' de Constructione Orationis,' or 
* de Ordinatione sive Constructione Dictionum,' 
in 4 books ; edited by Fr. Sylburg, Frankt. 1590 ; 
by I. Bekker, Berlin, 1817 ; and by A. Butt- 
maim, 1878. 2. Uepl avriovvfilas 'de Prono- 
mine ; ' edited by I. Bekker, Berlin, 1814. 3. 
riep! avv'Sia-jjioiv, ' de Conjunctionibus,' and 
4. rifp! iTripprifidruv, 'de Adverbiis,' printed in 
Bekker's Anecdot. ii. p. 477, &c. Among the 
works ascribed to Apollonius by Suidas there is 
one irfpl Ka-r(\\/iva-fi4vTi)s laroplas, on fictitious or 
forged histories : this has been erroneously sup- 
posed to be the same as the extant work 'la-ropiai 
eavfMcr'iai, whicli purports to be written by an 
Apollonms (published by Westermann, Para- 
aoxographi, Brunswick, 1839, and Keller, 1877) ; 
but It IS now admitted that the latter work was 
written by an Apollonius who is otherwise un- 
known.— 6. Pergaeus, from Perga in Pam- 
pnyha, one of tlie greatest mathematicians of 
antiquity, commonly called the 'Great Geo- 
meter, was educated at Alexandria under the 
SKn'^oon"''* of Euclid, and flourished about B.C. 
^DU-220. His most important work was a 
weatise on Conic Sections in 8 books, of wliich 



APOLLONIUS 



91 



the first 4, with the commentai-y of Eutocius, 
arc extant in Greek ; and all but the eighth in 
Arabic. We have also introduotoi-y lemmata 
to all the 8, by Pappus. Edited by Halley, 
'AjioU. Perg. Conic, lib. viii., &c.,' Oxon 1710, 
fol. The eighth book is a conjectural restora- 
tion founded on the introductory lemmata of 
Pappus. — 6. Ehodius, a poet and grammarian, 
son of Silleus or Illeus and Khode, born at 
Alexandria (according to Athen. p. 283, and 
Aelian, N. A. xv. 23, he was a citizen of Nau- 
cratis), wrote in the reigns of Ptolemy Philo. 
pator and Ptolemy Epiphanes b.c. 222-181. 
In his youth he was instructed by Callimaclius ; 
but they aftenvards became bitter enemies. 
Their tastes were entirely different ; for Apol- 
lonius admired and imitated the simplicity of 
the ancient epic poets, and disliked and de- 
spised the artificial and learned poetry of CaUi- 
machus. When AiJoUonius read at Alexandi'ia 
his poem on the Argonautic expedition [Argo- 
nautica), it did not meet with the approbation 
of the audience : he attributed its failure to the 
intrigues of Callimaclius, and revenged himself 
by writing a bitter epigram on Callimachua 
which is still extant {Anth. Graec. xi. 275). 
Callimaclius in return attacked Apollonius in 
his Ibis, which was imitated by Ovid in a poem 
of the same name. Apollonius now left Alex- 
andria and went to Bliodes, where he taught 
rhetoric with so much success that the Rhodians 
honoured him with their franchise : hence he 
was called the ' l-ihodian.' He afterwards re- 
turned to Alexaiulria, where he read a i-evised 
edition of his Arf/onaiitica with gi-eat applause. 
He succeeded Eiatostlienes as chief librarian 
at Alexandria, in the reign of Ptolemy Epipha- 
nes, about B.C. 194, and appears to have held 
this office till his death. The Argonautica, 
which consists of 4 books, and is still extant, 
gives a straightforward and simple description 
of the adventures of the Argonauts : it is a 
close imitation of the Homeric language and 
style, but exhibits marks of art and labour as 
of one who is a student only of the heroic age, 
and thus forms a contrast with the natural 
genius and flow of the Homeric poems. Still, 
I although not on exception to the rule that the 
I Alexandrian poetry was derivative and anti- 
I quarian, rather than original, Apollonius Rho- 
dius has left us the best of the Alexandrian 
epics, jiresenting detached passages of vivid 
and telling description, which must rank high 
as poetry, when they are taken out of their 
somewhat dull and cold setting. Among the 
Romans the work was much read, and P. 
Terentius VaiTO Atacinus acquired great repu- 
tation by his translation of it. The Argonautica 
of Valerius Flaccus is only a free imitation of 
it. — Editions. By Brunck, Argentorat. 1780 ; 
by G. Schaefer, Lips. 1810-13; by Wellauer, 
Lips. 1828; Merkel, 1854. Apollonius wi'ote 
several other works which are now lost. — 7. 
TyanensiB or Tyanaeus, i.e. of Tyana in Cappa- 
docia, a Pythagorean philosopher, was born 
about 4 years before the Christian aera. At a 
jieriod wlien there was a general belief in 
magical powers, it would appear that Apollonius 
obtained great influence by pretending to them ; 
and we may believe that his Life by Pliilo- 
stratus gives a just idea of his character and 
reputation, however inconsistent in its facts 
and absurd in its marvels. Apollonius, accord- 
ing to Philostratus, was of noble ancestry, and 
studied first under Euthydemus, of Tarsus- 
but, being disgusted at the luxury of the inhabi- 
tants, he retired to the temple of Asclepius 



92 APOLLONIUS 
at Aegiie in Cilioia, gui(le<l, as was said, by some 
inspiration. Here ho dwelt from tlie age of 1(5 
to 20, regarded as having especial favour from 
the god, and, after a general study of Greek 
philosophy, adopting that of Pythagoras and 
living the ascetic life of ji strict Pythagorean. 
He subsequently travelled throughout the East, 
visiting Nineveh, Babylon, and India. On liis 
return to Asia Minor, we first hear of his pre- 
tensions to miraculous power, founded, as it 
would seem, on the possession of some divine 
knowledge derived from the East. From Ionia 
he crossed over into Greece, and from thence to 
Eome, where he arrived just after an edict 
against magicians had been issued by Nero. He 
accordingly remained only a short time at Eome, 
and ne.xt went to Spain and Africa ; at Alex- 
andria he was of assistance to Vespasian, who 
was preparing to seize the empire. The last 
journey of ApoUonius was to Ethiopia, whence 
he returned to settle in the Ionian cities. On 
the accession of Domifcian, Apollonius was 
accused of exciting an insurrection against the 
tyrant : he voluntarily surrendered himself and 
appeared at Rome before the emperor ; but 
as his destruction seemed impending, lie was 
smuggled out of Rome, or, as his admirers 
averred, escaped by the exertion of his super- 
natural powers. The last years of his life were 
spent at Bphesus, where lie is said to have pro- 
claimed the death of the tyrant Doniitian at 
the instant it took place. It may be noted that 
Dio Cassius emphatically avows lus belief in 
this story (Ivii. ad Jin.), though earlier in the 
same book (Ivii. 18) he calls him an impostor, 
but does not seem to be aware that he is there 
speaking of the same Apollonius. Many of the 
wonders which Philostratus relates in con- 
nexion with Apollonius, curiously coincide with 
the Christian miracles. The proclamation of 
the birth of Apollonius to his mother by Proteus, 
and the incarnation of Ptoteus himself, the 
chorus of swans which sang for joy on the occa- 
sion, the casting out of devils, raising the dead, 
and healing the sick, the sudden disappearances 
and reappearances of Apollonius, liis adventures 
in the cave of Trophonius, and the sacred voice 
wliich called him at his death, to which may be 
added his claim as a teacher having authority 
- to reform the world — cannot fail to suggest the 
parallel passages in the Gospel liistory. We 
know, too, that Apollonius was one among many 
rivals set up by the Eclectics to our Saviour, 
an attempt renewed by the English freethinkers 
Blount and Lord Herbert. Still, it remains a 
doubtful question whether Philostratus was de- 
liberately fabricating a parallel to please Julia 
Domna, who shared the eclecticism apparent in 
Alexander Severus when he placed busts of 
Christ and of Apollonius, of Orpheus and of 
Abraham in his Lararium, and who wished for 
soma rival to set up against the exclusive 
Cliristian religion — whether in short he was, as 
Godet says, consciously opposing a Pythagorean 
Messiah to the Christian Messiah, or was merely 
(as seems more likely) a credulous romancer, 
weaving into his narrative besides what he de- 
rived from the earlier biographies of Apollonius 
by Maximus and Darius, stories also from Greek 
mythology and from the Gospels. For an esti- 
mate of the character of Apollonius we have no 
guide in the cursory allusions of Apuleius and 
Lucian, of whom the former seems to consider 
him as a magician, the latter as a teacher of 
imposture to Alexander. But we ha\e some 
striking testimony to his personal virtue, and 
even to the purity of some of his tenets, in 



APPIA 

Christian writers— in Eusebius (iii. 5, iv. 12) ; iu 
Origen who had the biography of Moeragenes 
bef*e him (contr. Coin. vi. 41), and in Sidonius 
ApoUinaris (Ep. viii. 3). These passages have 
been recently discussed by Professor Dyer (Gods 
of Greece), and in a dissertation by Professor 
Gildersleeve. We are led to the conclusion that 
Apollonius was probably one of those enthu- 
siasts of high aim and real virtue whose claim 
to divine power and inspiration was not wholly 
a conscious imposture, but was possibly in 
greater part a self-deception. His tenets were 
that the soul must be liberated from the fetters 
of the sensual body by purity of life and true 
worship of the highest god, by prayer and 
contemplation but not by sacriUces : that life 
must be purified by asceticism and devoted to 
the good of the world, and that the highest 
proficients in such virtues would have super- 
natm-al powers such as were ascribed alike to 
Pythagoras and to Apollonius himself.—^. Of 
Tyre, a Stoic philosopher, who lived in the 
reign of Ptolemy Auletes, wrote a history of the 
Stoic philosophy from the time of Zeuo fStrab. 
757). — 9. Apollonius and Tauriscus of Tralles 
(about 150 B.C.), were two brothers, and the 
sculptors of the group which is commonly 
known as the Farnese bull, rej>resenting the 
punishment of Dirce by Zethus and Amphiou. 
[DiBCE.] it was taken from Rhodes to Rome 
by Asinius PoUio, and afterwards placed in the 
baths of Caracalla, where it was dug up in the 
sixteenth century, and deposited in the Farnese 
i palace. It is now at Naples. These sculptors 
belong to the Hellenistic Asiatic schools. Their 
work is great in its rendering of anatomy, but 
departs from the repose of sculpture and prefers 
passion and emotion. Their style has many 
points of likeness to that of Agesander as seen 
in his Laocoon. — 10. Apollonius, a sculptor of 
Athens in the 1st century B.C. His work is the 
famous Heracles-torso hi the Vatican, belong- 
ing to what is now called the ' Attic Renais- 
sance.' 

Apollophanes {'Airo\\o(t>dvi}s), a poet of the 
old Attic Comedy, of whose comedies a few 
fragments are extant, lived about B.C. 400. 

Aponus or Aponi Fons {Abaiio),-wa,vm medi- 
cinal springs, near Patavium, hence called 
Aquae Patavinae, were much frequented by the 
sick (Plin. ii. 227, xxxi. 61 ; Mart. vi. 42 ; Lucan, 
vii. 193; Claud. Id. 6). 

Appia or Apia ('ATrTri'o, 'Attio), a city of 
Phrygia Pacatiaua. 
Appla Via, the most celebrated of the Roman 

! roads {regina viariim, Stat. Silv. ii. 2, 12), was 
commenced by Ap. Claudius Caecus, when 
censor, b.c. 312, and was the great line of com- 
munication between Rome and southern Italy. 
It issued from the Porta Capena, and passing 
through Aricia, Tres Tabernae, Appii Forum, 

' Tarracina, Fundi, Formiac, Minturuae, Sinii- 
essa, and Casilinum, terminated at Capua (131 
Roman miles), but was eventually extended 
through Calatia and Caudium to Benrventum, 
and finally thence through Venusia, Tareutum, 
and Una to Brundisium. The total distance 
by this route from Rome to Brundisium was 

, 3()8 miles. 'A variation of the route from Bene- 

' veiitum by Canusium and Barium to Brundi- 
sium was first regularly constructed and 
generally adopted under Trajan, with the name 
of Via Trajaiui, often called Via Appia. It was 
a route, however, sometimes used in earlier 
times (e.ff. by Horace), instead of the regular 
road to Bruiidisium. In Horace's time also, 
travellers used the canal through tlie Poutme 



APPIANUS 

.narshes from Forum Appii ; but a road also ran 
oy the side of the canal (cf. Strab. p. 233). 
the road from Capua by Nuceria to Rhegium, 
iriginally Via Popilia, is also sometimes called 
Via Appia. 

Appianus {'AinriavSs;), the Roman historian, 
,vas bom at Alexandria, and lived at Rome 
;luring the reigns of Trajan, Hadrian, and An- 
ioninus Pius. He ^vrote in Greek a Roman 
listory {'Pwfm'iKa, or 'PaijuaiK^; Itnopla), in 2i 
Jjooks, aiTanged not synchronistically, but 
Bthnographically— that is, he did not relate 
the history of the Roman empire in chrono- 
logical order ; but he gave a separate account 
of the affairs of each country, till it was finally 
incorporated in the Roman empire. The 
subjects of the different books were: 1. The 
kingly period. 2. Italy. 8. The Samnites. 4. The 
Gauls or Celts. 5. Sicily and the other islands. 
6. Spain. 7. Hannibal's wars. 8. Libya, Car- 
thage, and Numidia. 9. Macedonia. 10. Greece 
and the Greek states in Asia Minor. 11. Syria 
and Parthia. 12. The war with Mithridates. 
18-21. The civil wars, in 9 books, from those 
of Marius and Sulla to the battle of Actium. 
22. 'EKOTOCTaeTi'a, comprised the history of a 
hundred years, from the battle of Actimn to the 
beginning of Vespasian's reign. 23. The wars 
\vith Illyria. 24. 'Those with Arabia. We possess 
only 11 of these complete : namely, the 6th, 7th, 
8th, 11th, 12th, 18th, 14th, 15th, 16th, 17th, and 
•i3rd : there are fragments of several of the 
others. The Parthian'histor)-, which has come 
down to us as part of the 11th book, is not a 
work of Appian, but merely a comjjilation from 
Plutarch's Lives of Antony and Crassus. Ap- 
pian's work is a compilation. His style is clear 
and simple ; but he possesses few merits as an 
historian, and he frequently makes blunders. 
Thus, for instance, he places Saguntum on the 
N. of the Iberus, and states that it takes only 
half a day to sail from Spain to Britain. Never- 
theless he is an indispensable authority for the 
period of the civil wars, and in other portions 
has preserved for us records of m-iters whose 
works have perished. — Editions. Sohweig- 
hiiuser, 1785 ; Bekker, 1852 ; Mendelssohn, 
1879. 

Appias, a nymph of the Appian well, which 
was situated near the temple of Venus Gene- 
trix in the forum of Julius Caesar. It was 
surrounded by statues of npnphs, called 
Appiades. (Ov. A.A. i. 82, 3 ; Plin. xxxvi. 33.) 

Appii Forum. [Fobum Appu.] 

Appuleius. [Apuleius.] 

Appuleius Saturninus. [Saturninus.] 

Apries {'Awpiris, 'Airplas), a king of Egypt, 
the Pharaoh-fiophra of Scripture, succeeded 
his father Psammetichus II. and reigned B.C. 
588-570. He increased the number of Greek 
mercenaries to 30,000, which roused the jealousy 
of the Egyptian soldiers, who mutinied on the 
occasion of an unsuccessful attempt against 
Cyrene. They chose Amasis, the king's brother- 
in-law, as their leader, and defeated Apries and 
his mercenaries. Amasis allowed him to reign 
six years jointly with himself, and then put him 
to death. (Hdt. ii. 151.) 

Apronius. 1. Q., one of the worst instru- 
ments of Verres in oppressing the Sicilians. — 
2, L,, served under Drusus (a. d. 14) and Ger- 
manicus (15) in Germany. In 20 he was pro- 
consul of Africa, and praetor of Lower Germany, 
where he lost his life in a war against the 
Frisii. Apronius had two daughters: one of 
whom was married to Plautius Silvanus ; the 
otlier to Lentulus Gaetulicus, consul in 26. 



APULEIUS 



98 



Apsilae ('Ai/'/Aai,) a Scythian people in Col- 
chis, N. of the river Phasis. 

Apslnes ("Aif-ffris), of Gadara in Phoenicia, a 
Greek sophist and rhetorician, taught rhetoric 
at Athens about A. n. 285. Two of his works 
are extant : Ilepl twv fifpuv tov ttoKitikov Kdyov 
rexvil^ which is much interpolated : and Ilepl 
Tuv eVxiA'OTKr/itei'aij' irpo^Art/MTwi', both of 
which are printed in Wnlz, Bhetor. Graec. 

Apsus [Crevasta), a river in Illyria (Nova 
Epirus), flowing into the Ionian sea (Strab. p. 
316 ; Caes.S. C. iii. 13, &c.; Appian, B. C. ii. 56). 

Apsyrtus. [Absybtus.] 

Apta Julia (A-pt), chief town of the Vul- 
gientes in Gallia Narbonensis, and a Roman 
colony. 

Aptera ('ATrrfpa : 'KirrepaSos : Palaeokas- 
tron on the G. of Suda), a town on the W. 
coast of Crete, 80 stadia from Cydonia (Strab. 
p. 479). 

Apuani, a Ligurian people on the Macra, 
were subdued by the Romans after a long 
resistance and transplanted to Samnium, B.C. 
180 (Liv. xxxix. 2, 20, 32, xl. 1, 38, 41). 

ApiileiuB, of Madaura in Africa, was bom 
about A. D. 114, of respectable parents. He 
received the first rudiments of education at 
Carthage, and afterwards studied the Platonic 
philosophy at Athens. He next travelled 
extensively, visiting Italy, Greece, and Asia, 
becoming initiated in most mysteries, and 
gathering information on magic and necro- 
mancy. At length he returned home, and spent 
about two years at Rome ; but soon afterwards 
undertook a new journey to Alexandria. On 
his way thither he was taken ill at the town of 
Oea, and was hospitably received into the 
house of a young man, Sicinius Pontianus, 
whose mother, a very rich widow of the name 
of Pudentilla, he married. Her relatives, being 
indignant that so much wealth should pass out 
of the family, accused Apuleius of gaining 
the affections of Pudentilla by charms and 
magic spells. The cause was heard at Sabrata 
before Claudius Maximus, proconsul of Africa, 
A. D. 173, and the defence (Apologia) spoken 
by Apuleius is still extant. Of his subsequent 
career we know little, except that he lectured on 
rhetoric at Carthage, and declaimed in public with 
great applause. The most important of the ex- 
tant works of Apuleius are : I. Metamorphoseon 
sen de Asino Aureo Libri XI. This cele- 
brated romance is imitated from the Aovkios J) 
ovos of Lucian, but has much that is the fruit 
of Apuleius' own imagination or researches, 
notably the tale of Cupid and Psyche, and the 
stories of bandits, magicians, jugglers and 
priests. It is a satire in the guise of a fantas- 
tical autobiography of a supposed Lucius who 
is transformed by an enchantress, with whom 
he is in love, into an ass, in which shape he 
has opportunities for observing the follies of 
men, until he is restored to his natural form 
by the priests of Isis. It seems to have been 
intended as a satire upon the hypocrisy and 
debauchery of certain orders of priests, the 
frauds of juggling pretenders to supernatural 
powers, and the general profligacy of public 
morals. A vein of mysticism, however, runs 
tteough the work, and there are some who dis- 
cover a more recondite meaning, and especially 
bishop "Warburton, in his Divine Legation of 
Moses, who has at gi-eat length endeavoured to 
prove, that the Go?(/e;(./lss was written witli the 
view of recommending the Pagan religion in • 
opposition to Christianity, and especially of 
mculcatmg the importance of initiation into 



94 



APULIA 



the purer mysteries. The well-known and ; 
beautiful opiBode of Cupid and Psyohe is intro- i 
duced in the 4th, nth, and (1th books. This, j 
whatever opinion we may form of the principal 
narrative, is evidently an allegory, and is gene- I 
rally understood to shadow forth the progress of 
the soul to perfection. II. Floridorutn Libri 

IV. An Anthology, containing select extracts 
from various orations and dissertations, collected 
probably by some admirer. III. De Deo 
Socratis Liber. IV. De Dugiiuite Platonis 
Libri tres. The first book contains some 
account of the speculative doctrines of Plato, 
the second of his morals, the third of his lof/ic. 

V. De Mundo Liber. A translation of the work 
irepJ Kda/xov, at one time ascribed to Aristotle. VI. 
Apologia sive de Magia Liber. The oration de- 
scribed above, delivered before Claudius Maxi- 
mus. — The style of Apuleius is stilted and pre- 
tentious, and his writings are stated by Macrobius 
to have been of small account. His novel, how- 
ever, is amusing, and in spite of its licentious 
tone, must be valued as mstructive in several 
features of the period to wliich it belongs, as 
well as for the beauty of the allegory of Cupid 
and Psyche. — EditiuiLS. By Hildebrand, 1842 ; 
Oudendorp, 1823 ; ed. ■princeps, Eome, 1409 ; 
Metamorpli. by Eyssenhardt, 1869; O. Jahn, 
1856 ; cf. Friedlltnder, Sittengpsch. vol. i. 

Apulia or Appulia ('AirouAi'a: Apulus or 
Appfdus, 'KirovKoi). The ' waterland ' [root 
ap, aqua, see Api.\.] It is probable that the 
name first belonged, as Strabo says, to the plain 
just north of M. Garganus, which is extremely 
well watered. As the name was extended the 
meaning was lost, and Horace writes ' Siticu- 
losae Apuliae,' and ' Daunus pauper aquae ' 
(Ejiod. 3, 16; Od. iii. 30, 11), in reference to 
the plains of Northern Apulia, arid in sunm^er. 
It included, in its widest signification, the whole 
of the SE. of Italy from the river Frento to 
the promontory lapygium, and was bounded on 
the N. by the Frentani, on the E. by the 
Adriatic, on the S. by the Tarentiue gulf, and 
on the W. by Samnium and Lucania, thus in- 
cluding the modern provinces of Bari, Otranto, 
and Capitanata, in the former kingdom of 
Naples. Apulia in its narrower sense was the 
country E. of Samnium on both sides of the Au- 
fidus, the Daunia and Peucetia of the Greeks : 
the whole of the SE. part was called Calabria by 
the Bomans. The Greeks gave the name of 
Daunia to the N. part of the country from the 
Frento to the Aufldus ; of Peucetia to the 
country from the Aufldus to Tarentum and 
Brundisium, and of lapygia or Messapia to the 
whole of the remaining S. part : though they 
sometimes included under lapygia all Apulia 
in its widest meaning (Strab. pp. 277, 288,285 ; 
Ptol. iii. 1, 15, 72.) The NW. of Apulia is a 
plain, but the S. part is traversed by the E. 
branch of the Apennines, and has only a small 
tract of land on the coast on each side of the 
mountains. The country was very fertile, 
especially in the neighbourhood of Tarentum, 
and afforded excellent pasturage ; but the plam 
of Northern Apulia, rich in winter, became dry 
in summer, and the flocks were then driven to 
the upland valleys of Samnium and the Abruzzi. 
The population was of a mixed nature : m 
legend tliey are said to have settled m the 
country under the guidance of lapyx, Daumus. 
and PeucetiuB, three sons of an lUynau kmg, 
Lycaon. But the lapygian or Messapian race 
.seems to have more affinity to Greeks than to the 
Italian stock. It may bo conjectured that this 
part of Italy was peopled by Pelasgian tribes 



AQUILEIA 
from Epirus and Greece. The Apulians joined 
the Samnites against the Romans, and became 
subjtet to the latter on the conquest of the 
Samnites. 

Aquae, the name given by the Romans to 
many medicinal springs and bathing-places 
(Plin. xxxi. 1-61):— (1) Auuei.iae or CoLo- 
Ni.i AuuELiA Aquensis (Baden-Baden). 

(2) Apollinahes, in Etruria between Sabate 
and Tarquinii = ' Phoebi vada' (Mart. vi. 42, 7). 

(3) Bormoiiis, applied to springs at Bourbonne 
V Archambault in Allier, and also to those at 
Bonrbo nne in Saute .M arne, Bormonia was 
a Celtic deity of medicinal springs. (4) Cuti- 
LiAE, mineral springs in Samnium iipar tlie 
ancient town of Cutilia, which perished in early 
times, and E. of Reate. There was a celebrated 
lake in its neighbourliood with a floating island, 
which was regai-ded as the umbilicus or centre 
of Italy. Vespasian died at this place. (Dionys. 
i. 15 ; Macrob. Sat. i. 7 ; Sen. N.Q. iii. 25 ; Strab. 
p. 228 ; Suet. Ves]]. 24.) (5) Gbatianae, Aix in 
Savoy on the Lac de Bourget. (6) Mattlvcae 
or FoNTES Mattiaci [Wiesbaden], in the land 
of the Mattiaci in Germany. (7) Nisin'CI, Bour- 
bon VAnci in Saone-et-Loire. (8) Passekis, 

i in Etrm'ia between Volsinii and Forum Cassi 
(Mart. vi. 42) now Bacucco, 5 miles N. of 
j Viferbo. (9) PAT.\^^NAE [Aponi Foks]. (IO)Sex- 
TiAE (Aix), a Roman colony in Gallia Narbon- 
'; ensis, founded by Sextius Calvinus, b.c. 122 ; 
i its mineral waters were^long celebrated, but 
^ were thought to have lost much of their efficacy 
' in the time of Augustus. Near this place 
; Marius defeated the Teutoni, B.C. 102 (Strab. 
pp. 178, 180). It is 18 miles N. of Marseilles. 
(11) SoLis [Bath) in Britain called "TSara 0€p/io 
; in I?tol. ii. 3, 28. (12) St.-itiell.4E [Acqui), a 
j town of the Statielli in Liguria, celebrated for 
! its warm baths (Strab. p. 217 ; Plin. xxxi. 4). 
j (13) Tabbell.\e, on the Aturus [Adour], now 
Dacs. (14) T.WRI in Etruria, 3 miles N. of 
Civita Veochia: now Bagni di Ferrata. 

Aquae, in Africa. 1. (Meriga, Ru.), in the 
interior of Mauretania Caesariensis. — 2. C.vli- 
dae [Gurbos or Hammam I'Enf), on the gulf of 
Carthage. — 3. Regl\e (Hammam Truzza), in 
the N. part of Byzacena. — 4. Tacapitan.\e 
(Hammat-el-KJmbs), at the S. extremity of 
Byzacena, close to the large city of Tacape 
(Khabs). 

Aqulla. 1. Of Pontus, translated the Old 
Testament into Greek, in the reign of Hadrian, 
probably about a.d. 130. Only a few fragments 
remain, which have been published in the 
editions of the Hexapla of Origen.— 2. Julius 
Aquila, a Roman jurist quoted in the Digest, 
lived under or shortly before the reign of 
Septimius Severus, a.d. 193-198.— 3, L. Pontius 
Aquila, a friend of Cicero, and one of Caesar's 
murderers, was killed at the battle of Mutina, 
B.C. 43 (Appian, B.C. ii. 183; Dio Cass. xlvi. 
88, 40 ; Cic. Phil. xi. 6, xiii. 12 ; Fam. x. 88).— 
4. Aquila Romanus, arhetorican, who probably 
lived in the third century after Clu-ist, wrote a 
small work entitled De Figiiris Sententiariim 
pf Elocutionis, which is usually printed with 
Rutilius 'L\\\ms. — Editions. By Ruhnken, 
Lugd. Bat. 1768, reprinted with additional notes 
by Frotscher, Lips. 1881. 

"Aquilaria (Alliotvareah), a town on the 
coast of Zeugitana in Africa, on the W side of 
Hermaeum Pr. (C. Bon), the E. extremity of the 
Gulf of Carthage. It was a good landmg-plaoe 
in summer (Caes. B. C. ii. 28). . , ^% 

Aqullela (Aquileiensis : Aqinlcia or Aglar), 
a town in Gallia Transpadana at tlie very top 



AQUILIA 

of the Adriatic, between the rivers Sontius and 
Xiitiso, about 00 stadia from the sea. It was 
fouuded by the Eomans in B.C. 182 as a 
liulwark against tlie N. barbarians, and 
1, said to have derived its name from 
Uie favourable omen of an eagle (aquila) 
appearing to the colonists (Liv. xl. 84, xliii. 
n ; Veil. Pat. i. 15). As it was the key of Italy 
oii'the NE., it was made one of the strongest 
fortresses of the Bomans (Aimn. Marc. xxi. 12). 
From its position it became also a most flourish- 
iiig place of commerce : the Via Aemilia was 
continued to this town, and from it all the roads 
to Bhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, Istria, and 
r);ilraatia branched off. Under Diocletian it 
\\as the chief city of Venetia and Histria. 
Ausonius {Ord. Nob. Urb. 6) reckons it as 
ninth of the cities of the Boman Empire in the 
Ith centm-y, and in Italy inferior only to Borne, 
Jlilan, and Capua. It was taken and com- 
pletely destroyed by Attila in a.d. 452 ; its in- 
liabitants escaped to the Lagoons, where Venice 
was afterwards built. 

Aquilia Severa, Julia, a vestal virgin, whom 
Elagabalus married, after divorcing Paula (Dio 
1 Cass. Ixxix. 9). 

Aquillius or Aquilius. 1. M'., consul B.C. 
1'2',), finished the war against Aristonicus, son of 
Eumenes of Pergamus. He laid down the 
road in the proviirce of Asia from Ephesus to 
Apamea. On his return to Bome he was 
accused of maladministration in his province, 
but was acquitted by bribing the judges (Just, 
xxxvi. 4; Veil. Pat. ii. 4). — 2. M'., consul B.C. 
101, conquered the slaves in Sicily, who had 
revolted under Athenion. In S)3 he was accused 
of maladministration in Sicily, but was ac- 
quitted. In 88 he went into Asia as one of the 
consular legates in the Mithridatic war : he was 
defeated and handed over by the inhabitants of 
Jlj'tilene to Mithridates, who put him to death 
hy pouring molten gold down his tlrroat 
(Appian, Mithrid. vii. 19, 21; Veil. Pat. ii. 18; 
C\c. -pro Leg. Man. 5; Athen. p. 213.) 

Aquillius Callus. [G.^lluk.] 

Aquilonia (Aquilonut), a town of Samnium, 
E. of Bovianum, destroyed by the Bomans in 
the Samnite wars (Liv. x. 38-43). 

Aquinum (Aquinas : Aqimio), a town of the 
Volscians, E. of the river Melpis, in a fertile 
country; a Boman mnnicipium and afterwards 
a colony ; the birth-place of Juvenal ; cele- 
hrated for its purple dye (Strab. p. 287 ; Tac. 
Hist. i. 88, ii. 63 ; Hor. Ep. i. 10, 27 ; Juv. iii. 
■ il9 ; Cic. Phil. ii. 41, 106). 

Aquitania. 1. The country of the Aquitani, 
extended from the Garumna (Garonne) to the 
I'yrenees, and from tlie ocean to Gallia Nar- 
lionensis; it was first conquered by Caesar's 
leLj'ates, and again upon a revolt of the inhabi- 
tants in the time of Augustus (Caes. B. G. i. 1, 
viii. 46; Appian, J3. C. v. 92; Dio Cass, xlviii. 49 ; 
>^aet. Aug. 21).— 2. The Boman province of 
Aquitania, formed in the reign of Augustus, 
>vas of much wider extent, and was bounded on 
the N. by the Ligeris (Loire), on the W. by the 
'"'ean, on the 8. by tlie Pyrenees, and on the 
by the Mons Cevenna, which separated it 
Horn Gallia Narbonensis (Strab. p. 177 ; Plin. 
'y- 108). — The Aquitani were one of the three 
I- ices which inhabited Gaul; they were of 

I'erian or Spanish origin, and differed from the 
''iuilsand Belgians in language, customs, and 
Pliysical peculiarity (Dio Casa. I.e. ; Strab. l.c) 
f J^^f, Civitos Ubiorum 

[ - Cologne) was a sanctuary for the sun-ound- 
i "ig provmce, not merely tor the Ubii, since one 



AEABIA 95 

of the Cherusci is mentioned as priest (Tac. 
Ann. i. 87, 39, 45, 57 ; see Colonia Agbippina). 

Arabia (v 'Apa0la : 'Apail/, pl.'Apa/Scs, "Apa- 
/3oi, Arabs, Arabils, pi. ArHbes, Arab! : Arabia), 
a country at the SW. extremity of Asia, formmg 
a large peninsula, of a sort of hatchet shape, 
bounded on the W. by the Ababicus Sinus 
(Bed Sea), on the S. and SE. by the Eby- 
THB.\EUM M.VBE (Gulf of Bab-el- Mandeb and 
Indian Ocean) and on the NE. by the Peesi- 
cus Sinus (Persian Gulf). On the N. or la,nd 
side its boundaries were somewhat indefinite, 
but it seems to have included the whole of the 
desert country between Egypt and Syria, 
on the one side, and the banks of the Euphrates 
on the other; and it was often considered 
to extend even further on both sides, so as 
to include, on the E., the S. part of Mesopo- 
tamia along the left bank of the Euplirates, 
and, on the W., the part of Palestine E. of the 
Jordan, and the part of Egypt between the 
Bed Sea and the E. margin of the Nile valley,, 
whicli, even as a part of Egypt, was called 
Arabiae Nomos. In the stricter sense of the 
name, which confines it to the peninsula itself, 
Arabia may be considered as bounded on the 
N. by a line from the head of the Bed Sea (at 
Suez) to the mouth of the Tigris (Shat-el-Arab) 
which just about coincides with the parallel of 
30° N. lat. It was divided into 3 parts: 
(1) Arabia Petraea (tj irerpala 'Apa^ia : NW. 
part of El-Hejaz), including the triangrular 
piece of land between the two heads of the Bed 
Sea (the peninsula of M. Sinai) and the country 
immediately to the N. and NE. ; and called 
from its capital Petra, while the literal signifi- 
cation of the name 'Bocky Arabia ' agrees also 
with the nature of the country ; (2) Arabia 
Deserta (El-Jebel), including the great Syrian 
Desert and a portion of the interior of the 
Arabian peninsula : (3) Arabia Felix (El- 
Nejed, El-Hejaz, El-Yemen, El-Hadramaut, 
Oman and El-Hejer), consisted of the whole- 
country not included in the other two divisions ; 
the ignorance of the ancients respecting the 
interior of the jieninsula leading them to accept 
the name Arabia Felix, although much of it 
consists of a sandy desert of steppes and table 
land, interspersed with Oases (Wadis), and 
fringed with mountains, between which and the 
sea, especially on the W. coast, lies a belt of 
low land (called Teliamali), intersected by 
numerous mountain torrents, which irrigate 
the strips of land on their banks, and produce 
that fertility with which the ancients credited 
the whole peninsula (Strab. p. 767 ; Diod. ii. 48 ; 
Mela, iii. 8 ; Plin. vi. 142 f.). [The name Felix 
or evSa'ifiwi/, or in Plin. v. 65 beata, is said to- 
have arisen from the Semitic word Jaman 
meaning ' right side '—i.e. ' south ' — being mis- 
interpreted to mean 'lucky.'] The width of 
the Tehdniah is, in some places on the W. 
coast, as much as from one to two days' jom-ney,. 
but on the other side it is very narrow, except 
at the E. end of the peninsula (about Miiskai 
in Oman) where for a small space its width is 
again a day's journey. — The inhabitants of 
Arabia were of the Semitic race. The NW. 
district (Arabia Petraea)was inhabited by the 
various tribes which constantly appear in 
Jewish history : the Amalekites, Midianites, 
Edomites, Bloabites, Ammonites Ac. The 
Greeks and Eomans called the inhabitants by 
tlie name of N.vbathaei, whose capital was 
Petra (Jos. Ant. xiv. 1, 4 ; Ptol. v. 17). The 
people of Arabia Deserta were called Arabes 
Scenltae (SKTjcrToi), from their dwelling in 



96 



ARABICUS 



tents, ami Arabes Nomades (No/iaSfs), from 
their mode of life, wliicli was tliat of wandering 
herdsmen, who supported themselves jjartly by 
their cattle, and to a great extent also by the 
plunder of caravans, as their uncluinged de- 
scendants, the Bedouins, still do. The people of 
the Tehamah were (and arej of the same race ; 
but tlieir position led them at an early period 
to cultivate both agriculture and commerce, 
and to build considerable cities. The chief 
tribes were known by the following names, 
beginning S. of the Nabathaei on the W. 
coast : the Thamydeni and Minaei (in 
the S. part of Hejaz) in the neighbour- 
kood of Mac-oraba [Mecca) ; the Sabaei and 
Homer itae in the SW. part of the peninsula 
(Yemen) ; on the SE. coast, the Chatramolitae 
and Adramitae (in El-Hadramaut, a country 
very little known, even to the present day) ; on 
the E. and NE. coast the Omanltae and Dara- 
cheni (in Oman, and JEl-Asha or El-Hejer). — 
From the earliest known period a considerable 
traffic was carried on by the people in the N. 
(especially the Nabathaei) by means of caravans, 
and by those on the S. and E. coast by sea, iu 
the productions of their own country (chiefly 
gums, spices, and precious stones), and in those 
of India and Arabia. Besides this peaceful 
intercourse with the neighbouring countries, 
they seem to have made military expeditions 
at an early period, for there can be no doubt 
that the Hyksos or ' Shepherd-kings,' who for 
some time ruled over Lower Egypt, were 
Arabians. On the other hand, they have suc- 
cessfully resisted all attempts to subjugate 
them. The alleged conquests of some of the 
Assyrian kings could only have affected small 
portions of the country on the N. Of the Per- 
sian empire we are expressly told that they 
were independent. Alexander the Great died 
too soon even to attempt his contemplated 
scheme of circumnavigating the peninsula and 
subduing the inhabitants. Tlie Greek kings of 
Syria made unsuccessful attacks upon the 
Nabathaei. Under Augustus, Aelius Gallus, 
assisted by the Nabathaei, made an expedition 
into Arabia Felix, but was compelled to reti-eat 
into Egypt to save his army from famine and 
the climate. Under Trajan, Arabia Petraea 
was conquered by A. Cornelius Palma (a.d. 107), 
and the country of the Nabathaei became a 
Roman province, to which in 295 Am-anitis, 
Batanea, and Trachonitis were added (Dio Cass. 
Ixviii. 14 ; Amm. Marc. xiv. 8). In the 5th 
century there were two divisions of this pro- 
vince ; the northern called Arabia with the 
cliief citj' Bostra, the southern called Palaestina 
Tertia or Palaestina Salutaris of which Petra 
was the capitaL Some partial and temporary 
footing was gained on the SW. coast by the 
Etlriopians; and both in this direction and 
from the N. Christianity was early introduced 
into the country, where it spread to a great 
extent, and continued to exist side by side with 
the old religion (which was Sabaeism, or the 
worship of heavenly bodies), and with some 
admixture of Judaism, until the total revolution 
produced by the rise of Mohammedanism in 622. 

Arabicus Sinus {& 'Apa&tKhs kSKitos: Bed 
Sea), a long narrow gulf between Africa and 
Arabia, connected on tlie S. with the Indian 
Ocean by the Angustiae Divae (Straits of Bah - 
el-Mandeh), and on the N. divided into two 
heads by the peninsula of Arabia Petraea 
(Penins. of Sinai), the E. of which was called 
Sinus Aelanites or Aelaniticus (Gulf of Akaha), 
and the \V. Sinus Heroopolites or Heroopoliti- 



ARADUS 

oua (Gulf of Suez), which must in Strabo's time 
have extended 40 miles north of its present 
limit, and included Lake Timsah. The upper 
parfr»of tlie sea was known at a very early 
period; but it was not explored in its whole 
extent till the maritime expeditions of the 
i tolemies. Respecting its otlier name se.' 

EllYTHK.USU.M MuiE. 

Arabia Chpa^is, also 'Apa)3ioj, 'Ap/Sis, "Ap- 
To^ij, and 'Aprdfitos: Poorally or Aybor), a 
river of Gedrosia, falling into the Indian Ocean 
1000 stadia (100 geog. miles) W. of the mouth 
of the Indus, and dividing the Oritae on its W. 
from the Arabltae or Aibies on its E., who had 
a city named Arbis on its E. bank (Strab n 
720; Ptol. vi. 19). 

Arabisca (Alanquer), a town of the Lusitani 
on the right bank of the Tagus. 

Aracbuaeain ('Apaxvcuov), a mountain form- 
ing the boundary between Argolis and Corinthia 
(Pans. ii. 25, 10). 

Aractne, a Lydian maiden, daughter of 
Idmon of Colophon, a famous dyer in purple. 
Araohne excelled in the art of weaWng, and, 
proud of her talent, ventured to challenge 
Athene to compete with her. The work of 
Athene showed the Olympian gods in aU their 
dignity. Arachne produced a piece of cloth in 
which the amours of the gods were woven, 
and as Athene was indignant at the taunt, and 
jealous of the faultless work, she tore it to 
pieces. Arachne in despair hanged herself : the 
goddess loosened the rope and saved her life, 
but the rope was changed into a cobweb and 
Arachne herself into a spider (dpax>''?)i the 
animal most odious to Athene. (Ov. Met. vi. 
1 seq. ; Verg. Georg. iv. 246.) The myth seems 
to represent the rivalry between the Lydian 
and Greek arts of weaving. Nonnus (Dion. 
xviii. 215) makes her an Assyrian. 

Arachosia ('Apaxwo'/a : 'ApaxoiTol or -oiTai ; 
SE. part of Afglianistan and NE. part of 
Beloocliistan), one of the extreme B. provinces 
of the Persian (and afterwards of the Parthian) 
empire, bounded on the E. by the Indus, on 
the N. by the Paropamisadae, on the W. by 
Drangiana, and on the S. by Gedrosia. It was 
a fertile country, watered by the river Ai'achotus 
('Apax'^'''<'s)) some distance from which stood a 
city of the same name, Arachotus, wliich was 
said to have been built by Semiramis, and 
which was the capital of the province mitil the 
foundation of Alexandbia. The shortest road 
from Persia to India passed tlu-ough Arachosia 
(Strab. p. 723 ; Arrian, An. vi. 17). 
Arachotus, [Amachosia.] 
AraclitliuB or Aretho CApax^os or 'ApiQaiv : 
Arta), a river of Epirus, rises in M. Lacmon 
or the Tymphean mountains, and flows into the 
Ambracian gulf, S. of Ambracia : it is deep and 
difficult to cross, and navigable up to Ambracia 
(Strab. pp. 325, 327). 

Aracynthus ('ApaKuvBos : Zigos), a moimtain 
on the SW. coast of Aetolia near Pleuron, some- 
times placed in Acarnania (Strab. pp. 450, 460). 
Virgil and Propertius, however, place it between 
Attica and Boeotia, and hence mention it in 
connexion with Amphion, the Boeotian hero. 
(Propert. iii. 13, 41; Actaeo [i.e. Attico] .-Ira- 
cyiitho, Verg. Eel. ii. 24.) 

Aradus ('ApaSoj: 'ApiSios, Aradlus: in O. 
T. Arvad: Baad), an island off the coast of 
Phoenicia, at the distance of 20 stadia (2 geog. 
miles), with a city which occupied the whole 
surface of the island, 7 stadia in circumference, 
which was said to have been founded by exiles 
from Sidon, and which was a very flourishing 



ARAB 

■place under its own kings, under the Seleuoidae, 
and under the Komans. It possessed a har- 
bour on the mainland, called Antasadus 
(Strab. p. 758). 

Arae Philaenorum. [Phelaenokum Ae.\e.] 

Araethyrea ('Apaievpea), daughter of Aras, 
an autochthon who was believed to have built 
Ai-antea, the most ancient town in Phliasia. 
After her death, her brother Aoris called the 
country of Pliliasia Ai-aethyi-ea, in honour of 
his sister (Paus. ii. 12, 5; Horn. II. u. 571; 
Strab. p. 382). ^ 

Araphen {'Apatpiiv : 'A.pa<t>iivios, hpa^-nvoB^v : 
Bafina), an Attic demus belonging to the tribe 
Aegaeis, on the E. of Attica, N. of the nver 
Erasinus, not far from its mouth. 

Arar or Araris [Sadne), a river of Gaul, rises 
in the Vosges, receives the Dubis (Boubs) from 
the E., after whieh it becomes navigable, and 
flows with a quiet stream into the Rhone at 
Lugdunimi [Lyon). In the time of Ammianus 
(a.d. 370) it was also called Sauconna, and in 
the middle ages Sangona, whence its modern 
name Sadne (Amm. Marc. xv. 11). 

ArarOB ('Apapds), an Athenian poet of the 
Middle Comedy, son of Aristophanes, flourished 
B.C. 375. (Fragments in Meineke.) 

Aras. [Akaethykea.] . 

Araspes {'Apda-inis), a Mede, and a friend of 
the elder Cyrus, is one of the characters in 
Xenophon's Cyropaedia. He contends vnth 
Cyrus that love has no power over him, but 
shortly afterwards refutes himself by falling in 
love with Panthea, whom Cyrus bad conuuitted 
to his charge. (Xen. Cyr. v. 1, vi. 1, 36 ; 
Abbadatas.) 

Aratus I^ApaTos). 1. The celebrated general 
of the Achaeaus, son of Cliuias, was born at 
Sicyon, B.C. 271. On the murder of his father 
by Abantidas, Aratus, who was then a child, 
was conveyed to Argos, where he was brought 
up. When he had reached the age of 20 he 
gained possession of his native city, B.C. 251, 
deprived the usurper Nioocles of his power, and 
united Sicyon to the Achaean League, wliich 
gained in consequence a great accession of 
power. [AcHAEi.] In 245 he was elected general 
of the League, which office he frequently held 
in subsequent years. Thi'ough his influence a 
great number of the Greek cities joined the 
League ; but he excelled more in negotiation 
than in war, and in his war with the Aetolians 
and Spartans he was often defeated. Indeed, 
it must be admitted that he showed positive 
cowardice in battle strangely contrasted with 
the boldness of his plans and policy. In 234, 
through the patriotism of Lydiadas, tyrant of 
Megalopohs, that city was joined to the Achaean 
League ; but it must be observed, as detracting 
from the well-deserved fame of Aratus, that his 
jealousy of Lydiadas often interfered with the 
interests of the League. Thus he opposed the 
scheme of Lydiadas for union with Argos in 
229, but when he liimself became general he 
effected it. The death of Lydiadas also at 
Laodicea (226) and the consequent defeat by 
the Spartans were due to the want of corn-age 
which Aratus showed in the battle. A still 
greater calamity was his rejection of the pro- 
posal of Cleomenes to bring Sparta into the 
League, and his resolution to seek the friendship 
of Antigonus, and to surrender Acrocorinthus 
to a Macedonian garrison— certainly the gi-eatest 
mistake of his life. To strengthen himself 
agamst Aetolia and Sparta he cultivated the 
friendship of Antigonus Doson, and of his 
successor Philip ; but as Philip was evidently 



AEAXES 97 

anxious to make himself master of all Greece, 
dissensions arose between him and Aratus, and 
the latter was eventually poisoned in 213 by 
the king's order. Divine honours were paid to 
him by his countrymen, and an annual festival 
('ApaTeia: see Did. of Antiq.) established. 
Aratus wrote Comvientariea, being a history 
of his own times down to B.C. 220, which are 
commended by Polybius (ii. 40). Aratus un- 
questionably deserves the credit of the develop- 
ment and early successes of the League, and hia 
extraordinary personal ascendency, even after 
reverses, with the citizens of the League is a 
strong testimony to his political ability; but 
he ruined the chances of the Achaean League 
to become a lasting and independent bulwark 
of Greece when he rejected the union with 
Sparta and gave the key of tjie position to 
Macedonia (Plut. Arat. and Agis ; Polyb. ii., iv., 
vii., viii.). — 2. Of Soli, afterwards Pompeiopolis, 
in Cilicia, or (according to one authority) of 
Tarsus, flourished B.C. 270, and spent all the 
latter part of his life at the court of Antigonus 
Gonatas, king of Macedonia. He wrote two 
astronomical poems, entitled Phaenoinetia (4>ai- 
vdfieva), consisting of 732 verses, and Diosemeia 
{Aioa-rjfxfia), of 422. The design of the Phae- 
nomena is to give an introduction to the know- 
ledge of the constellations, with the rules for 
their risings and settings. The Diosemeia 
consists of prognostics of the weather from 
astronomical phaenomena, with an account of 
its effects upon animals. It appears to be an 
imitation of Hesiod, and to have been imitated 
by Virgil in some parts of the Georgics. The 
style of these two poems is distinguished by 
elegance and accuracy ; but it wants originality 
and poetic elevation. That they became very 
popular both in the Grecian and the Roman 
world (cum sole et luna seviper Aratus erit, 
Ov. Am. i. 15, 16) is proved by the number of 
commentaries and Latin translations. Parts of 
tlu'ee poetical Latin translations are preserved : 
one written by Cicero when very young ; one by 
Caesar Germanicus, the grandson of Augustus ; 
and one by Pestus Avienus. — Editions. By 
Voss, Heidelb. 1824, with a German poetical 
version ; by Buttmann, Berol. 1826 ; and by 
Bekker, Berol. 1828. 

Arauris (Herault), erroneously Rauraris in 
Strabo, a river in Gallia Narbonensis, rises in 
M. Cevenna, and flows into the Mediterranean 
(Strab. p^ 182 ; Mel. ii. 5). 

Arausio (Orange), a town of the Cavari or 
Cavares, and a Roman colony, in Gallia Nar- 
bonensis, on the road from Arelate to Vienna : 
it still contains remains of an amphitheatre, 
circus, aqueduct, triumphal arch, &c. (Strab. 
p. 185 ; Mel. ii. 5 ; Plin. iii. 36). 

Araxes ('Apa|j)s), the name of several rivers. 
— 1. In Armenia Major (Eraskh or Aras), rises 
in M. Aba or Abus (nr. Erzcroum), from the 
opposite side of which the Euphrates flows; 
and, after a great bend SE. and then NE., joins 
the Cyrus (Kour), which flows down from the 
Caucasus, and falls with it into the Caspian bj 
two mouths, in about 39° 20' N. Lat. The 
lower part, past Abtaxata, flows through a 
plain, which was called 'ApalT]vhv ireStov 
(Strab. p. 531 ; Ptol. v. 13). Herodotus, i. 202, iv. 
40, is clearly speaking of this Araxes, which, he 
says, runs eastward from the country of the 
Matieni into the Caspian ; but he seems to be 
misinformed about the position of the Blassa- 
getae and to place them and other tribes too 
far west, or the Araxes and Caspian too far 
east. The upper branch cr affluent of the 

H 



98 



ARAXUS 



Araxes is called Phasis (Xen. Anah. iv. 6, 4). 
[Phasis.] The Araxes was proverbial for the 
force of its ciUTent ; and hence Virgil {Aen. viii. 
728) says pontem indignatus Araxes, with 
special reference to the failure of Alexander to 
throw a bridge over it (Arr. An. vii. 16, 8). — 3. In 
Mesopotamia. [Chaboras.J — 3. In Persia (J3e9id- 
Einirj, the river on which Persejjolis stood, 
rises in the mountains E. of the head of the 
Persian Gulf, and flows SB. into a salt lake 
(Bakhtegan) not far below Persepolis. — i. The 
pENEUS, in Tliessaly, was called Araxes (apatrirai) 
from the violence of its torrent (Strab. I. c). 

Araxus ("Apa^os : C. Papa), a promontory of 
Aohaia near the confines of Elis. 

Arbaces ('Ap/Sa/frjs), the founder of the Me- 
dian empire, according to Ctesias (Diod. ii. S3), 
is said to have taken Nineveh in conjunction 
with Belesis, the Babylonian, and to have de- 
stroyed the AssjT.-ian empire under the reign of 
Sardanapalua. Ctesias assigns 28 years to the 
reign of Arbaces, apparently about B.C. 870, 
and makes his dynasty consist of eight kings. 
This account differs from that of Herodotus, 
who makes Deioces the first king of Media, and 
assigns only four kings to his dynasty. There 
seems to be in Ctesias (who is frequently con- 
futed by the inscriptions) a confused allusion to 
the overthrow of Sardanapalus by the Baby- 
lonians in alliance with Cyaxares (Kastarit),king 
of Media at a much later date. [Cyaxakes.] 

Arbela (Ta''Apj3r)Aa: ErbiUe), a city of Adia- 
bene in Assyria, between the rivers Lycus and 
Caprus (the greater and lesser Zab) ; celebrated 
as the head-quarters of Darius Codomannus, 
before the last battle in wliich he was over- 
thrown by Alexander (b.c. 331), which is hence 
frequently called the battle of Arbela, though 
it was really fought near Gaugamela, about 25 
miles W. of Arbela. Tlie district about Arbela 
was called Arbelltis ('Ap/SijAjTis). (Strab. p. 737 ; 
Diod. xvii. 53 ; Arr. An. iii. 8 ; Curt. iv. 9 ; Amm. 
Marc, xxiii. 6.) 

Arbis. [Aeabis.] 

Arbucala or Arbocala (Alberca?), the cliief 
town of the Vaccaei in Hispania Tarraconensis, 
north of the Tagus, in the modem province of 
Salamanca, taken by Hannibal after a long 
resistance (Liv. xxi. 5). 

Arbuscuia, a celebrated female actor in 
pantomimes in the time of Cicero (Cic. Att. iv. 
15 ; Hor. Sat. i. 10, 76). 

Area or -ae ^ApKri, or -ai : Tell-Arha), a very 
ancient city in the N. of Phoenicia, not far 
from the sea-coast, at the foot of M. Lebanon : 
a colony under the Romans, named Area Cae- 
sarea or Caesarea Libani : the bu'thplace of 
the emperor Alexander Severus, and famous 
for a temple of Astarte (Ptol. v. 15 ; Macrob. 
Sat. i. 21 ; Vit. Alex. Sev.). 

Arcadia {'ApKaS'ia: ''ApKas, pi. 'ApjcaSes), a 
country in the middle of Peloponnesus, was 
bounded on the E. by Argolis, on the N. by 
Achaia, on the W. by EHs, and on the S. by 
Messenia and Laeonica. Next to Laconica it 
was the largest country in the Peloponnesus : 
its greatest length was about 50 miles, its 
breadth from 35 to 41 miles (Strab. pp. 835-337). 
It was surrounded on all sides by mountains, 
which likewise traversed it in every direction, 
and it may be regarded as the Switzerland of 
Greece. Its principal mountains were Cyllone 
and Erymantlius in the N., Artemisius in the 
E., and Partlienius, Maenalus, and Lycaeus in 
the S. and SW. The Alphcius, the greatest 
river ot Peloponnesus, rises in Arcadia, and 
flows through a considerable part of the country. 



ARCADIA 

receiving numerous afHuents. The N. and E. 
parts of the country were barren and unpro- 
ductive ; the W. and S. were more fertile, with 
nui^rous valleys where corn was grown. The 
Arcadians, said to be descended from the epony- 
mous hero AiicAS, regarded themselves as the 
most ancient people in Greece : the Greek 
writers call them indigenous {avrSxOoves) and 
Pelasgians, and Pelasgus is the name given to 
their earliest king (Pans. viii. 1). They were 
said to have 'lived before the moon' (irpo- 
(TiKrivoi), which is probably a corruption of a 
statement that they were in the Peloponnese 
before the Syllani or Hellenes. Their claim to 
antiquity is just, since in the security of their 
mountains they withstood the Dorian conquest. 
In consequence of the physical peculiarity of 
the country, they were chiefly employed in 
hunting and the tending of cattle, whence their 
worship of Pan, who was especially the god of 
Arcadia, and of Artemis. They were a people 
simple in their habits and moderate in their 
desires : they were passionatelj' fond of music, 
and cultivated it with great success {soli can- 
tare periti Arcades, Verg. Eel. x. 39), which 
circumstance was supposed to soften the natural 
roughness of their character. The Arcadians, 
thanks to their rugged country, experienced 
fewer changes than any other people in Greece. 
Like the other Greek peoples, they svere ori- 
ginally governed by kings, but are said to have 
abolished monarchy towards the close of the 
second Messenian war, and to have stoned to 
death their last king, Aristocrates, because he 
betrayed his allies the Messeuians. The different 
towns then became independent republics, of 
which the most important were M.vntinea, 
Tegea, Orchomenus, Psophis, and Pheneos, 
which lie in the secluded valleys of the north 
and east, protected by their mountains ; to the 
west the valleys of the Alpheus and Ladon are 
more accessible, and here, accordingly, were 
cantons of hamlets rather than independent 
cities : in the uiDper valley of the Alpheus, the 
Maenalians, and Eutresians ; lower down, the 
Parrhasians, Cynurians, and Heraeans ; in the 
valley of the Ladon the Azanes. The bond 
of union from early times was religious. Pan- 
arcadian festivals were held to Zeus at M. 
Lycaeus, to Athene Alea at Tegea, and to 
Artemis Hymnia at Orchomenus (Pans. viii. 2, 
5, 53). Like the Swiss, the Ai-cadians frequently 
served as mercenaries, and in the Pelopon- 
nesian war they were found in the armies of 
both the Lacedaemonians and Athenians. The 
Lacedaemonians made many attempts to obtain 
possession of parts ot Arcadia, but these at- 
tempts were finally frustrated by the battle ot 
Leuctra (b.c. 871); and in order to resist all 
future aggressions on the part ot Sparta, the 




Coin of Arcddtft. 
Oil'., head of ZoaB ; rcr.. Pan. sontod pn a rock, holding a 
knotted shepherd 6 stall. 

Arcadians, upon the advice of Epaminondas, 
and led by Lycomedes, built the city of Mboa- 
LOPOLis, and instituted a general assembly of 



AECADIUS 

the whole nation, called the Myrii ('Mvplot, 
Diet ofAntiq.s.v.). This Arciuliiui League did 
not last long. Mantiuea and Tegea were at en- 
mity already before the death of Epaminondas, 
and though the assembly of the Ten Thousand 
existed in the time of Demosthenes we have no 
-trace of an iU-cadian League after the end of 
the fourth cent. B.C. The Arcadian cities sub- 
sequently joined the Achaean League, and 
finally became subject to the Bomans. 

Arcadius, emperor of the East (a.d. 395-408), 
elder son of Theodosius I., was born in Spain, 
A.D. 383. On the death of Theodosius he be- 
Ciune emperor of the East, while the West was 
given to his yoimger brother Honorius. Arca- 
dius possessed neither physical nor intellectual 
vigour, and was entirely governed by unworthy 
favourites. At first he was ruled by Eufinus, 
the praefect of the East ; and on the murder of 
the latter, soon after the accession of Arcadius, 
the government fell into the hands of the 
eunuch Eutropius. Eutropius was put to death 
in 399, and his power now devolved upon 
Gainas, the Goth; but upon his revolt and 
death in 401 Arcadius became entirely depen- 
dent upon his wife Eudoxia, and it was through 
her influence that St. Chrysostom was exiled in 




Arcadius, Roman Emperor, A.D. .195-408. 
•Obv., Dominus Noster Arcadius Pater Patriae Augustus ; 
rev., Concord. The letters Con signify the mint of Con- 
stantinople, and ob the purity of the metal (72 soldi to 
one pound of gold). 

404. Arcadius died on May 1, 408, leaving the 
empire to his son Theodosius II., who was a 
minor. (Sozom. viii. ; Soor. Hist. Eccl. vi. ; 
Cedren. i. ; Claudian.) 
Arcanum. [Abpinum.] 

Areas {"ApKas), king and eponymous hero of 
the Arcadians, son of Zeus and CalUsto, grand- 
son of Lycaon and father of Aphldas, Elatus, 
and Azan. He taught his subjects the arts of 
baking and weaving. Areas was the boy whose 
flesh his grandfather Lycaon placed before Zeus 
to try his divine character. Zeus upset the 
table {rpaTre^o) which bore the dish, and de- 
stroyed the house of Lycaon by lightning, but 
restored Areas to life. When Areas had gromi 
up, he built on the site of his father's house the 
town of Trapezus. Areas in hunting followed 
his mother Callisto, who had the form of a she- 
bear, into the temple of Zeus Lycaeus, a profa- 
nation which by Arcadian law would liave 
caused their death, but Zeus changed them into 
•stars as Arctophylax and the Great Bear. The 
legends show traces of primitive totemism, and 
•of human sacrifices. (Hyg. Astr. 2 ; Pans. viii. 
i ; Ov^ Met. ii. 496, Fast. ii. 183.) 

Arcesilaus or Areesilas ("ApKf c/Aaoj, 'Ap/ce- 
iriXas), a Greek philosopher (about B.C. 315-240), 
son of Seuthes or Scythes, was bom at Pitane 
m Aeolis. He studied at first in his native 
town under Autolycus, a mathematician, and 
Wenvards went to Athens, where he became 
Hie disciple first of Theophrastus and next of 
Polemo and of Grantor. He succeeded Crates 
about B.C. in the chair of the Academy, and 
became the founder of the second or middle 
•VKi^V) Academy. He is said to have died in 



AECHELAUS 99 

his 76th year from a fit of drunkenness (Diog. 
Laiirt. iv. 30). His philosophy was of a sceptical 
character, though it did not go so far as that of 
the followers of PyiThon. He did not doubt 
the existence of truth in itself, only our capa- 
cities for obtaining it by the senses or by reason, 
and he combated most strongly the dogmatism 
of the Stoics, as regards Zeno's doctrine of the 
/faTaArjTrTiKT) <l>avra(Tia (or impression producing 
conviction), holding that no impressions pro- 
vided a testimony of their truth : hence the ne- 
cessity of suspended judgment (eVox^), though 
action according to our reason was not pre- 
cluded (Cic. de Orat. iii. 18, 67, Acad. ii. 24, 
77). 

Arcesilaus {'ApK^crl^^aos). 1. Sou of Lycus 
and Theobule, leader of the Boeotians in the 
Trojan war, slain by Hector. — 2. The name of 
four kings of Cyrene. [Battus and Battiabae.J 

Arcesius {'ApKd<nos), son of Zeus and Eury- 
odia, father of Laertes, and grandfather of 
Ulysses. Hence both Laertes and Ulysses are 
culled Arcesiadea ('ApKfKTidSris) {Od. xvi. 118 ; 
Ov. Met. xiii. 144). According to Eustathius 
(ad Horn. 1961), his mother was a she-bear, 
Cephalus having been told by an oracle that he 
should have a son by the first female being 
whom he met on his way home. The story 
doubtless arose from his name. 

Archaeopolis ('Apxa'<^ToA.tj), the later capital 
of Colchis ; near the river Phasis. 

Archagathus, a Greek physician, the first 
who made medicine a profession at Rome. He 
came from the Pelopormese, and settled at 
Eome B.C. 219, where a shop was bought for 
him, and he received the Jus Qairitium. His 
practice was mainly surgical (Plin. xxix. 12). 

Archandropolis {'ApxdvSpou TrdKis), a city of 
Lower Egypt, on the Nile, between Canopus 
and Cercasorus. 

Archedemus ('Apxe'SiJMos : Dor. 'Apxe'Sa/xos). 
1. A popular leader at Athens, took the first 
step against the generals who had gained the 
battle of Arginusae, B.C. 406. The comic poets 
called him ' blear-eyed ' {yXd/xaiv), and said thai 
he was a foreigner, and had obtained the fran- 
chise by fraud. (Xen. Hell. vii. 1, Meni. ii. 9 ; 
Ai-ist. Ban. 419, 588 ; Lys. c. Ale. § 25.) — 2. An 
Aetolian (called Archidamus by Livy), com- 
manded the Aetolian troops which assisted the 
Romans in their war with Philip (B.C. 199-197). 
He afterwards took an active part "gainst the 
Romans, and eventually joined Perseus, whom 
he accompanied in his flight after his defeat in 
168. — 3, Of Tarsus, a Stoic philosopher, men- 
tioned by Cicero, Seneca, and other ancient 
writers. 

Archedicus {'Apx^SiKos), an Athenian comic 
poet of the New Comedy, supported Antipater 
and the Macedonian party. 

Archegetes ('ApxT/ytTTjs), a surname of 
Apollo. 

Archelais ("ApxE^o's). !• In Cappadocia 
(Akserai), on the Cappadox, a tributary of the 
Halys, a city founded by Archelaus, the last 
king of Cappadocia, and made a Roman colony 
by the emperor Claudius. — 2. A town of Pales- 
tine, near Jericho, founded by Archelaus, the 
son of Herod the Great. 

Archelaus ("Apx^'Aaoj). 1. Son of Herod 
the Great, was appointed by his father as his 
successor, and received from Augustus Judaea, 
Samaria, and Idumaea, with the title of ethnarch. 
In consequence of his tyrannical government, 
the Jews accused him before Augustus in the 
10th year of his reign (a.d. 7) : Augustus ban- 
ished him to Vienna in Gaul, where he died. — 

h2 



100 AUCHELAUS 

2. King of Macedonli. (b.c. -113-399), anillegiti- | 
mate son of Pevcliccas II., obtained tlio throne j 
by tha murder of his half-brother. He improved 
the intei'nal condition of his kingdom, and was 
a warm patron of art and literature. His palace 
was adorned with magnificent paintings by 
Zeuxis ; and Euripides, Agathon, and other men 
of eminence, were among his guests. According 
to some accounts Arclielaus was accidentally 
slain in a hunting party by his favourite, Cra- 
terus ; but according to other accounts he was 
murdered by Graterus. (Diod. xiv. 37 ; Aristot. 
Pol. V. 10.)— -3. A general of BIiTHiiiDATES. In 
B.C. 87 he was sent into Greece by Mithi'idates 
with a large fleet and anny ; at first he met 
with considerable success, held most of northern 
Greece, and took Peiraeus. After sustaining 
a siege, he withdrew to Boeotia, where he was 
twice defeated by Sulla in 80, near Ohaeronea 
and Orchomenos. Thereupon he was commis- 
sioned by Mithridates to sue for peace, which 
he obtained ; but subsequently being suspected 
of treachery by the king, he deserted to the 
Bomans just before the commencement of the 
second Mithridatic war, B.C. 81. (Plut. SulL 
11--24 ; Appian, Mithr. 17-61 ; Veil. Pat. ii. 25.)— 
4. Son of tlie preceding, was raised by Pompey, 
in B.C. 63, to the dignity of priest of the goddess 
(Enyo or Bellona) at Comana in Pontus or 
Cappadocia. In 56 or 55 Archelaus became 
king in Egypt by marrying Berenice, the 
daughter of Ptolemy Auletes, who, after the 
expulsion of her father, had obtained the sove- 
reignty of Egyxjt. Arclielaus, however, was 
king of Egypt only for 6 months, for Gabmius 
marched with an army into Egypt in order to 
restore Ptolemy Auletes, and in the battle 
which ensued Archelaus perished. (Bell. Alex. 
66 ; Strab. pp. 558, 796 ; Dio Cass, xxxix. 58 ; Cic. 
pro Bab. Post. 8.) — 5. Son of No. 4, and his 
successor in the office of high-priest of Comana, 
was deprived of his dignity by Julius Caesar 
in 47 (Cic. Fani. xv. 4 ; Bell. Alex. 66). — 6. Son 
of No. 5, received from Antony, in B.C. 36, tlie 
kingdom of Cappadocia — a favour which he 
owed to the charms of his mother Glaphyra. 
After the battle of Actium Octavianus not only 
left Archelaus in the possession of his kingdom, 
but subsequently added to it a part of Cilicia 
and Lesser Armenia. But having incurred the 
enmity of Tiberius hy the attention wliicli he 
had paid to C. Caesar, he was summoned to 
Rome soon after the accession of Tiberius and 
accused of treason. His life was spared, but 
he was obliged to remain at Rome, where he 
died soon after, a.d. 17. Cappadocia was then 
made a Roman province. (Strab. pp. 540, 796 ; 
Dio Cass. li. 3; Tac. Ann. ii. 42; Suet. Tib. 37, 
Gal. 1). — 7. A philosopher, probably born at 
Athens, though others make him a native of 
Miletus, flourished about B.C. 450. The philo- 
sophical system of Archelaus is remarkable as 
forming a point of transition from the older to 
the newer form of philosophy in Greece. As a 
pupil of Anaxagoras he belonged to the Ionian 
school, but he added to the physical systeni of 
his teacher some attempts at moral speculation. 
Against the statement that Socrates was taught 
by him (Diog. Laert. ii. 19) it must bs noted 
that Plato and Xenophon say nothing about it. 
— 8. A Greek poet, in Egypt, lived under the 
Ptolemies, and wrote ciiigrams, some of which 
are still extant in the Greek Anthology. — 9. A 
bo.ulptor of Priene, son of ApoUonius, made the 
marble bas-relief representing the Apotheosis 
of Homer, which formerly belonged to the 
Colomia family at Rome, and is now in the 



ARCHIDAMUS 
British Museum. This work, which probably 
belongs to the early part of the reign of Ti- 
berias, is noticed as a mixture of styles. The 
upper part is composed more in the ))ainter'& 
manner than the sculjitor's (as is sometimes 
found in the Alexandrian school) ; the lower 
part revives the older style of Greek votive 
tablets. 

Archemorus ('Apxf'yitopos), or Opheltes, son 
of the Nemean king Lycurgus and Ewydice. 
When the Seven heroes on their expedition 
against Thebes stopped at Nemea to obtain 
water, Hypsipyle, the nurse of the child Opheltes, 
while showing the way to the Seven, left the 
child alone. In the meantime, the child was 
killed by a serpent. The Seven gave him burial ; 
but as Amphiaraus saw in this accident an omen 
boding destruction to himself and his com- 
panions, they called the child Archemorus, that 
is, ' Forerunner of Death,' and instituted the 
Nemean games in honour of him. His death 
is frequently represented in works of art. (Pind. 
Nevi. viii. 51, x. 28 ; Paus. ii. 15, viii. 48 ; 
Apollod. iii. 6; Stat. Theb. iv. 624.) 

Archestratus ('Apx^o-rparos), of Gela or 
Syracuse, about B.C. 350, wrote a poem on the 
Art of Cookery, which was imitated or trans- 
lated by Ennius in his Carmina Hedi/pathetica 
or Hedijpathica (from r)hvTra,dtia). — Fragments 
by Ribbeck, Berlin, 1877. 

Archias ('Apx'as)- 1- An Heraclid of Corinth, 
left his country iu consequence of the death of 
AcT^\j;oN, and founded Syracuse, B.C. 734, by 
conmiand of the Delphic oracle (Thuc. vi. 3; 
Paus. V. 7, 2 ; Strab. pp. 262, 269).— 2. A. Lici- 
nius Archias, a Greek poet, born at Antiooh in 
Syria, about b.c. 120, very early obtained cele- 
brity by his verses. In 102 he came to Rome, 
and was received in the most friendly way by 
many of the Roman nobles, especially by the 
LuouUi, from whom he afterwards obtained the 
gentile name of Licinius. After a short stay at 
Rome he accompanied L. LucuUus, the elder, 
to Sicily, and followed him, in the banishment 
to which he was sentenced for his management 
of the slave war in that island, to Heraclea in 
Lucania, in which town Archias was em'oUed 
as a citizen ; and as this town was a state 
united with Rome by afoedus, he subsequently 
obtained the Roman franchise in accordance 
with the Lex Plautia Papiria passed in b.c. 89. 
At a later time he accompanied L. Lucullus 
the younger to the Mithridatic war. Soon after 
his return, a charge was brought against him in 
61 of assuming the citizenship illegally, and the 
trial came on before Q. Cicero, who was praetor 
this year. He was defended by his friend M. 
Cicero in the extant speech Pro Arcltia, in 
which the orator, after briefly discussing the 
legal points of the case, rests the defence of 
his client upon his surpassing merits as a poet, 
which entitled him to the Roman citizenship. 
We may presume that Archias was acquitted, 
though we have no formal statement of the fact. 
Archias wrote a poem on the Cimbric ivar in 
honour of Marius ; anotlier on the Mithridatic 
wn^ in honour of Lucullus; and at the time of 
his trial was engaged on a poem in honour of 
Cicero's consulship. No fragments of these 
works are extant ; and it is doubtful whether 
the epigrams preserved under the name of 
Archias in the Greek Anthology were really 
writton by him. {C\c. pro Arch., ad Aft. i. 16 ; 
Quintil. x". 7, 19.) , ^ 

Arohidamus ('Ap-xiSanos), the name of 5 
kino-s of Sparta. 1. Son of Anaxidanuis. con- 
teinporary with the Tegeatan war, which fol- 



ARCHIGBNES 

lowed soon after the second Messenian, B.C. 008 
(Paus. iii. 7, 0).— 2. Son of Zeuxidamus, suc- 
ceeded his grandfather Leotychides, and reigned 
B c 469-427. During his reign, B.C. 464, Sparta 
•was made a heap of ruins by a tremendous 
earthquake ; and for the next 10 years he was 
en^a^ed in war against the revolted Helots and 
Messeuians. Towards the end of his reign the 
Peloponnesian war broke out : he recommended 
his countrymen not rashly to embark in the 
war, and he appeoj-s to have taken a more 
correct view of the real strength of Athens than 
any other Spartan. After the war had been 
declared (b.c. 431) he invaded Attica, and held 
the supreme command of the Peloponnesian 
forces till liis death in 429. (Hdt. vi. 71 ; Thuc. 
i.-iii. ; Diod. xi. 63 ; Paus. iii. 7.)— 3. Grandson 
of No. 2, and son of AgesUaus 11., reigned B.C. 
861-338. During the lifetime of his father he 
took an active part in resisting the Thebans 
and the various other enemies of Sparta, and 
in 867 he defeated the Arcadians and Argivesin 
the ' Tearless Battle," so called because he had 
won it without losing a man. In 862 he de- 
fended Sparta against Epaminondas. In the 
third Sacred war (b.c 356-346) he assisted the 
Phocians. In 838 he went to Italy to aid the 
TarentLnes against the Lucanians, and there 
fell in battle. (Xen. Hell. v. 4, vii. l-o ; Diod. 
XV., xvi. ; Strab. p. 280.) — 4, Grandson of No. 3, 
and son of Eudamidas I., was king in B.C. 296, 
when he was defeated by Demetrius Poliorcetes 
(Plut. Demetr. 35). — 5. Son of Eudamidas II., 
and the brother of Agis IV. On the murder of 
Agis, in B.C. 240, Archidomus fled from Sparta, 
but afterwards obtained the tlirone by means 
of Aratus. He was, however, slain almost im- 
mediately after his return to Sparta. He was 
the last king of the Eurypontid race. (Plut. 
Cleom. 1, 5 ; Polyb. v. 37, viii. 1.) 

ArcMgenes ('Apx'7f'''7s)> eminent Greek 
phj-sician, born at Apamea in Syria, practised 
at Rome in the time of Trajan, a.d. 98-117. 
He published a treatise on the pulse, on which 
Gralen wrote a Commentary. It seems to be 
founded on preconceived theory rather than 
practical observation. He was the most eminent 
physician of the sect of the Ecleotici, and is 
mentioned by Juvenal as well as by other 
writers. Only a few fragments of his works 
remain. (Juv. vi. 236, xiii. 98, xiv. 252.) 

ArcMlocllUS ('Apxi'Aoxos), of Paros, was one 
of the earliest Ionian lyric poets, and the first 
Greek poet who composed Iambic verses accord- 
ing to fixed rules. He lived about b.c. 720-676. 
He was descended from a noble family, who 
held the priesthood in Paros. His grandfather 
was Tellis, his father Telesicles, and his mother 
a slave named Enipo. In the flower of his age 
(between b.c. 710 and 700), Arohilochus went 
from Paros to Thasos with a colony, of which 
one account makes him the leader. The motive 
for this emigration can only be conjectured. It 
was most probably the result of a political 
change, to which cause was added, in the case 
of Archilochus, a sense of personal wrong. He 
had been a suitor to Neobule, one of the 
daughters of Lycambes, who first promised and 
afterwards refused to give liis daughter to the 
poet. Enraged at tliis treatment, Arcliilochus 
attacked the whole family in an iambic poem, 

Iv.^'"^ Lycambes of perj ury , and his daughters 
of the most abandoned lives. The verses were 
recited at the festival of Demeter, and produced 
such an effect that the daughters of Lycambes 
are said to Iiave hanged themselves through 
Shame (Hor. Epod. 0, 18). The bittei-ness which 



ARCHIMEDES 



101 




Archilochus. 



he expresses in his poems towards his native 
island seems to have arisen in part also from 
the low estimation in which lie was held, as 
bein" the son of a slave. Neither was he more 
happy at Thasos. He draws the most melan- 
choly picture of his adopted country, which he 
at length quitted in disgust. 
While at Thasos, he incurred 
the disgi-ace of losing liis 
shield in an engagement with 
the Thracians of the opposite 
continent; but, instead of 
being ashamed of the disas- 
ter, he recorded it in liis 
verse : not, however, because 
he felt himself to be a coward, 
but because he felt that his 
courage had been proved be- 
yond dispute, and he wished nijTfnnmrTtmmTmiir 
to express a cynical disap- 
probation of staying to be 
killed when there was no- 
thing to be gained by it. 
The feeling of Horace (if his case is real and 
not a mere copy of Axchilocluis) was dif- 
ferent, since he never professed to be a warrior 
by nature. At length he returned to Paros, 
and in a war between the Parians and the 
people of Naxos, he fell by the hand of a 
Naxian named Calondas or Corax. The force 
and originality of Arohilochus is vindicated by 
the Greek critics, who gave him a place in 
poetry beside Homer, Pindar, and Sophocles — 
perhaps as heading a fourth branch of poetiy 
(Longin. xiii. 3 ; Veil. Pat. i. 5 ; Diog. Laert. ix. 1 ; 
Cic. Orat. 1, 4). He shared with his contem- 
poraries, Thaletas and Terpander, in the honour 
of establishing lyric poetry throughout Greece. 
The invention of the elegy is ascribed to him, 
as weU as to Callinus ; but it was on his satiric 
Iambic poetry that his fame was founded. His 
Iambics expressed the strongest feelings in the 
most unmeasured language. The licence of 
Ionian democracy and the bitterness of a dis- 
appointed man were united with the highest 
degree of poetical power to give them force and 
point. The emotion accounted most con- 
spicuous in his verses was ' rage ' — ' Arcliilochum 
proprio rabies armavit iambo ' (Hor. Ar. Poet. 
79). — The fragments of Archilochus are collected 
in Bergk's Poet. Lyrici Grace. 1867, and by 
Liebel, Archilochi Meliquiae, Lips. 1812, 8vo. 

Archimedes ('ApxiMr/STjj), of Syracuse, the 
most famous of ancient mathematicians, was 
bom B.C. 287. He was a friend, and according 
to Plutarch a kinsman, of Hiero, though his 
actual condition in life does not seem to have 
been elevated. In the early part of his life he 
travelled into Egypt, where he studied under 
Conon the Samian, a mathematician and as- 
tronomer. After visiting other countries, he 
returned to Syracuse (Diod. v. 37). Here he 
constructed for Hiero various engines of war, 
which, many years afterwards, were so for 
effectual in the defence of Syracuse against 
Marcellus as to convert the siege into a block- 
ade, and delay the taking of the city for a con- 
siderable time (Plut. Marcell. 14-^18 ; Polyb. 
viii. 5 ; Liv. xxiv. 34). The accounts of the 
performances of these engines are evidently 
exaggerated; and the story of tlie burning of 
the Roman ships by the reflected rays of the 
sun, though very current in later times, is 
probably a fiction : it is not recorded by Plut- 
arch, Polybius, or Livy ; the earliest witers 
who mention it are Galen {dc Temp. iii. 2) and 
Lucian (Hipp. 2, 2). It is described more pai-- 



102 ARCHINUS 
ticularly by Tzetzos [Chil. ii. 108 f.). He super- 
intended the building o£ a ship of extraordinary 
size for Hiero, of which a description is given 
m Athenaeus (p. 200 v), where he is also said 
to have moved it to the sea by the help of 
a screw. He invented a macliine called, from 
its form Coclea, and now known as the water- 
screw of Archimedes, for pumping the water 
out of the hold of this vessel (Vitr. x. 11 ; Diet. 
Ant. s.v. Coclea). Another celebrated proof of 
his genius was the construction of a sphere — a 
kind of orrery, representing the movements of 
the heavenly bodies (Cic. N. D. ii. 35, 88, 
Tusc. i. 25, 08; Ov. Fast. vi. 277; Claudian, 
Eji. 21). When Syracuse was- taken (b.c. 212), 
Arcliimedes was killed by the Roman soldiers, 
being at the time intent upon a mathematical 
problem (Liv. xxv. 31 ; Plut. Marc. 19 ; Val. 
Max. viii. 7 ; Cic. de Fm. v. 19, 50). Upon his 
tomb was placed the figure of a sphere inscribed 
in a cylinder. When Cicero was quaestor in 
Sicily (75) he found tliis tomb near one of the 
gates of the city, almost hid amongst briars, 
and forgotten by the Syracusans (Cic. Tusc. v. 
23, 6i). The intellect of Archimedes was of 
the very highest order. He possessed, in a 
degree never exceeded, unless by Newton, the 
inventive genius which discovers new provinces 
of inquiry, and finds new points of view for old 
and familiar objects ; the clearness of concep- 
tion which is essential to the resolution of 
complex phaenomena into their constituent 
elements ; and the power and habit of intense 
and persevering thought, without which other 
intellectual gifts are comparatively fruitless. 
The following works of Archimedes have come 
down to us: 1. On Equiponderants and Centres 
of Gravity. 2. The Quadrature of the Para- 
bola. 3. On the Sphere and Cylinder, i. On 
Dimension of the Circle. 5. On Spiirals. 6. On 
Conoids and Sjiheroids. 7. The Arenarius 
{& ^ajj-filTTis), in which he calculates the sphere 
of the stars, and shows that it is possible to 
note a number greater than that of the grains 
of sand which would fill it (04 figures in our 
notation is his estimate). His real point is to 
maintain that the power of notation is not 
limited, as his contemporaries thought. It is 
remarkable that he in some degree anticipated 
the invention of logarithms. 8. On Floating 
Bodies. 9. Lemmata. — Editions. Of his 
works, by Torelli, Oxon. 1792 ; of the Spirals, 
by C. Scherling, Liibeck, 1805 ; of the Dimen- 
sion of the Circle, by H. Menge, Coblenz, 1874. 
There is a French translation of his works, 
with notes, by F. Peyrard, Paris, 1808, and an 
English translation of the Arenarius by G. 
Anderson, London, 1784. 

Archinus ('Apx'i'os), one of the leading Athe- 
nians, who, -with. Tlu-asybulus and Anytus, over- 
threw the government of the Thirty, B.C. 403 
(Dem. c. Tim.]}. 742 ; Aeschin. c. Ctesiph. 01). 

ArcMppus {"Apxi'''"'''os),an Athenian poet of 
the Old Comedy, about u.c. 415. In liis play 
'IX^Gj, he seems to have followed Magnes (as 
Aristophanes does in the Birds) in introducing 
animals, for he has a chorus of fishes.— Fragm. 
in Meineke. 

Archytas {'Apxiras). 1. Of Amphissa, a 
Greek epic poet, flourished about B.C. 300 
(Athen. p. 82).— 2. Of Tarentum, a distinguished 
philosopher, mathematician, general, and states- 
man, probably lived about u.c. 400, and on- 
wards, so that he was contemporary with Plato, 
whose life he is said to have saved by his in- ' 
fluence with the tvrant Dionvsius (Tzetz. Chil. i 
X. 359, xi. 8G2 ; cf. Plut. Diun. 18). He was 7 : 



ARCTOS 

times the general of his city, and he commanded 
in several campaigns, in all of which he was 
viQtorious. Whether we are to beheve that 
he was drowned while upon a voyage in the 
Adriatic, depends on the inteiiiretation of Hor. 
Od. 1. 28. It is generally supposed that, if 
the drowned body is not that of Arcliytas, his 
tomb was on the shore near the spot where 
the body lay ; but we have no positive record 
of his death or the place of his burial. Our 
chief authority for the little known of liis life 
IS Diog. Laiirt. viii. 79-83 ; cf. Cic. de Sen. 12, 
89, Tusc. IV. 30, 78, de Bep. i. 88 ; Val. Max. 
iv. 1. As a philosopher, he belonged to the 
Pythagorean school, and through his genius 
and reputation raised the sect to something of 
its former influence in Magna Graecia, from 
which it finally declined as regards science soon 
after his death ; and the Pythagorean mysteries 
alone maintained their position. Like the 
Pythagoreans in general, he paid much atten- 
tion to mathematics. To his theoretical science 
he added the skill of a practical mechanician, 
and constructed various machines and auto- 
matons, among which his wooden flying dove 
in particular was the wonder of antiquity. He 
also applied mathematics with success to 
musical science, and even to metaphysical 
philosophy. His influence as a philosopher 
was so gi'eat, that Plato was undoubtedly in- 
debted to him for some of his views ; and 
Aristotle is thought by some ^vriters to have 
borrowed the idea of his categories, as well as 
some of his ethical principles, fi'om Archj'tas. 
When Horace calls him mensorem arenae, he 
implies, rightly or wi-ongly, that Archytas had 
pursued the calculations of Archimedes in the 

Arconnesus A.pK6vvr)<ros : 'ApKouirfja-ios). 1. 

An island off the coast of Ionia, near Lebedus, 
also called Aspis (Strab. p. 643.) — 2. {Orate 
Ada), an island off the coast of Caria, opposite 
Halicarnassus, of which it formed the harbour 
(Strab. p. 056 ; An-ian, i. 23). 

Arctinus ('Ap/cTri/os), ■ of Miletus, the most 
distinguished among the cyclic poets, probably 
lived about B.C. 776. Two epic poems were 
atti'ibuted to him. 1. The Aethiopis, which 
was a kind of continuation of Homer's lUad : 
its chief heroes were Memnon, king of the 
Ethiopians, and Achilles, who slew him, in 
vengeance for the slaughter of Antilochus. It 
narrates also the combat between the Greeks 
and Amazons, and the death of PenthesOea, 
and concludes with the death of Achilles, his 
funeral rites, and the contest for his arms. 
2. The Sack of Ilion {'IX'wv irfpffis), which con- 
tained a description of the destruction of Troy, 
and the subsequent events mitil the departure 
of the Greeks, with which the story of the 2nd 
Aeueid mainly agrees. The substance of these 
two epics of Arctinus are preserved by Proclus. 
Fragments in G. Kinkel, Ejnc. Grace. Fn 
1877 ; Kiickly, Corp. Ep. Graec. 
Arctophyiax. [Abctos.] 
Arctos ChpKTos), ' the Bear,' two constella- 
tions near the N. Pole. 1. The Gre.\t Beab 
{"ApKTos ixeyaXt) ■ Ursa Major), also called the 
Warigon (Hixa^a: jJ?ai(s/?-«m). The ancient 
Italian name of this constellation was Scpfeni 
Triones, that is, the Seven Ploughing Oxen, 
iilso SejHcntrio, and with the epithet Major to 
distinguish it fi-om the Septentrio Minor, or 
Lesser Bear : hence Virgil (.-10!. iii. 35(1) speaks 
of geminosque Triones. The Great Bear was 
also called Helicc {4kIkv) from its sweeping 
round in a cui-ve. — 2. The Lesseu or Little 



ABDALUS 

J Bear ("Apwroj /xiKpd : Ursa Minor), likewise 
! called tlie Waggon, was first added to the 
! Greek catalogues by Thales, by whom it was 
: probably imported from the East. It was also 
called Phoenice (^otvk-n), from the circum- 
f stance that it was selected by the Phoenicians 
as the guide by which they shaped their course 
at sea, the Greek mariners with less judgment 
I employing the Great Bear for the purpose ; and 
Cynosura {Vivv6crovpa), dog's tail, from the 
! resemblance of the constellation to the uptui-ned 
curl of a dog's tail. The constellation before 
the Great Bear was called Bootes (BooJtijs), 
Arctophylax {'KpKTO<pvKa^), or Arcturus 
{'ApKToSpos from oZpos, guard) ; the two latter 
names suppose the constellation to represent a 
man upon the watch, and deuote simply the 
position of the figure in reference to the Great 
Bear, while Bootes, which is found in Homer, 
refers to the Waggon, the imaginary figure of 
Bootes being fancied to occupy the place of the 
driver of the team. At a later time Arcto- 
phylax became the general name of the con- 
stellation, and the word Arcturus was confined 
to the chief star in it. All these constellations 
are connected in mythology ^vith the Arcadian 
nymph Callisto, the daughter of Lycaon, 
metamorphosed by Zeus ujion the earth into a 
she-bear. [See Arcas.] In the poets the 
epithets of these stars have constant reference 
to the family and country of Callisto : thus we 
find them called Lycaonis Arctos : Maniialia 
Arctos and Maenalia Ursa, (from M. Mi^^^ialus 
in Arcadia) : Erymantliis Ursa (from ftl 3ry- 
manthus in Arcadia) : Parrliasides stellae 
(from the Arcadian town PaiThasia). Though 
most traditions identified Bootes with Arcas, 
others pronounced him to be Icarus or his 
daughter Erigone. Hence the Septentriones 
are called Boves Icarii. (See Diet, of Antiq. 
s. V. Astronomia). 

Ardalus, son of Hephaestus, built at Troezen 
a temple to the Muses, where they were called 
locally 'ApSaKiai; said also to have invented the 
flute. (Paus. ii. 31, 4; Plut. de Mus. 5). 
Arcturus. [Arctos.] 

Ardea (Ardeas, -iitis : Ardea). 1. The chief 
town of the Eutuli in Latium, a little to the 
left of the river Numicus, 3 miles from the sea, 
was situated on a rock surrounded by marshes, 
in an unhealthy district (Strab. p. 231 ; Mart, 
iv. 80). It was one of the most ancient places 
in Italy, and was said to have been the capital 
of Turnus (Verg. Aen. vii. 410; Plin. iii. 56). 
It was one of the 30 cities of the Latin League, 
and was besieged by Tarquinius Superbus 
(Dionys. iv. 64, v. 61 ; Liv. i. 57). It was con- 
quered and colonised by the Eomans, B.C. 442, 
from which time its importance declined (Liv. 
iv. 11 ; Died. xii. 34 ; cf. Liv. v. 44, xxvii. 9 ; 
Vevg.Aen. vii. 413 ; Strab. p. 291 ; Juv. xii. 105). 
In its neighbourhood was the Latin Aphrodi- 
sium or temple of Venus, under the superin- 
tendence of Ai-deates. — 2. [ArdeMnl), an im- 
portant town in Persis, SW. of Persepolis. 

Arduenna Silva, the Ardennes, a vast forest, 
m the NW. of Gaul, extended from the Ehine 
tnd the Treviri to the Nervii and Remi, and N. 
as far as the Scheldt : there are still consider- 
able remains of this forest, though the greater 
part of it has disappeared (Caes. B. G. v. 8, vi. 
29, 33). There was a Celtic goddess of this 
name, whose attributes seem to have been akin 
to those of Artemis (C. I. L. vi. 46). 

Ardys {"ApSvs), son of Gyges, king of Lydia, 
reigned B.C. 078-629 : he took Priene and made 
war against Miletus (Hdt. i. 15 ; Paus. iv. 2i). 



ARES 108 

ArSa or Aretias CApeio or 'Apririas vTi<Tos, 
i.e. the island of Ares : Kerasunt Ada), also 
called Chalcerltis, an island oil the coast of 
Pontus, close to Pharnacea, celebrated in the 
legend of the Ai'gonauts (Ap. Ehod. ii. 384 ; 
Mel. ii. 7). 

Areittous {'Apri'cBoos), king of Ame in 
Boeotia, and husband of Philomedusa, is called 
in the Iliad (vii. 8) Kopvvi]ri)s, because he fought 
with a club : he fell by the hand of the Arca- 
dian Lycurgus (II. vii. 132 ; Paus. viii. 11, 3). 

Arelate, Arelas, or Arelatum (Arelatensis : 
Aries), a town in Gallia Narbonensis at the 
head of the delta of the Bhoue on the left 
bank, and a Roman colony founded by the 
soldiers of the sixth legion, Colonia Arelate 
Sextanorum. It is first mentioned by Caesar, 
and under the emperors it became one of the 
most flourishing towns on this side of the Alps. 
Constantino the Great built an extensive 
suburb on the right bank, which he connected 
with the city by a bridge. The Eoman remains 
at Aries attest the greatness of the ancient 
city : there are stiU to be seen an obelisk of 
granite, and the ruins of an aqueduct, theatre, 
amphitheatre, palace of Constantine, and a 
large Eoman cemetery. (Strab. p. 181 ; Blel. ii. 
5 ; Plin. iii. 36 ; Caes. B. G. i. 36, ii. 5 ; Auson. 
Urb. Nob. 8.) 

Aremorioa. [Armorica.] 

Arenacum (Arnheim or Aert ?), a town of 
the Batavi in Gallia Belgica (Tac. Hist. v. 20). 

Areopagus. [Atkenae.] 

Ares ("ApT/s), the Greek god of war, re- 
presented as the son of Zeus and Hera 
V. 890 ; Hes. Th. 922). Another tradition 
makes liis birth a parallel to that of Athene : 
he is bom from Hera alone, to whom a flower 
had been given by Flora (Ov. Fast, v. 229). 
But while Athene represents wisdom in war, 
Ares is described in Homer, who makes Eris 
his sister, as rejoicing in tumult and bloodshed, 
and a fickle partisan [aKKoTrpdcraXKos, II. v. 
889) : he helps the Trojans though lie had pro- 
mised aid to the Greeks [II. v. 832, xxi. 412). 
His character is not congenial to the Greek 
mind, certainly not to the spirit of Homer, and 
for that reason, and probably also because in 
spite of the parentage given him he is still to 
some degree felt to be a foreign Thracian god, 
we find him represented in undignified positions 
in the Iliad, and often overborne by the more 
ti-uly Greek deities. He is ignominiously 
driven from the field by Athene and Diomede 
(II. V. 776) ; again overcome by Athene (II. xxi. 
405), prevented by her from avenging his son 
Ascalaphus (II. xv. 125), liis son Cycnus (Hes. 
Sc. 455) : he was imprisoned for thirteen 
months by the Aloidae (II. v. 385), and made a 
laughing-stock to the gods (Ov. viii. 266), when 
the partner of his disgrace was Aplu-odite, her- 
self in many aspects a deity of alien origin. 
He fights oftenest on foot, but sometimes in a 
chariot (II. v. 356, xv. 119 ; Hes. Sc. 109, 191 ; 
Pind. Pyth. iv. 87). Quintus Smyrnaeus 
names liis four horses Aithon, Plilogios, Kona- 
bos, Phobos; in Homer he has two, and 
Deimos and Phobos are his sons, not his horses. 
As god of battles he has the epithet or surname 
"S.vv6.\ios in Homer (II. ii. 512, xiii. 518) : the 
name was probably used as a battle-cry (cf. 
Xen. Anab. i. 8, 18), and in later writers given 
to a separate deity [Enyalius.] The love of 
Ares for Aphrodite is noticed in the Iliad, and 
in various traditions Eros and Anteros, Deimas 
and Phobos, and Priapus are their children. 
According to the Tliebuu story he was the hus- 



104 



ARES 




Ares and Aphrodite. 
(Osterley, Denknuilei:) 



band of Aphrodite, and father by her of Har- 
inoma (Hes. Th. 087). In Homer Thrace is 
tlie home of Ares (//. xiii. 301, Od. viii. 861 ; 
cf. Hdt. V. 7 ; Soph. Ant. 970, O. li. I'M) ; but 
the most ancient seat of liis worship in Greece 
appears to have been Tliebes (Aesch. Th. 185), 
whence in the Ihad the 
walls of Thebes are 
called T(7xos "Apeiov 
(iv. 407), and he was the 
father of the dragon 
which Cadmus slew at 
the well of Ares (Paus. 
ix. 10, 5 ; C.U)irus). At 
Athens his temple was 
on the western slope of 
Areiopagus and con- 
tained statues of Aphro- 
dite, of Ares (by Alca- 
menes), of Athene, and 
Enyo (Paus. i. 8, 5). 
The Athenian story 
makes him marry the 
daughter of Erechtheus, 
and become the father 
of Alcippe ; as slayer 
of Halirrhothius, who 
assailed Alcippe, he was tried before the coun- 
cil of gods in the Areiopagus. [Halibrho- 
THTUS ; Diet. Ant. s. v. Areiajjagus.] It is clear 
that this story points to a period when his wor- 
ship was introduced as that of a separate deity. 
[For the Amazons, daughters of Ares, and their 
attack on Athens, see Amazones.] As regards 
the origin of Ares, some, from a theory that a 
war-god is not a primitive idea, suppose him to 
have been a storm-god or a light-god ; others 
with greater truth regard him as one of the 
Xdduiot Beol, working from the depths of the 
earth to produce on the one hand increase, on 
the other death and destruction : whence he 
became the god of war. It may be replied that 
it is difficult to conceive a primitive time to 
which war was not f amihar, and it is vain to 
inquire what deity was appealed to by primitive 
warring tribes. There must have been dif- 
ferent deities in different local religions whose 
worship was appropriated by Ares. The 
worship of "Aprjs a.<j)uei6s at Tyre and of "Aprjs 
yvvaiKoOoivas (Paus. viii. 44, 6 ; 48, 3) very 
likely points to an old nature-worship of a god 
of increase, as may also be suggested by his 
union with Aplirodite : on the other hand when 
we find "Aprjs tirwios honoured with 'A07)vri 
imrla at Olympia, and Ares receiving sacrifices 
of dogs at Therapnae, the inference is that he 
replaced for purposes of war a local animal- 
worship (Paus. iii. 20, 1 ; 14, 9; v. 15, 4). 
But that Ares mainly represents a worship 
of a god of the netherworld in various parts of 
Greece is liighly probable. As regards the 
earliest site of this worship there is every 
probability that the idea of Ares which pre- 
dominated in Greece was derived from Thrace, 
as is implied by Homer and Herodotus, and 
was adopted by Thebes and other states as a 
modification of their own worship. There may 
be fewer Tliraoian than Theban legends about 
Ares, but we know more about Thebes than 
Thrace. The Theban story seems to express 
the struggle between an ancient serpent-wor- 
ship with which Ares had become identified, 
perhaps through Thracian influence, and a new 
civilisation, probably at the time when the 
worship of Dionysus began to prevail. In older 
art Ares is represented as a fully armed, 
bearded warrior: in the 5th century from 



ARETE 

Plieidias onwards the type is that of a hand- 
some beardless youth, naked or nearly so, 




Ares. (Ludovisi Statue in Borne.) 

with a spear and sometimes a helmet : the 
bearded type reappears later. 

Arestor {'Apecmop), father of Argus, the 
guardian of lo, who is therefore called Are- 
storides. 

Aretaeus {'Ap^raios), the Cappadocian, one 
of the most celebrated of the ancient Greek 
physicians, probably lived in the reign of Ves- 
pasian. He wi'ote in Ionic Greek a general 
treatise on diseases in 8 books, which is still 
extant. He is noticeable for accuracy of dia- 
gnosis, and for a departure from the method of 
Hippocrates when he considered that the 
symptoms required it, in which he is supported 
by modem experience. — The best edition is by 
G. G. Kiihn, Lips. 1828. 

Aretas ('ApeVas), the name of several kings 
of Arabia Petraea. 1. A contemporary of 
Pompey, invaded Judaea in b.c. 65, in order to 
place Hyrcanus on the throne, but was driven 
back by the Romans, who espoused the cause of 
Aristobulus. His dominions were subsequently 
invaded by Scaurus, the lieutenant of Pompey. 
(Dio Cass, xxxvii. 15; Plut. Pomp. 39; Joseph 
Ant. xiv.) — 2. The father-in-law of Herod Anti- 
pas, invaded Judaea, because Herod had dis- 
missed the daughter of Aretas in consequence 
of his connexion with Herodias (Jos. Ant. 
xviii.). This Aretas seems to have been the 
prince who had possession of Damascus at the 
time of the conversion of the Apostle Paul, 
A.D. 31. 

Arete ('Ap^TTj). 1. Wife of Alcinous, king of 
the Phaeacians, received Ulysses with hospi- 
tality, and induced her people not to give up 
Medea to the emissaries of Aeetes [Od. vi. 305, 
vii. 66 ff. ; Ap. Rh. iv. 1010 ; Apollod. i. 9, 25). 
— 2. Daughter of the elder Dionysius and 
Aristomache, wife of Thearides, and after his 
death of her uncle Dion. After Dion had fled 
from Syracuse, Arete was compelled by her 
brother to marrj- Timocrates, one of his friends ; 
but she was again received by Dion as his wife 
when he had obtained possession of Syracuse 
and expelled the younger Dionysius. After 
the assassination of Dion in 358, she was 
drownied by his enemies. (Pint. Dion.; Ael. 
V. H. sii. 47, where Arete and Aristomache are 




AEETHUSA 

confu8ed.)-3. Daughter of Aristippus, the 
founder of the Cyrenaic school of philosophy, 
was instructed by hhn in the principles of his 
system, which she transmitted to her son the 
younger Aristippua (Diog. Laert. ii. 72). 

Arethusa {'Apeeovaa), one of the Nereids, 
and the nvmph of the famous fountain of Are- 
thusa m the 
island of Or- 
tygia near Sy- 
racuse. For 
details, see Al- 
PHEUS. Virgil 
{Eclog. iv. 1, X. 
1) reckons her 
among the Si- 
cilian nymphs, 
and as the di- 
vinity who in- 
spired pastoral 
poetry. The 
head of Are- 
thusa with her 
hair confined 
ill a net and 
surrounded by 
fishes, occurs 
in the coins 
of Syracuse. — 
There were se- 
veral other 
fountains in 
Greece which 
bore the name 
of Arethusa, of 
which the most 
important was 
Arethusa. Coin of Syracuse of the one in Itliaca, 
reign of Gelon, whose Olympic vie- Lebculo, 
tory is shown on the reverse. • ' 

and another m 

Euboea near Chalcis (Strab. p. 58 ; Eur. Iph. 
Aul. 170). 

Arethusa ('Apidovcra.: Er-Bestiin), a town 
and fortress on the Orontes, in Syria (Strab. 
p. 753 ; Appian, Syr. 57). For its history and 
govermneut see Emesa. 

Aretias. [Abea.] 

Aretium. [Arhetiuji.] 

Areus ('Apcus), two kings of Sparta. 1. Suc- 
ceeded his grandfather, Cleomenes II. (since 
his father Acrotatus had died before him), and 
reigned B.C. 309-265. He made several unsuc- 
cessful attempts to deliver Greece from the 
dominion of Ajitigonus Gonatas, and at length 
fell in battle against the Macedonians in 265, 
and was succeeded by his son Acrotatus (Justin, 
xxiv. 1; Plut. Pyrrh. 26-29; Paus. iii. 6; 
Diod. XX. 29). — 2. Grandson of No. 1, reigned 
as a child for 8 years under the guardianship of 
his uncle Leonidas II., who succeeded him about 
B.C. 256_(Plut. Ayis, 3^. 

Arevacae or Arevaci, the most powerful 
tribe of the Celtiberians in Spain, near the 
sources of the Tagus, derived their name from 
the river Areva [Arlanzo), a tributary of the 
Durius (Duero) (Strab. p. 162 ; Polyb. 'xxxv. 2 ; 
Appian.fffisp, 45; Plin. iii. 19, 27). 

Argaeus {'Apya^os). 1. King of Macedonia, 
son and successor of Perdiccas I., the founder 
of the dynasty.— 2. A pretender to the Mace- 
donian crown, dethroned Perdiccas II. and 
reiped 2 years (Diod. xiv. 92, xvi. 2). 

Argaeus Mons { 'Apyaws : Erdjish), a lofty 
snow-capped mountain nearly in the centre of 
Cappadocia ; an offset of the Anti-Taurus. At 
Its foot stood the celebrated city of Mazaca or 
Caesarea (Strab. p. 538). 



AEGONAUTAE 



105 



Arganthonius {'Apyavddpios), king of Tartes- 
Bus in Spain, in the Otli century B.C., is said to 
have reigned 80 years, and to have lived 120 
(Hdt. i. 168 ; Strab. p. 151 ; Lucian, Macroh. 10 ; 
Cic. de Sen. 19 ; Plin. vii. 154, who cites Ana- 
creon as making him live 150 years). 

Arganthonius or Arganthus Slons {rh 'Ap- 
yavdaviou upos : Katirli), a mountain in Bithy- 
nia, running out into the Propontis, fonning 
the Prom. Posidium (0. Bouz), and separating 
the bays of Cios and Astacus (Strab. p. 5G4j. 

Argennum or Arginum i^Apyevvov, 'Apyivov : 
C. Blanco), a promontory on the Ionian coast, 
opposite to Chios (Thuc. viii. 34). 

Argentarius Mons. 1. Monte Argeniaro,a, 
promontory of Etruria, where it is said there 
are traces of ancient silver mines. — 2. Part of 
M. Orospeda in southern Spain, the source of 
the river Baetis (Strab. p. 148). 

Argenteus, a small river in Gallia Narbo- 
nensis, which flows into the Mediterranean near 
Forum Julii (Cic. Fam. x. 34 ; Plin. iii. 85). 

Argentoratum or -tus (Strashurg), an im- 
portant town on the Bhine in Gallia Belgica, 
the head-quarters of the 8th legion, and a Roman 
municipium. In its neighbourhood Julian 
gained a brilliant victory over the AJemanni, 
A.D. 357. It was subsequently called Strate- 
bitrgum and Stratisburgum in the Notitia 
and Ravenna Geog. (Amm. Marc. xv. 11, 
xvi. 12 ; Zosim. iii. 3.) 

Arges, [Cyclopes.] 

Argia {'Apyeia), daughter of Adrastus and 
Amphitliea, and wife of Polj-iiices (ApoUod. i. 9 ; 
Diod. iv. 65). 

Argia {'Apyela). [Abgos.] 

Argiletum, a district in Rome, which exten- 
ded from the S. of the Quirinal to the Capito- 
line and the Forum. It was chiefly inhabited 
by mechanics and booksellers. The origin of 
the name is uncertain : the most obvious deri- 
vation is from argilla, ' potter's clay ; ' but the 
more common explanation in antiquity was 
Argi letum, ' death of Argus,' from a hero Argus 
who was buried there. (Varro, i.i. iv. 32; Cic. 
Att. xii. 82 ; Verg. Aen. viii. 345 ; Mart. i. 4.) 

ArgUuB {''ApyiXos : 'ApyiKios), a town in Bi- 
saltia, the E. part of Mygdonia in Macedonia, 
between Amphipolis and Bromiscus, a colony 
of Andros (Thuc. iv. 103, v. 6). 

Arginusae ('Apyivovtrai or ' Apyivov a a ai), 
3 small islands off the coast of Aeolis, opposite 
Mytilene in Lesbos, celebrated for the naval 
victory of the Athenians over the Lacedae- 
monians under Callicratidas, B.C. 406 (Strab. 
p. 617 ; Xen. Hell. i. 6.) 

Argiphontes i^Apyii<p6vTr]s), 'the slayer of 
Argus,' a surname of Hebjies. 

Argippaei f^Apynr-Koioi), a Scythian tribe in 
Sarmatia Asiatica, who appear, from the de- 
scription of them by Herodotus (iv. 23),ito have 
been of the Calmuck or Mongolian race. 

Argissa. [Aeguba.] 

Argithea, the chief town of Athamania in 
Epirus. 

Argiva, a surname of Hera or J uno. 
Argivi. [Abgos.] 
Argo. [Abgonautae.] 
Argolis. [Abgos.] 

Argonautae i^Apyovavrai), the Argonauts, 
' the sailors of the Argo,' were the heroes who 
sailed to Aea (afterwards called Colchis) for 
the purpose of fetching the golden fleece. The 
story of the Argonauts is variously related by 
the ancient writers, but the common tale ran as 
follows. Ill lolcus in Thessaly reigned Pelias, 
I who had deprived his half-brother Aeson of the 



■^"^ AEGONAUTAE 
Bovereignty. In order to get rid of Jason the 
son of Aeson, Pelias persuaded Jason to fetch 
tlie golden fleece, wliich was suspended on an 
oak-tree m the grove of Ares in Colchis, and 
was guarded day and night by a dragon. Jason 
willingly undertook the enterprise, and com- 
manded Ai-gus, the son of Phrixus, to build a 
ship with 50 oars; which was called Arrjo 
( Apyu) after the name of the builder. Jason 
was accompanied by all the great heroes of the 
age, and their number is said to have been 
50-00. (Pindar names only 11.) Among these 
were Heracles, Castor and Pollux, Zetes and 
Calais, the sons of Boreas, the singer Orpheus, 
the seer Mopsus, PhUammou, Tydeus, Theseus, 
Amphiaraus, Peleus, Nestor, Admetus, &c. Ac- 
cording to Hdt. iv. 179, Jason made a pre- 
hminary voyage round the Peloponnesus, wish- 
ing to get to Delphi by the Corinthian gulf, and 

was driven from Malea to Libya, where the Argo I Phasi 
went ashore at Lake Tritonis and was helped 
ofi by a Triton. Their start from lolcus for the 
real expedition is marked by the name 
Aphetae (Strab. p. 436; Hdt. vii. 193). After 
leaving lolcus they first landed 



Lemnos, 




Athene superintending the Building of the Argo (from a terra-cotta panel La 
British Museum). 

where they united themselves with the women 
of the island, who had just before murdered 
their fathers and husbands. From Lemnos 
they sailed to the Doliones at Cyzicus, where 
king Cyzicus received them hospitably. They 
left the country during the night, and being 
thrown back on the coast by a contrary wind, 
they were taken for Pelasgians, the enemies of 
the Doliones, and a struggle ensued, in which 
Cyzicus was slain ; but he was recognised by the 
Argonauts, who buried him and mourned over 
his fate. They next landed in Mysia, where 
they left behind Heracles and Polyiihemus, 
who had gone into the country in search of 
Hylas, whom a nymph had earned off while ho 
was fetching water for his companions. In the 
country of the Bebryces, king Amycus chal- 
lenged the Argonauts to fight with him ; and 
when Pollux had conquered him, the Argonauts 
aftei-wards slew many of the Bebiyces, and 
sailed to Salmydessus in Thrace, where the seer 
Phineus was tormented by the Hain^ies. When 
the Argonauts consulted him about their voyage 
he promised his advice on condition of their 
delivering hiiu from the Harpies. This was 
done by Zetes and Calais, wo sons of Boreas ; 



and PhineuB now advised them, before sailing 
tlurough the Symplegades, to mark the flight of 
a c|,5.vo and to judge from its fate what thev 
themselves would have to do. When they an- 
proached the Symplegades, they sent out a 
dove, which in its rapid flight between the 
rocks lost only the end of its tail. The Argo- 
nauts now, with the assistance of Hera, followed 
the example of the dove, sailed quickly between 
the rocks, and succeeded in passing without 
mjury to their ship, with the exception of some 
ornaments at the stern. Henceforth the Sym- 
plegades stood immoveable in the sea. On 
then- arrival at the Mariandyni, the Argonauts 
were kindly received by their king, Lycus. 
The seer Idmon and the heknsman Tiphis died 
here, and the place of the latter was supplied 
by Anoaeus. They now sailed along the coast 
until they arrived at the mouth of the river 
is. The Colchian king Aeetes promised 
to give up the golden fleece, if Jason alone 
would yoke to a plough two fire-breatliing oxen 
with brazen feet, and sow the teeth of the 
di-agon which had not been used by Cadmus at 
Thebes, and which he had received from Athene. 

The love of Medea fur- 
nished Jason with 
means to resist fire 
and steel, on condition 
of his takmg her as his 
wife; and she taught 
him how he was to kiU 
the warriors that were 
to spring up from the 
teeth of the dragon. 
While Jason was en- 
gaged upon his task, 
Aeetes formed plans 
for bmniing the ship 
Argo and for kUling aU 
the Greek heroes. But 
Medea's magic powers 
sent to sleep the dra- 
gon who guarded the 
golden fleece ; and 
after Jason had taken 
possession of the trea- 
sm'e, he and his Argo- 
nauts, together with 
Bledea and her young 
brother Absyrtus, em- 
barked by night and sailed away. Aeiites 
piu'sued them, but before he overtook them, 
Bledea murdered her brother, cut him into 
pieces, and threw his limbs overboard, that her 
father might be detained in liis pursuit by 
collecting the limbs of his child. Aeetes at 
last retm'ned home, but sent out a gi-eat num- 
ber of Colchians, threatening them with the 
punishment intended for Medea if they re- 
turned without her. Wliile the Colchians were 
dispersed in all directions, the Argonauts had 
already reached the mouth of the river Eridanus. 
But Zeus, angry at the murder of Absyrtus, 
raised a storm which cast the sliip from its 
course. Wlien driven on tiie -\bsyrtian islands, 
the ship began to speak, and declared that the 
anger of Zeus would not cease unless they sailed 
towards Ausonia and were purified by Circe. 
They now sailed along the coasts of the Ligj-ans 
and Celts, and through the sea of Sardinia, and 
continuing their course along the coast of 
Tyrrhenia, they arrived in the island of Aeaea, 
where Circe purified them. When they were 
passing by the Sirens, Orpheus sang to prevent 
the Argonauts being allured by them. Butes, 
however, swam to them, but Aplu-odite carried 



AEGOS 

him to Lilybaeiun. Thetis and the Nereids 
conducted them through Scylla and Charybdis 

and between the whirUng rocks (TTCTpai TAoy/c- , - . _ ^ „■ - i ^ t ti 
Toi); and sailing by the Tlirinacian isUxud w ith I or district ot Thessaly, and of the 
its oxen of HeliSs, they came to the Phaeacian j Argos {II. 'X. 141; Od. lu.^ 251). J^J^ 
island of Corcyra, where they were received by ' 
Alcinous. In the meantime, some of the Col- 
chiaiis, not being able to discover the Argonauts, 
had settled at the foot of the Cerauiiian moun- 
tains; others occupied the Absyi-tian islands 
near the coast of Illyricum ; and a third band 
overtook the Argonauts in the island of the 
Phaeacians. But as their hopes of recovering 
Medea were deceived by Arete, the queen of 
Alcinous, they settled in the island, and the 
Argonauts continued their voyage. During the 
night they were overtaken by a storm; but 
Apollo sent brilhant flashes of lightning which' 
enabled them to discover a neighboui-ing island, 
which they called Aiiaphe. [According to one 
account, in the Pseudo-Orpheus, the stranding 
of the sliip in the Syrtes, and its reaching Lake 
Tritonis, comes in here on the return voyage.] 
Here they erected an altar to Apollo, and 
solemn rites were instituted, which continued 
to be observed down to very late times. Their 
attempt to laud in Crete was prevented by 
Talus, who guarded the island, but was killed 
by the artiUces of Medea. From Crete they 
sailed to Aegina, and from thence between 
Euboea and Locris to lolcus. Eespecting the 
events subsequent to their arrival in lolcus, 
see Aeson, Medea, Jason, Pelias. (Apoll. Kb. 
Aryonautica ; ApoUod. i. 9, 16-26 ; Pind. Pyth. 
iv. 171 ; Valer. Flacc. Argon.) Strabo notices 
the local traditions in his account of each place 
at which the Argo is supposed to have touched. 
It is clear that the story was already a subject 
for i)oets at any rate in the later Homeric age ; 
for the Argo is Tracri fi4\ou(ra. in Od. xii. 70 ; 
Jason is her captain, and she passes through 
rocks like the SjTiiplegades. In the Iliad there 
are traces of a local tradition about Jason at 
Lemnos (II. vii. 467, xxi. 40) ; but no apparent 
knowledge of the Argo or of Jason's voyages. 
The story of the Argonauts is by many \\Titei'S 
construed as a sun myth, expressing either 
sunset and sunrise or a drawing of clouds by 
the sun in various directions at various times 
of the year. No doubt the idea of the golden 
fleece in an Eastern land may have been in some 
degree suggested by the sun's rays ; but the 
main drift of the myth is to express the idea of 
the earliest sea voyage. In different places 
there were local traditions of the earliest sea- 
farers, and these have become a more or less 
connected story attached to the name of Jason, 
who, with his band of heroes, sets out on a 
search which some modern %vi-iters have com- 
pared to the search after the Holy Grail. It is 
natural that the mythical king of the Eastern 
land should appear as the child of the sun. In 
ancient art the most famous representations 
(which have perished) were the sculptures of 
Lysippus (Plin. xxxiv. 79), the paintings of 
Micon in the temple of the Dioscm-i at Athens 
(Pans. i. 18), those of Cydias (Plin. xxxv. 180), 
and those on the portico of Neptune (Juv. vi. 
153 ; Mart. ii. 14). The Argonauts in Bithynia 
are shown on the Ficoroni Cista. One of the 
most remarkable of the vase-paintings on this 
subject is at Munich, showing Jason at the 
moment of taking the fleece from the custody 
ot the dragon, 
jj-'^gos (rb'Ap-yos, -foy), is said by Strabo (p. 
872) to have signified a plain in the language 
o£ the Macedonians and Thessalians, and it 



107 

may therefore contain the same root as the 
Latin word ayer. In Homer we find mention 
of the Pelasgio Argos {II. ii. 681), tluit is, a town 
" " ' Achaean 
which he 

means sometimes the whole Peloporuiesus, 
sometimes Agamemnon's kingdom of Argos of 
which Mycenae was the capital, and sometimes 
the town of Ai-gos. As Argos in Homeric times 
was the most important part of the Pelopon- 
nesus, and sometimes stood for the whole of 
it, so the 'Ap-i"=iO( often occur in Homer aa 
a name of th^ v.-hole body of the Greeks, in 
which sense the Boman poets also use Argivi. — 
1. Argos, a district of Peloponnesus, called 
Argolis {v 'ApyoX'is) by Herodotus (i. 82), but 
more frequently by other Greek writers either 
Argos, Argia [i] 'Apyda), or Argolice {fi 
'ApyoKiKii). Under the Eomans Argolis be- 
came the usual name of the country, while 
the word Argos or Argi was confined to the 
town. Argolis under the Eomans signified the 
country bounded on the N. by the Corinthian 
territory, on the W. by Arcadia, on the S. by 
Laconia, and included towards the E. the whole 
Aote or peninsula between the Saronic and 
Argolic gulfs : but during the time of Grecian 
independence Argolis or Argos did not include 
the ten-itories of Epidaurus, &c., on the E. and 
Sfi. coasts of the Acte, but only the country 
lying round the Argohc gulf, bounded on the 
W. by the Arcadian mountains, and separated 
on the N. by a range of mountains from Corinth, 
Cleonae, and Phlius. Argolis, as understood 
by the Eomans, was for the most part a moun- 
taLnous and unproductive country ; the whole 
eastern part is of a dry and thirsty soil, with 
few streams, the TroAvSi^piov "Apyos of II. iv. 171. 
The only extensive plain adapted for agriculture 
was in the ueighbourhoad of the city of Argos : 
tills was the koiKou "Apyos (Soph. 0. C. 378), 
and being well watered was famed as "Apyos 
'nrnSfiorov {li.ii.WT, Strab. p. 388). Its rivers 
were, however, small and often dry in summer : 
the most important was the Inachus. The 
country was divided into the districts of Argia 
or Argos proper, Bpidaubia, Teoezenia, and 
Heriuonis. The original inhabitants of the 
country were, according to mythology, the 
Cynurii ; but the main part of the population 
consisted of Pelasgi and Achaei, to whom 
Dorians were added after the conquest of 
Peloponnesus by the Dorians. The fame of 
the cities of Argolis, and their prosperity in early 
days, were greatly due to the favourable position 
of the country for maritime intercourse in the 
more timid period of navigators, when the 
peculiar facility which vessels had for sailing 
tlurough a chain of sheltering islands SE. to 
Crete, Cyprus, and Egypt, E. to Ephesus or 
Miletus, and N. by Euboea to Thessaly, &c., 
gave the settlements at Mycenae, Tiryns, or 
Argos a start in the commerce before the Cth 
century B.C. — 2. Argos, or Argi, -orum, in the 
Latin writers, now Argo, the capital of Argolis, 
and, next to Sparta, the most important town 
in Peloponnesus, situated in a level plain a 
little to the W. of the Inachus. It had an 
ancient Pelasgic citadel, called Larissa, and 
another built subsequently on another height 
{duas arccs hahcnt Argi, Liv. xxxiv. 25). Ifc 
possessed numerous temples, and was par- 
ticularly celebrated for the worship of Hera 
whose great temple, Heraeum, lay between 
Argos and Mycenae. The remains of the Cy- 
clopean walls of Argos are still to be seen. It 
IS the natural centre of the plain, and probably 



108 ARGOS 
existed as early as any other Argolic city, 
though not at first the most powerful. The 
city is said to have been built by Inachus or 
his son Phoroneus, or grandson Argus. The 
descendants of Inachus, who may be regarded 
as the Pelasgian kings, reigned over the country 
for 9 generations, but were at length deprived 
of the sovereignty by Danaus, who is said to 
have come from Egypt. This story, like the 
similarity of lo and Isis, points to an early con- 
nexion with Egypt, though how early is a 
doubtful question. [See Aegyptus.] The de- 
scendants of Danaus were in tlieir time obliged 
to submit to the Achaean race of the Pelopidae. 
Under the rule of the Pelopidae Mycenae be- 
came the capital of the kingdom, and Argos 
was a dependent state. Thus Mycenae was 
the royal residence of Atreus and of liis son 
Agamemnon; but under Orestes Argos was 
referred. Upon the conquest of Peloponnesus 
y the Dorians, Argos fell to the share of 
Temenus, whose descendants ruled over the 
country ; but the great bulk of the population 
continued to be Achaean, and the existence of 
a fourth tribe at Argos (the Hyrnethian) pro- 
bably points to the inclusion of a part of the 
old inhabitants in the citizenship. "With the 
Dorian conquest the supremacy of Mycenae in 
Argolis ceased, and Argos thenceforth Ibecame 
the leading city. All these events belong to 
mythologv ; and Argos first appears in history 




Argos in Peloponnesus. 
Obc, head of Hera ; rcr., dolphins and hound. 



about B.C. 750, as the cliief state of Pelopon- 
nesus, under its ruler Phtdon. The successors 
of Temenus appear as Cisus, Medon, Thestius, 
Merops, Aristodanidas, Bratus, Phidon (Pans, 
ii. 19). After the time of Phidon its power 
declined, being greatly weakened by its wars 
with Sparta. The two states long contended 
for the district of Cynuria, wliich lay between 
Argolis and Laconia, and which the Spartans 
at length obtained by the victory of their 
300 champions, about B.C. 550. In B.C. 524 
Cleomenes, the Spartan king, defeated the 
Argives with such loss near Tiryns, that Sparta 
■was left without a rival in Peloponnesus. In 
the north also, after B.C. 600, the power of 
Periander of Coi'inth, and Cleisthenes of Sicyon, 
exceeded that of Argos, nor did she regain her 
hegemony. In consequence of its weakness 
and of its jealousy of Sparta, Argos took no 
part in the Persian war. In order to strengthen 
itself, Argos attacked the neighbouring towns 
of Tiryns, Mycenae, &c., destroyed them, and 
transplanted their inhabitants to Argos. The 
introduction of so many new citizens was fol- 
lowed by the abolition of royalty and of Doric 
institutions, and by the establishment of a 
democracy, which continued to be the form of 
government till later times, when the city fell 
under the power of tyrants. In the Pelopon- 
nesian war Argos sided with Athens against 
Sparta. In n.c. 213 it joined the Achaean 
League, and on the conquest of the latter by 
the Romans, 146, it became a part of the Roman 



ARIABIGNES 
province of Achaia. At any early time Argos 
was distinguished by its cultivation of music 
andpoetry [Sacadas ; Telesilla] ; but at the 
timS of tlie intellectual greatness of Athens, 
literature and science seem to have been en- 
tirely neglected at Argos. It produced some 
great sculptors, of whom Ageladas and Polv- 
CLETUS are the most celebrated. It must not 
be forgotten that Argolis, in its extended sense, 
was especially a land of great religious festivals : 
the Nemea at Cleonae, that of Apollo Lycaeus 
at Argos, the Heraca at the temple of Hera, 
near Mycenae, those of Asclepius at Epidaurus, 
the Cthonia of Demeter at Hermione. [See 
Diet. Ant. S.W.J 

Argos AmphilocMcumCApvoy rh 'AfupiXoxt- 
k6v), the chief town of Amphilocliia in Acar- 
nania, situated on the Ambracian gulf, and 
founded by the Argive Amphilochus (Thuc. 
ii. 68 ; Strab. p. 325). 

Argos Hippium. [Aepi.] 

Argous Portus {Porto Ferraio), a town and 
harbour in the island of Ilva [Elba). 

Argura i^Pipyovpa), a to\ra in Pelasgiotis in 
Thessaly, called Argissa by Homer (27. ii. 738). 

Argus ["Kpyos). 1. Son of Zeus and Niobe, 
3rd king of Argos, from whom Argos derived its 
name (ApoUod. ii. 1 ; Pans. ii. 16). — 2. Sur- 
named Panoptes, ' the all-seeing,' because he 
had a hundred eyes, son of Agenor, Arestor, 
Inachus, or Argus. Hera appointed hun guar- 
dian of the cow into which lo had been meta- 
morphosed ; but Hermes, at the command of 
Zeus, put Argus to death, either by stoning him, 
or by cutting off his head after sending him 
to sleep by the sweet notes of his flute. Hera 
transplanted his eyes to the tail of the peacock, 
her favourite bird (ApoUod. ii. 1 ; Ov. Met. i. 
264 ; Aesch. Pr. 569 ; Blosch. ii. 58). Many 
have seen in the story a reference to the starry 
' eyes ' of the sky. — 3. The builder of the Argo, 
son of Phrixus, Arestor, or Polybus, was sent 
by Aeetes, his grandfather, after the death of 
Phrixus, to take possession of his inheritance in 
Greece. On his voyage tliither he suffered 
sliipwreck, was found by Jason in the island of 
Aretias, and carried back to Colcliis. (Ap. Rh. 
ii. 1095 ; ApoUod. ii. 9.) 

Argyra ('Ap7upa), a town in Achaia near Pa- 
trae, with a fountain of the same name. 

Argyripa. [Arpi.] 

Aria ('Apei'a, 'Apia : "Apeios, "Apior : the E. 
part of Khorassan, and the W. and NW. part 
of Afghanistan), the most important of the E. 
provinces of the ancient Persian Empire, was 
bounded on the E. by the Pai'opamisadae, on 
the N. by Margiana and Hyrcania, on the W. 
by Parthia, and on the S. by the great desert of 
Carmania. ' It was a vast plain, bordered on 
the N. and E. by mountains, and on the W. and 
S. by sandy deserts; and, though forming a 
part of the great sandy tableland, now called 
the Desert of Iran, it contained several vei-y 
fertile oases, especially in its N. part, along the 
base of the Sarlphi [Kohistan and HasaraJi) 
mountains, which was watered by the river 
Arius or -as [Herirood], on which stood the 
later capital Alexandria {Herat). The river is 
lost in the sand. The lower course of the great 
river Etymandbus {Hehnnnd) also belonged to 
Aria, and the lake into which it falls was called 
Aria lacus {Zurrali). From Aria was derived 
the name under which all the E. provinces were 
included. [Abiana.] 

Aria Laous, [Aria.] 

Ariabignes {'Kpta&iymis), son of Darius Hys- 
taspis, one of the commanders of the fleet of 



1 



AEIADNE 

Xerxes, fell in the buttle of Salamis, B.C. 480. 
(Hdt. v'ii. 97, viii. «9.) 

Ariadne ('ApiaSvTj), daughter of Mmos and 
Fasiphae or Creta, fell in love with Theseus, 
when he was sent by his father to convey the 
tribute of the Athenians to Minotaurus, and 
gave him the clue of tlu-ead by means of which 
he found liis way out of the Labyrinth, and 
which she herself had received from Hephaes- 
tus. Theseus in return promised to marry her, 
and she accordingly left Crete with him ; but 
on their arrival in the island of Dia (Naxos), 
she was killed by Artemis. This is the Homeric 
account {Od. xi. 322) ; but the more conmion 
tradition, to mitigate the pei-fidy of Theseus, 
related that Theseus left Ariadne in Naxos 
alive, either because he was forced by Dionysus 
to leave her, or because he was ashamed to 
bring a foreign wife to Athens, or because he 
was can'ied away by a storm (Plut. Ikes. 20 ; 
Diod. iv. 61 ; Paus. i. 20). Dionysus found her 
at Naxos, made her his wife, and placed among 
the stars the crown which he gave her at their 
marriage (Ov. Met. viii. 181, Fast. iii. 459; 
Hyg. Ast. 2, 5). There is no doubt that we 
have in Ariadne the story of various local 
nature-goddesses in the islands of Crete, Naxos 
and Delos, nearly akin to and in some aspects 
identified with Aplu-odite ; whence the story of 
the wooden statue of Aphrodite by Daedalus 
left at Delos by Ariadne (Paus. ix. 40, 3 ; 
Callim. Hymn. Del. 308) : tliis was honom-ed 
with a Cretan labyrinth dance (Plut. I.e.). In 
Cj-prus also there was the tomb of Ariadne in 
the grove sacred to Ariadne-Aphrodite. The 
twofold aspect in Naxos of Ariadne the 
mourner, deserted by Theseus, and Ariadice 
the joyful bride of Dionysus, presents the ides 
of the earth abandoned by its flowers and 
fruits in winter, and renewing its gaiety in 
spring. The same was probably the meaning 
of the (ru/X;Ui|is t^j Aiovvcrcp Kal i ydfios in 
Aristot. 'A6ijv. ttoAit. ch. 3. Similarly in Italy, 
Ariadne becomes Libera the bride of Liber. 

Ariaeus ('Apiaios), or Aridaeus {'ApiSaTos), 
the friend of Cyrus, commanded the left wing 
of the army at the battle of Cunaxa, B. C. 401 
(Xen. An. i. 8 ; Diod. xiv. 22). After the death 
of Cyrus he first joined the Greeks, but after- 
wards obtained the pardon of Artaxerxes by 
abandoning them and aiding Tissaphernes to 
destroy the Greek generals (Xen. An. ii. ; 
Plut. Artax. 18). We hear afterwards of his 
being employed to put Tissaphernes to death, 
and again of liis revolting from Artaxerxes in 
89.5 (Polyaen. viii. 16 ; Diod. xiv. 80 ; Xen. 
Eel!._ iv. 1, 27). 

Arianmes {'Aptdfxvris), the name of two kings 
of Cappadocia, one the father of Ariarathes I., 
and the other the son and successor of Ariara- 
thes n. 

Ariana {'Apiavfj : Iran), derived from Aeia, 
from the specific sense of which it must be care- 
fully distinguished, was the general name of 
the E. provinces of the ancient Persian Empire, 
and included the ijortion of Asia bounded on 
the W. by an imaginary line drawn from the 
Caspian to the mouth of the Persian Gulf, on 
the S. by the Indian Ocean, on the E. by the 
Indus, and on the N. by the great chain of 
mountains called by the general name of the 
Indian Caucasus, embracing the provinces of 
Parthia, Aria, the Paropamisadae, Arachosia, 
Drangiana, Gedrosia, and Carmania {Khora.s- 
S(m, Afghanistan, Boloochistan, and Kirinan). 
But the name was often extended to the 
country as far W. as the margin of the Tigria- 



AELA.SPAE 109 

valley, so as to include Media and Persia, and 
also to the provinces N. of the Indian Caucasus, 
namely Bactria and Sogdiana [Bokhara). The 
knowledge of the ancients respecting the 
greater part of this region was confined to what 
was picked up in the expeditions of Alexander 
and the wars of the Greek kings of Syria, and 
what was learned from merchant caravans. 
(Strab. pp. 688, 696, 720 fif. ; Plin. vi. 93.) 

Ariarathes ('ApiapaflTjs), the name of several 
kings of Cappadocia. — 1. Sor. of Ariamues I., , 
assisted Ochus in the recovery of Egypt, B.C. ; 
350. Ariarathes was defeated by Perdiccas, and 
crucified, 322. Eunieues then obtained posses- 
sion of Cappadocia (Diod. xviii. 16, xxxi. 3 ; 
Plut. Bum. 3). — 2. Sou of Holopbemes, and 
nephew of Ariarathes I., recovered Cappadocia 
after the death of Eumenes, e.g. 315. He was 
succeeded by Ariamnes 11. (Diod. xxxi. 28).— I 
3. Son of Ariamnes II., and grandson of No. 2, 
married Stratonlce, daughter of Antiochus II., 
king of Syria. — 4. Son of No. 3, reigned b. c. 
220-162. He married Antiochis, the daughter ; 
of Antiochus IH., king of Syria, and assisted 
Antiochus in his war against the Bomans. 
After the defeat of Antiochus, Ai-iarathes sued ' 
for peace in 188, which he obtained on favour- ■ 
able terms. In 188-179, he assisted Eumenes i 
in his war against Pharnaces. (Liv. xxxvii. 31, i 
xxxviii. 38; Polyb. xxii. 24, xxxi. 12-14.)— 5. j 
Son of No. 4, reigned B.C. 168-180. He was 
surnamed Philopator, and was distinguished by 1 
the excellence of his character and liis cultiva- ' 
tion of philosophy and the liberal arts, having j 
been educated at Eome (Liv. xli. 19). He • 
assisted the Eomans in their war against j 
Aristonious of Pergamus, and fell in this war, 
180 (Justin. XXXV. i. ; Polyb. xxxii. 20, xxxiii, 
12).— 6. Son of No. 5, reigned b. c. 130-96. He 
married Laodice, sister of Mitlmdates VI., king J 
of Pontus, and was put to death by Mithridatea j 
by means of Gordius. On his death the king- 
dom was seized by Nicomedes, king of Bithynia, I 
who married Laodice, the widow of the late ' 
king. But Nicomedes was soon expelled by I 
Mithridates, who placed upon the tlrrone 1 
(Justin, xxxvii. 1, xxxviii. 1) — 7. Son of No. 6. j 
He was, however, also murdered by Mitlu-i- j 
dates, in a short time, who now took possession | 
of his kingdom. The Cappadocians rebelled 
against Mitlu-idatea, and placed upon the ] 
throne — 8. Second son of No. 6 ; but he was \ 
speedily driven out of the kingdom by Mith- 
ridates, and shortly afterwards died. Both ' 
Mithridates and Nicomedes attempted to give a j 
king to the Cappadocians; but the Romans I 
allowed the people to choose whom they i 
pleased, and their choice fell upon Ariobar- ' 
zanes (Justin, I.e. ; Strab. p. 540). — 9. Son of Ari- | 
obarzanes II. went to Bome to seek Caesar's 
support B.C. 45 ; got the tlurone after Philippi, 
and reigned b.c. 42-36. He was deposed and 
put to death by Antony, who appointed Arclie- 
laus as his successor. (Appian, B. C v. 7 ; Dio 
Cass. xlix. 32 ; Cic. Fam. xv. 2, Att. xiii. 2.) 

Ariaspae or Agriaspae ('Apiao-irai, 'A7piao-7rai), 
a people in the S. part of the Persian jirovince 
of Drangiana, on the very borders of Gedrosia, \ 
with a capital city, Ariaspe ('ApiatrTTT)). In 
return for the services which they rendered to ' 
the army of Cyrus the Great, when he marched 
through the desert of Carmania, they were I 
honoured with the name of Eiiep76'Tai and 
were allowed by the Persians to retain' their ■ 
independence, which was confirmed to tlieni by 
Alexander as the reward of similar services to ' 
himself. (Arriau, iii. 27, 37 ; Curt. vii. 3.) 



( 



110 ARICIA 

Aricia (Aricinus ; Ariccia or Biocia), an 
ancient town of Latium at the foot of the Alban 
Mount, on the Appian Way, IG miles from 
Rome. It was a member of the Latin con- 
federacy, was subdued by the Romans, with the 
other Latin towns, in B.C. 888, and received the 
Roman franchise (Liv. viii. 11). In its neigh- 
bourhood was the celebrated grove and tomxjle 
of Diima Ariclna, on the borders of the Lacus 
Nemorensis (Nemi). [See Diana, and Diet. Ant. 
8. V. JRex Ne}iwre7isis7] 

Arioonium {Weston), in Herefordshire, be- 
tween Blestum (MonvioiUh) and Glevum 
(Gloucoster), oni\\e road leading from Silchester 
to Caerleon. 

Aridaeus. [AniAEus; Abbhtdaeus.] 

Arii. [AniA.] 

Arimaspi {'Aptfj.acrTroi), a people in the N. of 
Scythia, of whom a fabulous account is given 
by Herodotus (iv. 27). The germ of the fable is 
perhaps to be recognised in the fact that the 
Ural Mountains abound in gold. 

Arimazes {'AptfidCvs) or Ariomazes ('Apio- 
uaf»)s), a chief in Sogdiana, whose fortress was 
taken by Alexander in B.C. 328. In it Alex- 
ander found Roxana (the daughter of the 
Bactrian chief, Oxyartes), whom he made his 
wife. Curtius states that Alexander crucified 
Arimazes ; but this is not mentioned by Arrian 
or Polyaenus. (Arrian, iv. 19 ; Curt. vii. 11 ; 
Polyaen. iv. 3.) 

Arimi CApi/xoi) and Arlma (to "Apt/xa sc. up??), 
the names of a mythical people, district, and 
range of mountains in Asia Minor, which the 
old Greek poets made the scene of the punish- 
ment of the monster Typhosus. Virgil {Aen. 
ix. 710) has misunderstood the eiV 'Aptfiois of 
Homer (II. ii. 783), and made Typhoeus lie 
beneath Lnarune, an island off the coast of 
Italy — namely, Pitheousa or Aenaria [Ischia). 

Ariminum (Ariminensis : Ilimini), a town in 
Umbria on the coast at the mouth of the little 
river Ariminus (MaroccMa). It was originally 
inhabited by Umbrians and Pelasgians, was 
afterwards in the possession of the Senones, and 
was colonised by the Romans in b.c. 268, as one 
of the 12 most recent Latin colonies which had 
conimercium, but not civitas (Cic. ]pro Caec. 
35, 102). It obtained the full franchise in 188, 
and is mentioned by Appian (B. C. iv. 3) as a 
flourishing city in 43 B.C. Augustus established 
a military colony there. It became in later 
times subject to the Exarchs of Ravenna. 
After leaving Cisalpine Gaul, it was the first 
town which a person arrived at in the NE. of 
Italia proper. It was connected by the Via 
Flaminia with Rome, and by the Via Aemilia 
with Placentia (Strab. p. 217). 

Ariobarzanes {'ApLofiapCduris). I. Kings or 
Satraps of Pontiis. — 1. Betrayed by his son 
Mitlu-idates to the Persian king, about B.C. 400 
(Xen. Cyr. viii. 8; Ar. Pol. v. 8).— 2. Son of 
Mithridates I., reigned B.C. 303-337. He re- 
volted from Artaxerxes in 302, and may be 
regarded as the founder of the kingdom of 
Pontus (Diod. xvi. 90). — 3. Son of Mithridates 
III., reigned 200-240, and was succeeded by 
Mithridates IV.— II. Kings of Cappadocia.— 
1. Surnamed Philorornaeus, reigned B.C. 93-63, 
and was elected king by the Cappadocians, 
under the direction of the Romans. He was 
several times expelled from his kingdom by 
Mitliridates, was restored by Sulla in 92, ex- 
pelled in 90, and fled to Rome, restored by 
Aquillius in 89, expelled the next year, but 
received his throne in 84 from Sulla, was ex- 
pelled again by Mithridates in 00, and finally 



ARIPHRON 
restored by Pompey in 63 (App. Mithr. 10, 57 
00 ; Plut. Sull. 22 ; Justin, xxxviii. 2).— 2. Sur- 
named Philopator, succeeded his father in 63. 
XhB time of his death is not known; but it 
must have been before 51, in which year his son 
was reigning (Cic. Fam. xv. 2 ; dc Prov. Com. 4). 
— 3' Surnamed Eusehes and Philorotnaeus, son 
of No. 2, whom he succeeded about 51. He 
assisted Pompey against Caesar in 48. but was 
nevertheless pardoned by Caesar, who' even en- 
larged his territories. He was slain in 42 by 
Cassius, because he was plotting against him in 
Asia. (Cic. Fam. ii. 17, xv. 2 ; Diod. xlii. 45 ; 
Dio Cass, xlvii. 33 ; Caes. B. C. iii. 4.) 

Arion {'Apiwv). 1. Of Methymna in, Lesbos, 
an ancient Greek bard and a celebrated player 
on the cithara. He lived about b.c. 625, and 
spent a great part of his life at the court of 
Periander, tyrant of Corinth. His great work 
was to develop the dithyramb or choral hymn 
to Dionysus. Ho first employed a trained 
chorus of 50 singers, with distinct parts for 
singing and action, ranged in a circle around the 
altar, and therefore called the cyclic chorus, 
whereas Doric choruses had been drawn up in 
a rectangular form. This was an ifnportant 
step towards the growth of Greek tragedy (see 
Diet. Ant. s.v. Tragoedia). Of his life scarcely 
any thing is related beyond the beautiful story 
of his escape from the sailors with whom he 
sailed from Sicily to Corinth. On one occasion, 
thus runs the story, Arion went to Sicily to take 
part in some musical contest. He won the 
prize, and, laden with presents, he embarked in 
a Corinthian ship to return to his friend Peri- 
ander. The rude sailors coveted his treasures, 
and meditated his murder. After trying in 
vain to save his life, he at length obtained per- 
mission once more to play on the cithara. In 
festal attire he placed himself in the prow of 
the ship and invoked the gods in inspired 
strains, and then threw himself into the sea. 
But many song-loving dolphins had assembled 
round the vessel, and one of them now took the 
bard on its back and carried him to Taenarus, 
from wnence he returned to Corinth in safety, 
and related his adventure to Periander. Upon 
the arrival of the Corinthian vessel Periander 
inquired of the sailors after Arion, who replied 
that he had remained behind at Tarentum ; but 
when Arion, at the bidding of Periander, came 
forward, the sailors owned their guilt, and were 
punished according to their desert. In the time 
of Herodotus and Pausanias there existed at 
Taenarus a brass monument, representing ArioH 
riding on a dolphin. Arion and liis cithara 
(lyre) were placed among the stars. (Hdt. i. 23 ; 
Aelian, N. A. xii. 45 ; Cic. Tusc. ii. 27, 67 ; Ov. 
Fast. ii. 83.) A fragment of a hymn to Poseidon, 
ascribed to Arion, is contained in Bergk's Poe^ae 
Lijrici Graeci, p. 500, &c. — 2. A fabulous horse, 
of which Poseidon was the father. [Poseidon.] 

Ariovistus, a German cliief, who crossed the 
Rhine at the request of the Sequani, when they 
were hard pressed by the Aedui. He subdued 
the Aedui, but appropriated to himself part of 
the territory of the Sequani, and threatened to 
take still more. The Sequani now united with 
the Aedui in imploring the help of Caesar, who 
defeated Ariovistus about 50 miles from the 
Rhine, B.C. 58. Ariovistus escaped across the 
river in a small boat. (Caes. B. G. i. 31-53 ; Dio 
Cass, xxxviii. 81; Plut. Caes. 18.) That his 
fame hved in Gaul is seen from Tac. Hist 
iv. 73. 

Ariphron. 1. Grandfather of Pericles (Hdt 
vi. 131). — 2. A lyric poet of Sicyon (Athen. p. 



AEISBE 

<-i ; Lucian, de Laps. 6). A fragment is printed 
iiergk, Poet. Lyr. 

Arisbe, a town of the Troad. It was a ciunp 
Vlexauder, and was taken by the Gauls {II. 

S3G ; Arrian, i. 12 ; Polyb. v. 111). 

Aristaenetus, a rhetorician of Nicaea, friend 
Ijibanius, killed in an earthquake at Nioo- 
.iiudia A.D. 358 (Amm. Marc. xvii. 7). To him is 
wrongly ascribed a collection of erotic epistles, 
ed. Hercher, 1873. 

Aristaenus {' ^p^(TTalvos), of Megalopolis, 
sometimes called Aristaenetus, was frequently 
■ strategus or general of the Achaean League from 
B.C. 198 to 185. He was the political opponent 
of Philopoemen, and a friend of the Eomans. 
(Polyb. xvii. 1-13, xxiii. 7, xxxii. 19 ; Liv. xxxiv. 
25.) 

Aristaeus {'Apio-Taroj), an ancient divinity 
representing the giver of best gifts, worshipped 
in many parts of Greece, especially in Thessaly, 
Boeotia, Arcada, Ceos, Corcyra, and other 
islands of the Aegean and Adriatic. No doubt 
Thera was an ancient seat of tliis worsliip, and 
thence it passed to Cyrene. When the later 
Hellenic religion prevailed, Aristaeus was re- 
presented as the son of one of the deities, a 
mortal deified for his virtues. His origin is 
then variously related in local traditions. (Hes. 
Th. 975 ; Pind. Pytli. ix. 45 ; Diod. iv. 81 ; Ap. 
Eh. iii. 500 ; Verg. Georg. i. 14, iv. 283.) He is 
described either as a son of Uranus and Ge, 
or, according to a more general tradition, as the 
sou of Apollo and Cyrene. His mother Cyrene 
had been carried oil by Apollo from mount 
Pelion to Libya, where she gave birth to Ari- 
staeus. Aristaeus subsequently went to Thebes 
in Boeotia ; but after the unfortunate death of 
liis son AcTAEON, he left Thebes and visited 
almost all the Greek colonies on the coasts of 
the Mediterranean. Finally he went to Thrace, 
and after dwelling for some time near mount 
Haemus, where he founded the tovm of Ari- 
staeon, he ^ disappeared. Aristaeus is one of 
the most beneiicent divinities in ancient mytho- 
logy: he was worsliipped as the protector of 
flocks and shepherds, of vine and olive planta- 
tions ; he taught men to keep bees, and_averted 
from the fields the burning heat of the sun and 
other causes of destruction. 

Aristagoras {^Api(TTay6pas), of Miletus, 
Irother-in-law of Histiaeus, was left by the 
latter during his stay at the Persian court, in 
charge of the government of Miletus. Having 
failed in an attempt upon Nasos (b.c. 501), 
which he had promised to subdue for the 
Persians, and fearing the consequences of his 
failure, he induced the Ionian cities to revolt 
from Persia. He applied for assistance to the 
Spartans and Athenians : the former refused, 
but the latter sent him 20 ships and some troops. 
In 499 his army captured and burnt Sardis, but 
was finally chased back to the coast The Athe- 
nians now departed; the Persians conquered 
most of the Ionian cities; and Aristagoras in 
despair fled to Thrace, wliere he was slain by 
the Edonians in 497 (Hdt. v. 30-51, 97-126: 
Thuc. iv. 102). 

Aristander (' Kpl(TTavhpos), the most cele- 
brated soothsayer of Alexander the Great, wrote 
on prodigies (Arrian, iv. 4 ; Plin. xvii. 243). 

Anstarohus CApWapxof). 1. An Athenian, 
«ne of the leaders in the revolution of the ' Four 
Hundred,' b.c. 411. He was afterwards put to 
death by the Athenians, not later than 400 
(Thuc. viii. 90 ; Xen. Hell. i. 7, 28).— 2. A Lace- 
daemonian, succeeded Cleander as harmost of 
iiyzantium in 400, and in various ways ill treated 



AEISTEAS 



111 



the Cyrean Greeks, who liad recently returned 
from Asia (Xen. An. vii. 2-(i).— 3. Of Tegea, a 
tragic poet at Athens, contemporary with Eu- 
ripides, flourished about B.C. 454, and wrote 70 
tragedies (Nauck, Fr. Poet. Trag. 1856).— 4. Of 
Samos, an eminent mathematician and astro- 
nomer at Alexandria, flourished between b.c. 
280 and 264. He employed himself in the de- 
termination of some of the most important ele- 
ments of astronomy; but none of his works 
remain, except a treatise on the magnitudes 
and distances of the sun and moon (irepl fXiye6S>v 
KoL airoaTTifxaTuv iiAlov ital (TeXi^vris). Edited 
by Wallis, Oxon. 1688, and reprinted in vol. iii. 
of his works ; by Nizze, 1856. — 5. Of Samo- 
THBACE, the celebrated grammarian, flourished 
B.C. 156. He was educated in the school of 
Aristophanes of Byzantium, at Alexandria, 
where he liimseH founded a grammatical and 
critical school. At an advanced age he left 
Alexandria, and went to Cyprus, where he is 
said to have died at the age of 72, of voluntary 
starvation, because he was suffering from in- 
curable dropsy. Aristarchus was the greatest 
critic of antiquity. His labours were chiefly 
devoted to the Greek poets, but more especially 
to the Homeric poems, of which he published a 
recension, which has been the basis of the text 
from his time to the present day. The great 
object of his critical labours was to restore the 
genuine text of the Homeric poems, and to 
clear it of all later interpolations and corrup- 
tions. He marked those verses which he thought 
spurious with an obelos, and those which were 
repeated with an asterisk. He adopted th-e 
division (already made) of the Hiad and Odyssey 
into 24 books each. He did not confine himself 
to a recension of the text, but also explained 
and interpi'eted the poems : he opposed the 
allegorical intei-pretation which was then begin- 
rdng to find favour, and which at a later time 
became very general. His grammatical prin- 
ciples were attacked by many of his contem- 
poraries ; the most eminent of his opponents 
was Ckates of Mallus. His criticisms are 
best preserved in the Venetian Scholia (ed. 
Bachmann, 1835). These Scholia include the 
Epitome, formed from the collection which 
Didymus and other Aristarcheans made from 
the writings of then- master. 

Aristeas ('Apio-reas), of Proconnesus, an epic 
poet of whose life we have only fabulous ac- 
counts. His date is quite uncertain : some place 
him in the time of Croesus and Cyrus ; but other 
traditions make him earlier than Homer, or 
a contemporary and teacher of Homer. We 
only know that he was earlier than Herodotus. 
He seems to have been a mystic writer about 
the Hyperboreans, and was said to be a magician, 
whose soul could leave and re-enter its body 
according to its pleasure. He was connected 
with the worship of Apollo, which he was said 
to have introduced at Metapontum. He is said 
to have travelled tlurough the countries N. and 
E. of the Euxine, and to have visited the Isse- 
dones, A rimaspae, Cimmerii, Hyperborei, and 
other mythical nations, and after his return to 
have written an epic poem in 3 books, called 
The Arismaspea (to 'Apifidcnreia). This work is 
frequently mentioned by the ancients, but it is 
impossible to say who was the real author of it. 
(Hdt. iv. 18, 86 ; Strab. pp. 6, 89 ; Tzetz. ii. 724 • 
Paus. i. _24, 6, v. 7, 9 ; Gell. ix. 4.) 

Aristeas or Aristaeus, an officer of Ptolemy 
Philadelphus (b.c. 285-247), the reputed author 
of a Greek work givmg an account of the man- 
ner in which the translation of the Septuagmt 



112 ARIf5TIDES 
wus executed, but which is generally admitted 
by the best critics to be spurious. Printed at 
Oxford, 1G92, 8vo. 

Aristides ('Api(rT6i'5r;s). 1. An Athenian, son 
oi Lysnnachus, surnanied the ' Just,' was of an 
ancient and noble family. He was the political 
disciple of Cleiathenes, and partly on that ac- 
count, partly from personal character, opposed 
from the first to Themistocles. Aristides fought 
as the commander of his tribe at the battle of 
Marathon, B.C. -190 ; and next year, 489, he was 
archon. In 483 he suffered ostracism, probably 
in consequence of the triumph of the maritime 
and democratic policy of his rival. Prom Hdt. 
viii. 79 he is generally supposed to have been 
still in exile in 480 at the battle of Salamis, 
where he did good service by dislodging the 
enemy, with a band raised and armed by liim- 
self, from the islet of Psyttaleia : but the words 
of Hex'odotus are not precise, and in Arist. 
'Ad. TToK. 22 it is said that he was recalled before 
the battle : this agrees with Plutarch [Arist. 8). 
He was appointed general in the following year 
(479), and commanded the Athenians at tl:3 
battle of Plataea. In 477, when the allies had 
become disgusted with the conduct of Pausanias 
and the Spartans, he and his colleague Cimon 
had the glory of obtaining for Athens the com- 
mand of the maritime confederacy : and to Aris- 
tides was by general consent entrusted the task 
of drawing up its laws and fixing its assessments. 
He sketched out the changes which Epliialtes 
adopted in developing democracy by the over- 
throw of the Areiopagus (Arist. 'A6. ttoA.. 41). 
This first tribute {<p6pos) of 460 talents, paid into 
a common treasury at Delos, bore his name, and 
was regarded by the allies in after times as 
marking their Saturnian age. This is his last 
recorded act. He died after 471, the year of the 
ostracism of Themistocles, and very likely in 
468. He died so poor that he did not leave 
enough to pay for his funeral : his daughters 
were portioned by the state, and his son Lysi- 
machus received a grant of land and of money. 
(Plut. Arist. ; Nep. Arist. ; Hdt. vi. 110, viii. 
89, ix. 18-70 ; Thuc. viii. 79.)— 2. The author of a 
work entitled Milesiaca, which was probably a 
romance, having Miletus for its scene. It was 
written in prose, and was of a licentious cha- 
racter. It was translated into Latin by L. Cor- 
nelius Sisenna, a contemporary of Sulla, and 
it seems to have become popular with the 
Romans. Aristides is reckoned as the inventor 
of the Greek romance, and the title of his work 
gave rise to the term Milesian, as applied to 
works of fiction. He probably wrote at Miletus 
in the 1st or 2nd century B.C. (Ov. Trist. ii. 413, 
443 ; Plut. Crass. 32.) Pragm. by C. Miiller 
1851. — 3. Of Thebes, a celebrated Greek 
painter, flourished about B.C. 3G0-330. The 
point in which he most excelled was in depict- 
ing the feelings, expressions, and passions which 
may be observed in common life. His pictures 
were so much valued that long after his death 
Attains, king of Pergamus, offered 600,000 
sesterces for one of them. (Plin. xxxv. 98; 
Diet. Afit. s.v. Pictura.)—i. P. Aelius Aris- 
tides, surnamed Theodobus, a celebrated Greek 
rhetorician, was bom at Adriani in Mysia, in 
A.n. 117. He studied under Herodes Atticus at 
Athens, and subsequently travelled through 
Egypt, Greece, and Italy. The fame of his 
,talents and acquirements was so great that 
monuments were erected to his honour in 
several towns wliich he had honoured with his 
presence. Shortly before his return he was 
attacked by an illness which lasted for 13 years. 



ARISTIPPUS 
but this did not prevent him from prosecuting 
his studies. He subsequently settled at Smyrna, 
and when this city was nearly destroyed by au 
eartliquake in 178, he used his mfluence with 
the emperor M. Aurelius to induce him to assist 
in rebuilding the town. The Smyrnaeana 
showed their gratitude to Aristides by offering 
hiin various honours and distinctions, most of 
which he refused : he accepted only the office 
of priest of Asclepius, which he held until his 
death, about a.d. 180. The works of Aristides 
which have come down to us, are 55 orations 
and declamations, and 2 treatises on rhetorical 
subjects of little value. His orations are much 
superior to those of the rhetoricians of his time, 
showing power both of thought and expression. 
The best edition of Aristides is by W. Dindorf, 
Lips. 1829. — 5. Quintilianus Aristides, the 
author of a treatise m 3 books on music, pro- 
bably lived in the Ist century after Christ. Hia 
work is perhaps the most valuable of all the 
ancient musical treatises ; it is printed in the 
collection of Meibomius entitled Antiquae Mu- 
sicae Auctores Septein, Amst. 1652. 

Aristion {'Apta-rluv), a philosopher either of 
the Epicurean or Peripatetic school, made him- 
self tyrant of Athens through the influence of 
Mithridates. He held out against Sulla in b.c. 
87 ; and when the city was taken by storm, he 
was put to death by Sulla's orders. (Athen. 
p. 211.) 

Aristippus {'Apla-Tiinros). 1. Son of Aritades, 
and founder of the Cyrenaic school of philo- 
sophy, was born at Cyrene, probably about 428 
B.C. The fame of Socrates brought him to 
Athens, and he remained with him until a little 
before his execution, B.C. 399. He then lived 
as a teacher, receiving money from his pupils, 
in various places, first atAegina, and afterwards 
at the comt of Dionysius, tyrant of Syracuse ; 
but he appears at last to have retm-ned to 
Cyrene, and there to have spent his old age. 
His philosophy rejected as useless discussions 
about mathematics and physical science : like 
Protagoras, he held that sensation consisted in 
motion, and he distinguished two kmds of 
motion, the rough {rpaxeia) producing pain, 
and the smooth (Xela) producing pleasure, 
the absence of motion a neutral state. As we 
are concerned only with our own feelings, not 
with those of others, we should aim at gaining 
as much of the pleasurable and as little of the 
painful or neutral as possible. The nature of 
actions is indifferent, so long as the result pro- 
duces a balance of pleasure. It is thus clear 
that Aristippus was a Hedonist, but it would be 
a mistake to suppose that he was himself au 
advocate of immorality, or even what we should 
call a mere sensualist, however much his theories 
tended to that end. He held that by natm-e 
the pleasant coincided with the good, and the 
vmpleasant with the bad, thus being at liberty 
to condemn the vicious as ignorant of true plea- 
sure ; he taught that we should not seek plea- 
sures purchased by greater pain, and that we 
should attain wisdom or insight to judge rightly 
of relative values. Further he required self- 
control, saying that there was no sliame in in- 
dulgences, but it would be disgraceful if at any 
time he could not give them up. He was emi- 
nently gifted with evTpawe\la, the power of 
adapting himself to circumstances so as to 
extract the greatest possible enjoyment from 
them, while he secured his contentment by 
limiting his desires. This is expressed in the 
lines of Horace, ' niihi res non me rebus sub- 
jungere,' 'oinnis Aristippum decuit color et 



AEISTO 

atatuB et res, tentantem majora, fere praesen- 
«bus aequum ' {Ep. i. 1. 19 ; .17. 28 . In his 
strivin" for <pp6vn<ns and freedom of mmd he 
witnesses to the teacliing of Socrates, tliough m 
his philosophy of Hfe he is as far as possible 
from the ethics of Socrates and from the Socratic 
view of real existence. Among the members of 
his school (some of whom, as might be expected, 
pushed their founder's view of pleasui-e to an 
extreme without his safeguards) were Antipater, 
Anniceris, Theodorus and Hegesias. His 
daughter Arete carried on his teaching, and 
imparted it to her son Aristippus the younger, 
thence called 6 fir\rpohihcMTOs. (Xen. Mem. ii. 
1 ; Plut. Dion, 19 ; Diog. Laijrt. ii. 8, 56 ; Cic. 
Acad. ii. 42, 131, Fin. i. 7, 23, Tiisc. ii. 6, 15.) 

2, Two tyrants of Argos, in the time of Anti- 

gonus Gonatas. See Abistomachus, Nos. 8 

and 4. . •, 

Aristo, T,, a distinguished Boman jurist, lived 
under the emperor Trajan, and was a friend of 
the Younger Pliny. His works are occasionally 
mentioned in the Digest, but there is no direct 
extract from any of them in that compilation. 
He wrote notes on the Lihri Posteriorum of 
Labeo, on Cassius, whose pupil he had been, and 
on Sabinus. 
Aristo, [Abiston.] 

Aristobulus {'Apia-rSfiovKos), princes of 
Judaea. 1. Eldest son of Joannes Hyrcanus, 
assumed the title of king of Judaea, on the death 
of his father in B.C. 107. He put to death his 
brother Antigonus, in order to secure his 
power, but died in the following year, 106. 
(Jos. Ant. xiii. 11, B. J. i. 2.) — 2, Younger son 
of Alexander Jannaeus and Alexandra. After 
the death of his mother in B.C. 70, there was a 
civil war for some years between Aristobulus 
and his brother Hyrcanus, for the possession of 
the crown. At length, in B.C. 63, Aristobulus 
was deprived of the sovereignty by Pompey and 
carried away as a prisoner to Rome. In 57, he 
escaped from his confinement at Rome, with his 
son Antigonus,. and, returning to Judaea, re- 
newed the war ; but he was taken prisoner, and 
sent back to Rome by Gabinius. In 49, he was 
released by Julius Caesar, who sent him into 
Judaea, but he was poisoned on the way by 
some of Pompey's party. (Jos. Ant. xiii. 16, 
xiv. 1 ; jB. i. 6; Dio Cass, xxxvii. 15, xli. 18.) 
— 3. Grandson of No. 2, son of Alexander and 
brother of Herod's wife Mariamne. He was 
made high-priest by Herod, when he was only 
17 years old, but was afterwards drowned 
at Jericho, by order of Herod, B.C. 35. (Jos. 
Ant.^ XV. 2.)— 4. Son of Herod the Great by 
Mariamne, was put to death in B.C. 6, with his 
brother Alexander, by order of their father, 
whose suspicions had been excited against them 
■by their brother Antipateb. (Jos. Ant. xvi. 1.) 
—5. Sumamed ' the Younger,' son of Aristobulus 
and Berenice, and grandson of Herod the Great. 
He was educated at Rome with his two brothers 
Agrippa I. and Herod the future king of Chalcia. 
He died, as he had lived, in a private station. 
(Jos. Ant. xviii. 5.) — 6. Son of Herod king of 
Chalcis, grandson of No. 4, and great-grandson 
of Herod the Great. In a.d. 55, Nero made him 
king of Armenia Minor, and in 61 added to his 
dominions some portion of the Greater Armenia 
which had been given to Tigranes. He joined 
the Romans in the war against Antiochus, king 
of Commagene, in 73. (Jos. Ant. xx. 8 : Tao. 
ilnra. xiii. 7, xiv. 26.) 

Aristobulus, 1. Of Cassandrea, served under 
Alexander the Groat in Asia, and wrote a his- 
tory of Alexander, which was one of the chief 



ARISTODEMUS 



118 



sources used by Arriau in the composition of 
his work. — 2, An Alexandrine Jew, and a Peri- 
patetic philosopher, lived B.C. 170, under Pto- 
lemy VI. Philometor. 

Aristocles {'Apia-TOKKrjs). 1. Of Rhodes, a 
Greek grammarian and rhetorician, a contem- 
porary of Strabo.— 2, Of Pergamus, a sophist 
and rhetorician, and a pupil of Herodes Atticus, 
lived under Trajan and Hadrian. — 3. Of Messene, 
a Peripatetic philosopher, probably lived about 
the beginning of the 3rd century after Christ. 
He wrote a work on philosophy, some fragments 
of which are preserved by Eusebius. — i. Sculp- 
tors. There were at least two sculptors of this 
name : 1. Aristocles of S icy on, brother of Cana- 
chus, who is said to have founded a school of 
sculpture at Sicyon, with an hereditary reputa- 
tion for 7 generations, five of wliich are named : 
Aristocles, Synnobn, Ptolichus, Sostratus, and 
Pantias. This Aristocles probably lived about 
B.C. 520, in the later archaic period. — 2. Ari- 
stocles of Athens, who lived at the end of the 
same period, and of whose work a stele has been, 
preserved. It is probable that the Aristocles of 
Cydonia mentioned by Paus. v. 25 as a very 
ancient sculptor is different from both of these 
and of an earlier date. Whether the Aristocles 
' son and pupil of Cleoetas ' (Paus. v. 24) is the 
same as No. 2 remains uncertain. The inscrip- 
tion on the stele seems to mean that the author 
of it was son of Aristion (cf. Paus. vi. 3, 9). 

Aristocrates {'Apt(rroKpdrT]s). 1. Last king^ 
of Arcadia, was the leader of the Arcadians in 
the second Messenian war, when they assisted 
the Messenians against the Spartans. Having 
been bribed by the Spartans, he betrayed the 
Messenians, and was in consequence stoned to 
death by the Arcadians, about b.c. 668, who 
now abolished the kingly office. (Strab. p. 362 ; 
Paus. iv. 17, viii. 5.) — 2. An Athenian of wealth, 
and influence, son of Scellias, was one of the 
Athenian generals at the battle of Arginusae, 
B.C. 406, and on his return to Athens was 
brought to trial and executed (Thuc. viii. 89 ; 
Xen. Hell. i. 5-7 ; Diod. xiii. 101 ; Plat. Gorg. 
472). 

Aristodemus {'Apia-T6Sntws). 1. A descend- 
ant of Heracles, son of Aristomachus, and 
father of Eurysthenes and Procles. According 
to some traditions Aristodemus was killed at 
Naupactus by a flash of lightning, just as he 
was setting out on his expedition into Pelo- 
ponnesus; but a Lacedaemonian tradition re- 
lated that Aristodemus himself came to Sparta, 
was the first king of liis race, and died a natural 
death (Paus. ii. 18, iii. 1 ; Hdt. vi. 52). — 2. A 
Messenian, one of the chief heroes in the first 
Messenian war. As the Delphic oracle had 
declared that the preservation of the Messenian 
state demanded that a maiden of the house of 
the Aepytids should be sacrificed, Aristodemus 
offered his own daughter. In order to save her 
life, her lover declared that she was with child by 
him, but Aristodemus, enraged at this assertion, 
murdered his daughter and opened her body to 
refute the calumny. Aristodemus was after- 
wards elected king in place of Euphaes, who 
had fallen in battle against the Spartans, 
though the soothsayers objected that he was 
guilty of his daughter's blood. He continued 
the war against the Spartans till at length 
finding further resistance hopeless, he put an 
end to his life on the tomb of liis daughter 
about B.C. 723. (Paus. iv. 9-13.)— 3. Tyrant of 
Cumae in Campania, at whose court Tarquinius 
Superbus died, B.C. 496 (Liv. ii. 21). — i. One of 
the 800 Spartans at Thermopylae (b.c 480), 



114 ARISTOGITON 
was not present at the battle in which his com- 
rades fell, either in consequence of sickness, or 
because he had been sent on an errand from 
the camp. The Spartans punished him with 
Atimia, or civil degradation. Stung with this 
treatment he met his death at Plataea in the 
following year (-179), after performing the wildest 
feats of valour. (Hdt. vii. 229.) — 5. A tragic 
actor of Athens in the time of Demosthenes, 
took a prominent part in the political affairs of 
his time, and advocated peace with Macedonia. 
He was employed by the Athenians in their 
negotiations with Philip, with whom he was a 
great favourite (Dem. de Cor. p. 232, § 21 ; F.L. 
p. 344, § 12).— 6. Of Miletus, a friend and 
flatterer of Autigonus, king of Asia, who sent 
him into Greece in B.C. 315, in order to pro- 
mote his interests there (Diod. xix. 57-66). — 
7. There were many literary persons of this 
name referred to by the ancient grammarians. 
Two were natives of Nysa in Caria, both gram- 
marians, one a teacher of Pompey, and the 
other of Strabo. There was also an Aristo- 
demus of Elis, and another of Thebes, who are 
quoted as writers. 

Aristogiton {'ApicrToye'iTwi/). 1. The conspi- 
rator against the sons of Pisistratus. See 
Habmodius. — 2. An Athenian orator and ad- 
versary of Demosthenes, Hyperides, and Dein- 
arclius. He was often accused by Demosthenes 
and others, and defended himself in a number 
of orations which are lost. A speech of Dein- 
archus against Aristogiton is extant, and two 
which are attributed to Demosthenes, but are 
probablv sjjurious. 

Aristomache CApitTTo/j.a.xv), daughter of Hip- 
parlnus of Syracuse, sister of Dion, and wife of 
the elder Dionysius, who married her and Doris 
of Locri on the same day. She afterwards 
perished with her daughter Abete. 

Aristomachus ('ApiaTdfiaxos). 1. Son of 
Talaus and brother of Adrastus. — 2. Son of 
Cleodemus or Cleodaeus, grandson of Hyllus, 
great-grandson of Heracles, and father of Te- 
menus, Cresphontes, and Aristodemus. He fell 
in battle when he invaded Peloponnesus ; but 
liis three sons were more successful and con- 
quered Peloponnesus. (Hdt. vi. 52 ; Pans. ii. 7. 
•6 ; Apollod. ii. 8.) — 3. Tyrant of Aj-gos, under 
the patronage of Antigonus Gonatas, was as- 
sassinated and succeeded by Aristippus II. 
(Plut. Arat. 25.) — i. Tyrant of Argos, succeeded 
Aristippus II. ; he resigned his power upon the 
death of Demetrius in B.C. 229, and induced 
Argos to join the Achaean League. He after- 
wards deserted the Achaeans, and again assumed 
the tyranny of Argos ; but the city having been 
taken by Antigonus Doson, Aristomachus fell 
into the hands of the Achaeans, and was by 
them put to death. It must be recollected 
in his favour that his preference of the Spartan 
leader to the Macedonian, whom Aratus called 
in, was the better policy. (Polyb. ii. 59 ; Plut. 
Arat. 25-44.) 

Aristomenes ('kpiaToixiu-ns). 1. The Messe- 
nian, the hero of the second war with Sparta, 
belongs more to legend than to history. He 
was a native of Andania, and was sprung from 
the royal line of Aepytus. Tired of the yoke of 
Sparta, he began the war in B.C. 685, thirty- 
nine years after the end of the first war. Soon 
after its commencement he so distinguished 
himself by his valour that he was offered the 
throne, but refused it, and received the office of 
supreme commander. After the defeat of the 
Messenians in the third year of the war, through 
the treachery of Aristocrates, the -Orcadian 



ARISTOPHANES 
leader, Aristomenes retreated to the mountain 
fortress of Ira, and there maintained the war 
'O"^ eleven years, constantly ravaging the land 
of LSconia. In one of his incursions, however, 
the Spartans overpowered him with superior 
numbers, and carrying him with fifty of his 
comrades to Sparta, cast them into the pit 
((ceaSas) where condemned criminals were 
thrown. The rest perished ; not so Aristomenes, 
the favourite of the gods ; for legends told how 
an eagle bore him up on its wings as he fell, 
and a fox guided him on the third day from the 
cavern. But having incurred the anger of the 
Twin Brothers, his country was destined to 
ruin. The city of Ira^ which he had so long 
successfully defended, fell into the hands of 
the Spartans; Aristomenes, after performing 
prodigies of valour, was obliged to leave his 
country, which was again compelled to submit 
to the Spartans, B.C. 668. He afterwards settled 
at lalysus in Rhodes, where he died. Dama- 
getus, king of lalysus, had been enjoined by 
the Delphic oracle ' to marry the daughter of 
the best of the Greeks,' and he therefore took 
to wife the daughter of Aristomenes, who ac- 
companied liim to Rhodes. The Rhodians 
honoured Aristomenes as a hero, and from liim 
were descended the illustrious family of the 
Diagoridae. At Leuctra his apparition was seen 
aiding the Thebans against the Spartans. (Pans, 
iy. 14-24, 32 ; Polyb. iv. 32.)— 2. An Acama- 
nian, who governed Egyjjt with justice and 
wisdom dming the minority of Ptolemy V. 
Epiphanes, but was put to death by Ptolemy 
in 192 (Polyb. xv. 31, xviii. 36.-3. A comic 
poet of Athens, flourished during the Pelopon- 
nesian war. 

Ariston {'Apl(Tra>v). 1. Of Chios, a Stoic 
philosopher, and a disciple of Zeno, flourished 
about B.C. 260. Though he professed himself a 
Stoic, yet he differed from Zeno in several 
points : he more nearly approached to the 
Cynics; he despised all culture, the study of 
dialectics and physics, and valued ethical dis- 
cussion alone, holding indifference to worldly 
goods to be the aim of philosophj'. — 2. A Peri- 
patetic philosopher of lulls in the island of 
Ceos, succeeded Lycon as head of the Peri- 
patetic school, about b.c. 224. He wrote several 
philosophical works which are lost (Diog. Laert. 
V. 70 ; Cic. de Fin. v. 5). — 3. Of Alexandria, a 
Peripatetic philosopher and a contemporary of 
Strabo, wrote a work on the Nile (Strab. p. 690). 

Aristonautae {'Apia-rovavTai), a town in 
Aohaia, the harbour of Pallene. 

Aristonicus ('Apia-rdviKos). 1. A natural 
son of Eumenes II. of Pergamus. Upon the 
death of his brother Attains III. B.C. 133, who 
left his Iringdom to the Romans, Aristonicus 
laid claim to the crown. At first he met with 
considerable success. He defeated in 181 the 
consul P. Licinius Crassus ; but in 180 he was 
defeated and taken prisoner by M. Perpema, 
was carried to Rome by M'. Aquillius in 129, 
and was there put to death. (V ell. Pat. ii. 4 ; 
Flor. ii. 20 ; Strab. p. 646.) — 2. An Alexandrine 
grammarian, a contemporary of Strabo, and 
the author of several works, most of which 
related to the Homeric poems (Strab. p. 38). 

Aristonymus {'Apitrrwi'vuos), a comic poet 
and contemporary of Aristophanes and Ami- 
psias. 

Aristophanes {'Apia-ro4>ai'ris). 1. The cele- 
brated comic poet of Athens, was born about 
B.C. 444 ; he belonged to the deme of Cydathe- 
naion. His father Philippus had possessions 
in Aegina, and may originally have come from 



AEISTOPHANES 

■ • .iirainst the arbitrary treatment of lier allies 

ihat island, whence a question arose whether ";g'^^«* J'f. ^ ^ of them were then 
Aristophanes was a genuine Athenian citizen, ^'^'J^ the spring paVment of tribute, the 
his enemy Cleon brought against him more | ines^ent J^^. Callistratus was in- 

dieted by Cleon (Acharn. 877). The follow- 
ing is a Ust of his extant comedies, with the 
year in which they were perfoi-med 



his enemy „ . - , . , , ■ 

than one accusation to deprive him of his civic 
ri-'hts (((ulas ypa<pal), but without success. 
He had thi-ee sons, Philippus, Araros, and 
Nioostratua, but of his private history we know 
jiothmg. He probably died about B.C. 880. 
The comedies of Aristophanes are of the highest 
historical interest, containing as they do an 
admirable series of caricatures of the leading 
onen of the day, and a contemporary commen- 
tary on the evils existing at Athens. Indeed, 
-the caricature is the only featm-e in modern 
social life which at all resembles theni. Ari- 
stophanes wrote because he was a genius and 
.a poet; and it would be a mistake to sup- 
pose that he produced plays merely or pri- 
marily with a political purpose. At the sarue 
time he wrote with a patriotic feeling, and in 
.many points with wisdom; though in many 
.also he was above measure reactionary. He 
had the strongest affection for Athens, n,nd 
longed to see her restored to the state in which 
.she was flourishing in the previous generation, 
and almost in his own childhood, before Peri- 
cles became the head of the government, and 
when the age of Miltiades and Aristides had 
but just passed away. The first great evil of 
iis own time against which he inveighs, is the 
Peloponnesian war, which he regards as the 
work of Pericles. To this fatal war, among a 
host of evils, he ascribes the influence of dem- 
agogues like Cleon at Athens. Another great 
object of his indignation was the recently 
adopted system of education which had been 
introduced by the Sopliists, acting on the 
speculative and inquiring turn given to the 
Athenian mind by the Ionian and Bleatic 
philosophers, and the extraordinary intellectual 
development of the age following the Persian 
war. The new theories introduced by the 
Sophists threatened to overthrow the founda- 
tions of morality, by making persuasion and 
not truth the object of man in his intercourse 
with his fellows, and to substitute a miiversal 
•scepticism for the religious creed of the people. 
'The worst effects of such a system were seen in 
Alcibiades, who combined all the elements 
which Ai-istophanes most disliked, heading the 
TTor party in politics, and protecting the sopliis- 
tical school in philosophy and also in literature. 
Of this latter school — the hterary and poetical 
Sopliists — Euripides was the chief, whose works 
•are full of that /xfTewpoffoipla which contrasts so 
strongly with the moral dignity of Aeschylus and 
Sophocles ; on account of which Aristophanes 
■introduces him as soaring in the air to write his 
tragedies. Another feature of the times was 
the excessive love for litigation at Athens, the 
•consequent importance of the dicasts, and dis- 
.graceful abuse of their power; all of which 
•enormities, are made by Aristophanes objects 
•of continual attack. But though he saw what 
were the evils of his time, he had not wisdom 
to find a remedy for them, except the hopeless 
•and undesirable one of a movement backwards. 
His first comedy was the AanaKus, or Ban- 
■queters, which in b.c. 427 gained the second 
prize : like the Clouds, it objected to the 
modern tendency of education to produce 
quibbles of rhetoric. In i28 his Babylonians 
was produced in the name of Callistratus 
{Acharn. 635). The title was applied to foreign 
Slaves and the chorus consisted of slaves 
branded on the forehead with an owl, as the 
property of Athens. The play was directed 



first group, those before the'Sicilian expedition 
may be reckoned, which used political satire 
with no restraint : viz. in 425, Acharnians. 
Produced in the name of Callistratus. Fu-st 
prize.— 42-i. 'lirirets, Knights or Horsemen. 
The first play produced in the name of Aristo- 
phanes himself. First prize ; second, Cratinus. 
—423. Clouds. First prize, Cratinus ; second, 
Amipsias. — 422. Wasps. Second prize.— 
Cloiuls (second edition), failed in obtaining a 
prize. Some writers place this B.C. 411, and 
the whole subject is very uncertain.— 419. 
Peace. Second prize; Eupolis first. In the 
second group there is less of political satire and 
less bitterness: viz. in 414, Birds. Second 
prize; Amipsias, first; Phi-ynichus, third. — 
411. Lijsistrata. — Thesmophoriazusae. Dur- 
ing the Oligarchy.— 408. First Flutus.—iOb. 
Frogs. First prize ; Phrynichus, second ; Plato, 
third. Deathof Sophocles.— 392. Ecclesiazusae. 
— 888. Second edition of the Plutus. In the 
Ecclesiazusae and the Plutus the personal 
satire has nearly disappeared, and there is 
more approach to the Middle Comedy : the 
Plutus may be regarded as the transition, which 
is also marked by the disappearance of the 
chorus, connected perhaps with the poverty of 
the time. — The last two comedies of Aristo- 
phanes were the Aeolosicon and Cocalus, pro- 
duced about B.C. 387 (date of the peace of 
Antalcidas) by Araros, one of his sons. They 
seem to have resembled the Middle Comedy, 
having no chorus or parabasis and more regu- 
lar plots. Suidas tells us that Aristophanes was 
the author, in all, of 54 plays. As a poet Ari- 
stophanes possessed merits of the highest order. 
His works contain exquisite snatches of lyric 
XDoetry ; and some of his choruses, particularly 
one in the Knights, in which the horses are 
represented as rowing triremes in an expedition 
against Corinth, are written with a spirit and 
humour unrivalled in Greek. They were in 
some points not very dissimilar to English 
ballads. He was a complete master of the 
Attic dialect, and in his hands the perfec- 
tion of that glorious language is wonderfully 
shown. The burlesque element also is freely 
admitted : animals of every kind are pressed 
into his service ; frogs chaunt choruses, a dog 
is tried for stealing a cheese, and an iambic 
verse is composed of the grunts of a pig. — 
Editions. In the Poetae Scenici of Dindorf, 
1870; Bergk, 1872; Meineke, 18G1 ; Holden, 
1868 : the Frogs and Wasps hy Eogers, with 
a verse translation are to be recommended. 
For the whole the most useful assistance is 
Bekker's edition with notes variorum and 
Scholia. — 2. Of Byzantium, son of Apelles, and 
one of the most eminent Greek grammarians at 
Alexandria. He was pupil of Zenodotus and 
Eratosthenes, and teacher of the celebrated 
Aristarchus. He was born about 260 B.C., 
lived in the reigns of Ptolemy II. and Ptolemy 
III., and had the supreme management of the 
library at Alexandria. Aristophanes was the 
first who introduced the use of accents in the 
Greek language. He devoted himself chiefly 
to the criticism and interpretation of the Greek 
poets, and more especially of Homer, of whose 
work he made a new and critical edition 

1 2 



116 ARISTOPI-ION 

(SidpBwcris). The philosophers Plato and Ari-- 
stotle likewise engaged his attention, and of the 
former, as of several of the poets, he made new 
and critical editions. All wo possess of his 
nmnerous works consists of fragments scattered 
through the Scholia on the poets, some Argu- 
monta to the plays of the tragic poets and of 
Aristophanes, and a part of his Ae'feis, wliich 
is printed in Boissonade's edition of Herodian's 
Partitiones, London, 1819, p. 283-289 ; Nauck, 
1848. 

Aristophoa {'ApiaTdcpuv). 1. Of the demus 
of Azenia in Attica, one of the most distin- 
guished Athenian orators about the close of the 
Peloponnesian war. The number of laws 
■which he proposed may be inferred from his 
own statement, as preserved by Aeschines, that 
he was accused 75 times of having made illegal 
proposals, but that he had always come off 
victorious. In B.C. 354 he accused Iphicrates 
and Timotheus, and in the same year he came 
forward in the assembly to defend the law of 
Leptines against Demosthenes. The latter 
treats him with great respect, and reckons him 
amongst the eloquent orators (Dem. Euhul. § 
30 ; Athen. pp. 13, 38).— 2. Of the demus of Col- 
yttus, a contemporary of Demosthenes, and an 
orator of great distinction and influence. It 
was this Aristophon whom Aeschines served as 
a clerk, and in whose service he was trained 
for his public career. [Aeschines.] — 3. A 
comic poet of the Middle Comedy. — 4. A painter 
of some distinction, son and pupil of Aglaophon, 
and brother of Polygnotus. 

Aristdteles KpiaroriKt]!), the philosopher, 
was bom at Stagira, a town in Chalcidice in 
Macedonia, B.C. 384. His father, Nicomachus, 
was physician in ordinary to Amyntas II., king 
of Macedonia, and the author of several treatises 
on subjects connected with natural science : his 
mother, Phaestis (or Phaestias), was descended 
from a Chalcidian family. The studies and 
occupation of his father account for the early 
inclination manifested by Aristotle for the 
investigation of natui'e, an inclination which is 
perceived throughout his whole life. He lost 
his father before he had attained his 17th yearj' 
and he was entrusted to the guardianship of 
one Proxenus of Atarneus in Mysia, who was 
settled in Stagira. In 867, he went to Athens 
to pursue his studies, and there became a pupil of 
Plato, who had just returned from Sicily, about 
865. Plato soon distinguished him above all 
his other disciples. He named him the ' intellect 
of his school,' and his house, the house of the 
' reader.' Aristotle lived at Athens for 20 years, 
till 347. During the whole of this period the 
good understanding which subsisted between 
teacher and scholar continued, with some 
trifling exceptions, undisturbed ; for the stories 
of the disrespect and ingratitude of the latter 
towards the former are nothing but calumnies 
invented by his enemies. During the last 10 
years of his first residence at Athens, Aristotle 
gave instruction in rhetoric, and distinguished 
himself by his opposition to Isocrates. It was 
at this time tha-t he published his first rhetorical 
wi-itings. Upon the death of Plato (847) Ari- 
stotle left Athens : perhaps he was offended by 
Plato having appointed Speusippus o,s his suc- 
cessor in the Academy. He first repaired to his 
friend Hermeias at Atarneus, where he married 
Pythias, the adoptive daughter of the prince. 
On the death of Hermoias, who was killed by 
the Persians (344), Aristotle fled from Atarneus 
to Mytilene. Two years aftenvards (342) he 
accepted an invitation from Philip of Macedonia, 



ARISTOTELES 
to undertake the instruction of his son Alex- 
ander, then 18 years of age. Here Aristotle 
wai^trea,ted with the most marked respect. His 
native city, Stagira, which had been destroyed 
by Philip, was rebuilt at his request, and Philip 
caused a gymnasium (called Nymphaeum) to be 
built there in a pleasant grove expressly for 
Aristotle and his pupils. Several of the youths 
of the Macedonian nobles were educated by 
Aristotle along with Alexander. Aristotle spent 
7 years in Macedonia ; but Alexander enjoyed 
his instruction without interruption for only 4. 
Still with such a pupil even this short period 
was sufficient for a teacher like Aristotle to- 
fulfil the highest purposes of education, and to 
create in his pupil that sense of the noble and 
great, which distinguishes Alexander from all 
those conquerors who have only swept like a 
hurricane through the world. On Alexander's, 
accession to the throne in 835, Aristotle re- 
turned to Athens. Here he found his friend 
Xenocrates president of the Academy. H& 
himself had the Lyceum, a gymnasium sacred, 
to Apollo Lyceus, assigned to him by the state. 
He soon assembled round him a large number 
of distinguished scholars, to whom he delivered 
lectures on philosophy in the shady walka 
(irepfiraToi) which surrounded the Lyceum,, 
while walking up and down [TrepnTaruv), and 
not sitting, which was the general practice of 
the philosophers. From one or other of these 
circumstances the name Peripatetic is derived, 
which was afterwards given to his school. 
According to an account preserved by Gellius- 
(xx. 5) he gave two different courses of lec- 
tures every day. Those which he delivered in 
the morning [kuiOivhs irepliTaros) to a narrower 
circle of chosen (esoteric) hearers, and which 
were called acroamatic or acroatic, embraced 
subjects connected with the more abstrusa 
philosophy (theology), physics, and dialectics. 
Those which he delivered in the afternoon 
(SeiKivhs Trep'nraTos) and intended for a more 
promiscuous circle (which accordingly he called 
exoteric), extended to rhetoric, sophistics, and 
politics. He appears to have taught not so- 
much in the way of conversation, as in regular 
lectures. His school soon became the most 
celebrated at Athens, and he continued to pre- 
side over it for 13 years (835-323). During this 
time he also composed the greater part of his- 
works. In these labours he was assisted by the 
truly kingly liberality of his former pupil, who 
not only presented him with 800 talents, but 
also caused large collections of natural curi- 
osities to be made for him, to which posterity 
is indebted for one of his most excellent works, 
the History of Animals. Meanwhile varioua 
causes contributed to throw a cloud over the 
latter years of the philosopher's life. In the 
first place, he felt deeply the death of his wife, 
Pythias, who left behind her a daughter of the 
same name : he lived subsequently with a 
friend of his wife's, the slave Herpyllis, who 
bore him a son, Nicomachus. Another trouble 
was the breach in his friendship with Alexander, 
caused by the affair of Callisthenes. [See Alex- 
ander; Callistiienes.] The story that Ari- 
stotle had a share in poisoning the king is a. 
fabrication of a later age ; and moreover it is 
certain- that Alexander died a natural death. 
After the death of Alexander (328) Aristotle was 
looked upon with suspicion at Athens as a 
friend of Macedonia; but as it was not easy to 
bring any political accusation against him, he 
was accused of impiety (affffidas) by the hiero- 
phant Eurymedon. He withdrew from Athens- 




AeiZTO. 

Bust ol Aristotle. 



tefore his trial, and escaped in the beginumg 
of 3'2'i to Clialcis in Euboeii, where he died in 
the course of the some year, in the G3rd year of 
his age, of a chronic disease of the stomach. 
His body was transported to his native city 
Sta^ira, and his memory was honoured there, 
like^that of a hero, by yearly festivals. He be- 
queathed to Theophrastus his well-stored 
hbrary and the originals of his writings. Im- 
plicit reliance camiot be placed on the depre- 
ciatory picture of some later writers, that 
Aristotle was short and of slender make, 
with small eyes, and a lisp in his pro- 
nunciation, using L for B, and with a sort 
of sarcastic expression in his countenance 
(Diog. Laiirt. v. 1 ; Ael. V.H. iii. 19 I Anth. Pal. 
hi. 176). At any rate these carpmgs shosv 
that there was nothing 
to allege against the no- 
bility of character which 
may be inferred from his 
writings. He exhibited 
remarkable attention to 
external appearance, and 
bestowed much care on 
his dress and person. 
He is described as having 
been of weak health, 
which, considering the 
astonishing extent of his 
studies, shows all the 
more the energy of his 
.mind. The importance 
of Aristotle's work can 
lardly be over-estimated, though his place as 
-the greatest of ancient philosophers was not 
fully recognised till the middle ages. Indeed, it 
would be difficult to name a writer in any age 
who to such a degree combined thoroughness 
.and reality with comprehensiveness. For Ari- 
stotle dealt scientifically, so far as existing 
materials could go, with all branches of know- 
ledge. He founded the science of reasoning, 
■since called Logic, as opposed to the Dialectic 
■or art of discussion instituted by Socrates and 
.Plato. In theoretical physics he could not 
supply us with anything that makes for present 
knowledge, but he did supply the foundation 
•upon which the greater part of the system of 
the Schoolmen, and the literature which grew 
■out of it, was based. In mathematics he seems 
to have quitted the speculative methods of 
Plato and to have brought us nearer to the 
real discoveries of Archimedes. In natural his- 
tory, investigating the whole of zoology, he 
arrived, as will be seen, at broad classifications 
entirely his own, but approved by modem 
science. The same force and clearness of reason, 
and the same comprehensive grasp of his sub- 
jects, mark liis works on moral philosophy, on 
political history, and on literary criticism, and 
have left their impress in much of modem 
thought and method where the debt to Aristotle 
•as the originator is often forgotten. A com- 
plete list of the works written by Aristotle is 
unattainable. It is remarkable that while we 
have two lists handed down, one said to be by 
the Alexandrian Hermippus (200 a.d.), the other 
by Ptolemaeus, a Peripatetic of the 2nd cen- 
tury A.D. (preserved by Arabian -writers), the 
former, putting the total at 400 writings, does 
not mention important works of Aristotle which 
we now possess : it was probably a list of Ari- 
stotelian works at that time in the Alexandrian 
library. In the collection which we now have 
many, no doubt, are rightly noted by modem 
"Writers as spurious : it does not, however, follow 



ABISTOTELKS ^^'^ 
that they present to us nothing of Ai-istotle ; 
for while in several that are rightly attributed 
to Ai-istotle there are insertions and alterations 
by later writers, on the other hand much that 
Aristotle did not write probably represents the 
notes of his teaching thrown into shape by his 
pupils and followers. The works by Aristotle, 
or bearing his name, may be divided into the 
following classes, according to the subjects of 
which they treat. I. Dialectics and Logic.-- 
The extant logical writings are comprehended 
as a whole under the title Organon {'Opyavov, 
i e. instrument of science). They are occupied 
with the investigation of the method by which 
man arrives at knowledge. An insight into the 
nature and formation of conclusions and of 
proof by means of conclusions, is the common 
aim and centre of all the separate 6 works com- 
posing the Organon : these separate works are, 
1. KaT7)7opiai, Praeclicamenta, in which Ari- 
stotle treats of the (10) comprehensive generic 
ideas, under which all the attributes of things 
may be subordinated as species : that is, in 
order to get an exhaustive definition of con- 
cepts they are made to fall under one or other of 
these classes or categories, of which the i most 
important determine the substance of anything 
{ovala or ti fCTi), the quantity (Tc6<rov), the 
quality {Troiov), the relation [irpbs r(). 2. Ylepl 
ep/xrivflas, De Interpretatione, concerning the 
expression of thought by means of speech. 
[This is by a later witer.] 3, 4. 'Ava\vTiKa. 
irpdrepa and Sa-repa, Analytica, each in 2 
ijooks, on the theory of conclusions : so called 
from the resolution of the conclusion into its 
fundamental component parts. 5. ToiriKa., De 
Locis, in b books, of the general points of view 
(TfJiroi) from which conclusions may be drawn. 
(3. Ilep! (TO(piirTMUv i\4'yx<^'' C'^^s 9th of the 
Topica), concerning the fallacies which only 
apparently prove something. The term ' logic ' 
was not applied to this science by Aristotle 
(who called it ' Analytic ' ), but by the Stoic 
school. The best edition of the Organon is by 
"Waitz, Lips. 184G. — 11. Metaphysics, or ' the 
first philosophy,' in 14 books (ruv n^ra to. 
(pvtriKo.), originally distinct treatises, indepen- 
dent of one another, which were put together 
as one work after Aristotle's death (Books ii. 
and xi. from ch. 8 are spurious). The title also 
is of late origin, and was given to the work 
from its being placed in the collection of 
Andronicus after (/isra) the Physics (to. 
(pvffiKa). The subject is the origin and nature 
of existence, or, more particularly, it treats 
of (a) the relation of the individual to the 
universal, (b) form to matter, (c) the moving to 
the moved. "Whereas Plato allows only ideas 
(the universal) to have real existence, Aristotle 
denies the separate and independent existence 
of the Platonic ideas. His view is that the 
formless substance of matter {S\ri) has merely 
the capacity for becoming something (Swd/xa 
etrri), it attains reality {iv4pyfia or evT€\ex6ia) 
when form (elSos) is communicated to it. 
From the relations of form and matter arises 
motion : the moving element is the form, which 
produces reality ; the moved is the potential or 
material. The highest good being the final 
object is the ultimate source of movement and 
life in the world. [Separately edited by Bonitz 
and Schwegler.] — III. Science, including 
(a) Mathematics, on which we have two treatises 
not by Aristotle, but probably conveying his 
teaching : viz. Tlepl aTOficcv ypajxfxaiv, i. e. con- 
cerning indivisible lines, and VlnxaviKo. 7rpo/3A^- 
MOTO, Mechanical Problems; (6) Physics, in 



118 



ARISTOTELES 



which we have— (1) (pvcrtKi] 'aKp6a(ns (called 
also by others irepl iipxoiv), in 8 books. In these 
Aristotle develops the general principles of 
natural science. (Cosmology.) (2) Concerning 
the Heaven {irepl ovpavov), in 4 books. (8) On 
Production and Destruction (jrepi yeve(reus Kal 
<t>6opas, de Generatione et Currwptione), in '2 
books, develop the general laws of production 
and destruction. (4) On Meteorology (juereoipo- 
\oyiKa., de Meteoris), in 4 books. (5) Oil the 
Universe (irepl K6<r/iou, de Mundo), a letter to 
Alexander, treats the subject of the last 2 works 
in a popular tone and a rhetorical style alto- 
gether foreign to Aristotle, and is certainly not 
his work. The theories of Aristotle about the 
nature of the world, where he was left to specu- 
lation unaided by experience, have a different 
value from his treatment of natural history. 
"With the problems of creation he was not con- 
cerned, because he held matter and form to be 
eternal. His theories of the spherical earth in 
the centre, with concentric heavenly spheres 
around it, and the heaven of the fixed stars as 
the innermost, are of a purely literary value 
from their bearing on the Paradiso of Dante. 
(6) The Historij of Animals [irepi (daiv iaropid), 
in 9 books (the 10th being spurious), treats of all 
the peculiarities of this division of the natural 
imgdom, according to genera, classes, and 
species ; especially giving all the character- 
istics of each animal according to its external 
and internal vital functions ; according to the 
manner of its copulation, its mode of life, and 
its character. The best edition is by Schneider, 
Lips. 1811. The observations in this work are 
the triumph of ancient sagacity, and have been 
confirmed by the results of the most recent in- 
vestigations. For instance, he divides the animal 
kingdom into the vertebrate and invertebrate : 
in the former he distinguishes mammals, birds, 
reptiles and fishes, and recognises that whales 
are mammals. (7) On the Parts of Animals 
(irepl ^<j>aiv fiopioiy}, in 4 books, in which Ari- 
stotle, after describing the phaenomena in each 
species, develops the causes of these phaeno- 
mena by means of the idea to be formed of the 
purpose which is manifested in the formation 
of the anunal. (8) On the Generation of 
Animals (irepX (lioov yeveo'eais), in 5 books, 
treats of the generation of animals and the 
organs of generation. (9) De Incessu Ani- 
malimn (Trepl ^tiaiv Trope'ias). [■rrepl (dcDV 
Kiviicrews is spurious.] (10) Three books on 
the Soul (Trepl tpuxfis)- Aristotle defines the soul 
to be that which gives real form to the bodily 
matter, and therefore movement and life. 
Man differs from other animals in having 
spirit (uovs) besides the animal soul. There 
are besides smaller treatises connected with tliis 
subject, on memory, sleep, dreams, &c. (11) In 
the 37 sections of Problems {TrpofiKii/xaTo.) we 
have many remarks that are Aristotle's on 
various branches of knowledge, but buried in a 
mass of later additions. The treatises Trepl 
(pvTcav, irepl p^^poi/Uf^TCDV, irepl i,KovffrSiv, irepl 
Oauij.a<rlo)P aKoufffidraiv, and the <pu(noyvci>ixiKa, 
are spurious. Several anatomical works of 
Aristotle have been lost. He was the first 
person who in any especial manner advocated 
anatomical investigations, and showed the 
necessity of them for the study of the natural 
sciences. Ho frequently refers to investiga- 
tions of his own on the subject. — IV. Pkacti- 
CAL Philosophy or Politics. — All that falls 
within the sphere of practical philosophy iscom- 
praliended in three principal works : the Ethics, 
the Politics, and tlie Oeconomics. (1) 'Phc 



Nicomachean Ethics ('HBiko. t^tKofidxeta), irt. 
10 books. Aristotle here begins with th& 
highest and most universal end of life, for the. 
individual as well as for the community in the 
state. This is happiness {eiSatfiovla) ; and its. 
conditions are, on tlie one hand, perfect virtue 
exhibiting it.elf in the actor, and, on the other- 
hand, corresponding bodily advantages and 
favourable external circumstances. Virtue is. 
the readiness to act constantly and consciously 
according to the laws of the rational nature of 
man {optihs \6yos). Tlie nature of virtue shows 
itself in its appearing as the medium between two. 
extremes. In accordance with this, the several 
virtues are characterised. Editions by Grant, 
1874; Ramsauer, 1878; Bywater, 1890; Notes 
by Stewart, 1893 ; Book v. by H. Jackson, 1879. 
— (2) The Eudemean Ethics ('HBiko. EvS-lifieta), 
in 7 books, of which only books i. ii. iii. and vii. 
are preserved, while the remaining books iv. v. 
and vi. are a repetition of books v. vi. and vii. of 
the Nicomachean Ethics. This ethical work 
is a recension of Aristotle's lectures, edited by 
Eudemus. — (3) 'HBiKa MeyaKa, in 2 books, a 
sketch compiled from the Nicomachean and 
Eudemean Ethics. — (4) Politics (no\iTiKo) in 
8 books. The Ethics conduct us to the Politics. 
The connexion between the two works is so- 
close, that in the Ethics by the word Sarepoy 
reference is made by Aristotle to the Politics,. 
and in the latter by irpSrepoy to the Ethics. 
The Politics show how happiness is to be: 
attained for the human community in the- 
state ; for the object of the state is not merely 
the external preservation of life, but ' happy 
life, as it is attained by means of virtue ' 
(aperi], pei'fect development of the whole man). 
Hence also ethics form the first and most, 
general foundation of political life, because the 
state cannot attain its highest object if mor- 
ality does not prevail among its citizens. The 
house, the family, is the element of the state. 
Accordingly Aristotle begins with the doctrine 
of domestic economy, then proceeds to a de- 
scription of the different forms of government, 
after which he gives a delineation of the most 
important Hellenic constitutions, and then in- 
vestigates which of the constitutions is the^ 
best (the ideal of the state) — an aristocracy in 
which the citizensliip is enjoyed only by those 
whose position and education fits them tO' 
direct the state. Hence he desires a state 
education for the citizens. Manual labour is. 
left to slaves and aliens ; for he assumes 
slavery as a necessary condition. The doctrine 
concerning education, as most important in 
this best state, forms the conclusion. Editions 
by Congreve, 1874 ; Susemihl, 1879 ; New- 
man, Oxford, 1887 ; transl. by Jowett ; and by 
Welldon. — (6) It was known that Aristotle had 
written wholly or in part several 7roA.(Tfioi, 
i. e. particular accounts of the constitutions 
of various states (more than 100 in number, as 
was said). Of these it was supposed that only 
fragments, collected by Neumann and by Rose, 
survived. But a pap}T.'us was discovered in 
Egj'pt and was published in 1891 by the British 
Museum, containing the greater part of the 
't\.Oi]vala>v iroXirela, a treatise of considerable 
historical value for the elucidation and con- 
firmation of several points in the constitutional 
history of Athens down to the close of the 5th 
century a. c. How far, or in what sense, this 
is to be regarded as a genuine work of Aristotle 
is still a subject of discussion. There is in- 
ternal evidence of its having been written be- 
fore the date of Aristotle's death: if not by 



ABISTOTELES 
himself, at least from notes of his teaching. 
Editio vrinceps by Kenyon, 1891 also by 
Sandys, 1892.- (7) Oeconomics (oi/covo/iiKa), 
in 2 books, which are by a later writer.— V. 
WoBKS OF AnT. To these belong the Poe- 
iics and Bhetoric. (1) The Poetics (nepi 
T0i7)TiK7)s). M-istotle penetrated deeper than 
any of the ancients into the essence of the 
Hellenic art. He is the father of the aes- 
thetics of poetry, as he is the completer of 
Greek rhetoric as a science. He holds that 
'Poetry is more serious and more profound 
than History, because it deals with universal 
truth not with that which lies in details. The 
greatest part of the treatise contains a theory 
of Tragedy, under which head he has left us 
criticisms on particular Greek plays : he defines 
Tragedy as the imitation of some action of 
proper magnitude in fitting language, not by 
narrative, but by action, so as to effect tlu'ough 
pity and terror a purgation of the passions 
(Kadapffis), i.e. so that the excitable passions 
are ' worked out ' and the mind is left calm 
though elevated {KiBapffis being a medical meta- 
phor). He calls Euripides the ' most tragic 
of the Tragedians. Epic poetry, as though 
superseded in value by Tragedy, he treats 
shghtly, and says Uttle of Lyric. [Editions 
and comments by Christ, 1878 ; Bemays, 1880 ; 
Braunscheid, 1882; Wharton, 1883; Prickard, 
1891.]_(2) The Rhetoric {rexvv h'^opLK-l^), in 
8 books ; but the genuineness of the 3rd is doubt- 
ful. Rhetoric, as a science, according to Ari- 
stotle, stands side by side with Dialectics. That 
which makes a scientific treatment of rhetoric 
possible is the argumentation which awakens 
conviction : he therefore directs his chief atten- 
tion to the theory of oratorical argumentation 
The second division of the work treats of 
the production of that favourable disposition 
in the hearer in consequence of which the 
orator appears to him to be worthy of credit. 
The third part treats of oratorical e-Kpression 
and an-angement. Edition by Cope and Sandys, 
1877 ; transl. by Welldon. [The 'VriTopiK^ 
irphs 'AAf^avSpov is spurious.].— VI. Poetby. 
Though several epigrams are falsely attributed 
to him, it is probable that the beautiful 
Scolion beginning 'Apera iroKvfxoxOe yivn 
PpoTelcfi, in praise of Hermeias, is his work. — 
According to a story current in antiquity Ari 
stotle bequeathed his library and MSS. to 
Theophrastus, his successor in the Academy. 
On the death of Theophrastus, the libraries and 
MSS. both of Aristotle and Theophrastus are 
said to have come into the hands of his relation 
• and disciple, Neleus of Scepsis. This Neleus 
sold both libraries to Ptolemy II. king of Egypt, 
for the Alexandrian library ; but he retained 
for himself, as an heirloom, the original MSS. 
of the works of these two philosophers. The 
descendants of Neleus, who were subjects of 
the king of Pergamus, knew of no other way of 
securing them from the search of the Attali 
who wished to rival the Ptolemies in forming a 
large library, than concealing them in a cellar, 
where for a couple of centuries they were 
exposed to the ravages of damp and worms. 
It was not till the beginning of the century 
before the birth of Christ that a wealthy book- 
collector, the Athenian Apellicon of Teos, 
traced out these valuable relics, bought them 
from the ignorant heirs, and prepared from 
them a new edition of Aristotle's works. After 
the capture of Athens, Sulla conveyed Apelli- 
con's library to Rome, B. c. 34. Tyrannion 
made copies of them, and Andronicusof Rhodes 



ARMENIA 119 
thence arranged an edition of Aristotle's works. 
CApellicon.] From this story an error arose, 
which has been handed down from the age 
of Strabo to recent times. It was concluded 
from this account, that neither Aristotle nor 
Theophrastus had published their writings, 
with the exception of some exoteric works, 
which had no important bearing on their sys- 
tem ; and that it was not till 200 years later 
that they were brought to light by the above- 
mentioned Apellicon, and published to the 
philosophical world. That, however, was by 
no means the case. Aristotle, indeed, did not 
prepare a complete edition, as we call it, ot his 
writings. Nay, it is certain that death over- 
took him before he could finish some of his 
works and put the finishing hand to others. 
Nevertheless it cannot be denied that the Peripa- 
tetics in this interval of 200 years were acquain- 
ted with Aristotle's writings. It has, indeed, 
been sunnised that the 146 works catalogued (as 
stated above) about 200 B.C. were the lost 
Dialogues of Aristotle's earlier and Platonic 
style, which would have explained Cicero's 
description of his language as having ' n, golden 
flow.' — The complete edition of Aristotle's 
works by Bekker has Scholia and a Latin 
translation. This does not include the recently 
discovered treatise on the Constitution of 
Athens. This edition has been reprinted at Ox- 
ford in 11 vols. 8vo. ; and by Tauclinitz, 1877 : 
there is a convenient edition in one volume by 
Weise, 1843 ; for editions of separate treatises 
see above. 

Aristoxenus {'Apia-ri^evos), of Tarentum, a 
Peripatetic philosopher and a musician, flour- 
ished about B.C. 318. He was a disciple of 
Aristotle, whom he appears to have rivalled in 
the variety of his studies. According to Suidas, 
he produced works to the number of 453 upon 
music, philosophy, history, in short every 
department of literature. We know nothing of 
his philosophical opinions, except that he held 
the soul to be a harmony of the body (Cic. 
Tusc. i. 10), a doctrine which had already been 
discussed by Plato in the Phaedo. Of his 
numerous woi-ks the only one extant is his 
Elements of Harmony {apfioviKo. ffToix^Ta), in 
3 books : edited by Meibomius, in the Antiquae 
Musicae Auctores Septem, Amst. 1052. 

AristUS ("ApicTTOs). 1. Of Salamis in Cyprus, 
wrote a history of Alexander the Great (Arrian, 
vii. 19 ; Strab. p. 682). — 2. An Academic philo- 
sopher, a contemporary and friend of Cicero, 
and teacher of M. Brutus (Cic. ad Att. v. 10 ; 
Pint. Brut. 2). 
Arius, river. [Abia.] 

Ariiisia [t] 'Apiovaia x'^pa)j ^ district on the 
N. of Chios, where the best wine in the island 
was grown (Verg. Eel. v. 71 ; Plin. xiv. 73). 

Armene ('Apfi4vTi, or -^vri : Akliman), a town 
on the coast of Paplilagonia, where the 10,000 
Greeks, during their retreat, rested 5 days, 
entertained by the people of Sinope, a little to 
the W. of which Armene stood (Xen. An. vi. 1, 
15; Strab. p. 545). 

Armenia {'Apfxevia : 'Apuevios, Armenius : 
Armenia), a country of Asia, lying between 
Asia Minor and the Caspian, is a lofty table- 
land, backed by the chain of the Caucasus, 
watered by the rivers Cyrus and Araxes, con- 
taining the sources also of the Tigris and of 
the Euphrates, the latter of which divides the 
country into 2 unequal parts, which were called 
Major and Minor. 1. Armenia Major or Pro- 
pria ('A. 7; fxeyaKi] or t] ISius KaKovfiivrt : Erze- 
rouni, Kars. Van, and Erivan), was bounded 



120 ARMENIA 
on the NE. and N. by tlie Cyrus (Kur), which 
divided it from Albania and Iberia; on the 
NW. and W. by the Moschici mountains (the 
p.-olongation of the cliain of the Anti- Taurus), 
and the Euphrates {Frat), which divided it 
from Colchis and Armenia Minor ; and on the 
S. and SE. by the mountains called Masius, 
Niphates, and Gordiaei (the prolongation of the 
Taurus), and the lower course of the Aeaxes, 
which divided it from Mesopotamia, Assyria, 
and Media : on the E. the country comes to a 
point at the confluence of the Cyrus and Araxes. 
It is intersected by chains of mountains, be- 
tween wliich run the two great rivers Auaxes, 
flowuig E. into tlie Caspian, and the Arsanias, 
or S. branch of the Euphrates (Miirad), flow- 
ing W. into the main stream {Frat) just above 
M. Masius. The E. extremity of the chain of 
mountains which separates the basins of these 
two rivers, and which is an offshoot of the 
Anti-Taurus, forms the Ararat of Scripture. In 
the S. of the country is the great lake of Van, 
Thospitis Palus, enclosed by mountain chains 
which connect Ararat with the S. range of 
mountains. — 2. Armenia Minor ("A. yui/cpa or 
fipaxvTfpa), was bounded on the E. by the 
Euphrates, which divided it from Armenia 
Major, on the N. and NW. by the mountains 
Scodlses, Paryadres, and Anti-Taurus, dividing 
it from Poutus and Cappadocia, and on the S. 
by the Taurus dividing it from Commagene in 
N. Syria, so that it contained the country E. 
and S. of the city of Siwas (the ancient Cabira 
or Sebaste) as far as the Euphrates and the 
Taurus. The boundaries between Armenia 
Minor and Cappadocia varied at diflferent times ; 
and indeed the whole country up to the 
Euphrates is sometimes called Cappadocia, 
and, on the other hand, the whole of Asia 
Minor E. of the Halys seems at one time to 
have been included under the name of Armenia. 
It is described by Justin (xlii. 2) as the land 
' from Cappadocia to the Caspian.' The people 
of Armenia claimed to be aboriginal. Hero- 
dotus connects them with the Phrygians; 
Strabo, with the Thessahans (Hdt. vii. 23 ; 
Strab. p. 530). They seem to have belonged to 
the same stem as the Medes. Their language, 
though possessing some remarkable peculiari- 
ties of its own, was nearly allied to the ludo- 
Germanic family ; and their manners and reli- 
gious ideas were similar to those of the Medes 
and Persians, but with a greater tendency to 
the personification of the powers of nature, as 
in the goddess Analtis, whose worship was 
peculiar to Armenia. They had commercial 
dealings with Assyria and Phoenicia. The 
earliest Armenian traditions represent the 
country as governed by native Irings, who had 
perpetually to maintain their independence 
against attacks from Assyria. They were said 
to have been conquered by Semiramis, but 
again tlirew off the yoke at the time of the 
Median and Babylonian revolt. Their relations 
to the Medes and Persians seem to have 
varied between successful resistance, unwilling 
subjection, and friendly alliance. A body of 
Armenians formed a part of the army which 
Xerxes led against Greece ; and they assisted 
Darius Codomannus against Alexander, and in 
this war they lost their king, and became sub- 
ject to the Macedonian empire (b.c. 328). After 
another interval of successful revolt (u.c. 817- 
274), they submitted to the Greek kings of Syria ; 
but when Antiochus the Great was defeated by 
the Romans (b.c. 190), tlie country again re- 
gained its independence, and it was at this 



ARNE 

period that it was divided into the two kingdoms 
of Armenia Major and Minor, under two dif- 
ferent dynasties, founded respectively by the 
noblte who headed the revolt, Artaxias and 
Zariadras. Ultimately, Armenia Minor was 
made a Roman province (but for no long time) 
by Trajan. M. Aurelius reduced it, but did 
not make it a province ; but later two provinces 
were formed from Armenia Minor, and under 
J ustinian four, the fourth comprising a part of 
Armenia Major. 

Armemus Hons (rh 'Apft4ytoy upos), a branch 
of the Anti-Taurus chain in Armenia Minor. 

Arminius (the Latinised form of Hermann, 
' the cliieftain '), son of Sigimer, ' the conqueror,' 
and chief of the tribe of the Cherusci, who 
inhabited the country to the north of the Hartz 
mountains, now fonning the S. of Hanover and 
Brunswick. He was born in B.C. 18 ; and in his 
youth he led the warriors of his tribe as 
auxiliaries of the Roman legions in Germany, 
where he learnt the language and military dis- 
cipline of Rome, and was admitted to the free- 
dom of the city, and enrolled among the equites. 
In A.D. 9, Arminius, who was now 27 years old, 
and had succeeded his father as chief of his 
tribe, persuaded his countrymen to rise against 
the Romans, who were now masters of this 
part of Germany, wliich seemed destined to 
become, like Gaul, a Roman province. His 
attempt was crowned with success. QuintUius 
Varus, who was stationed in the country with 
three legions, was destroyed with almost all his 
troops [Vabus] ; and the Romans had to relin- 
quish all their possessions beyond the Rhine. 
In 14, Arminius had to defend his country 
against Germanicus. At first he was success- 
ful ; the Romans were defeated, and Germanicus 
withdrew towards the Rhine, followed by Armi- 
nius. But having been compelled by his imcle, 
Inguiomer, against his own wishes, to attack 
the Romans in their entrenched camp, his army 
was routed, and the Romans made good their 
retreat to the Rhine. It was in the course of 
this campaign that Thusnelda, the wife of 
Arminius, fell into the hands of the Romans, 
and was reserved with the infant boy to whom 
she soon after gave birth in her captivity, to 
adorn the triumph of Germanicus at Rome. In 
16, Arminius was again called upon to resist 
Germanicus, in which campaign he rejected 
with scorn the entreaties of his brother to join 
the Romans ; he was defeated, and his covmtry 
was probably only saved from subjection by the 
jealousy of Tiberius, who recalled Germanicus 
in the following year. At lengtli Arminius 
aimed at absolute power, and was in consequence 
put to death by his ovra relations in the 37th 
year of his age, a.d. 19. (Tac. Ann. i. 55-68, ii. 9, 
16, 45, 88; Strab. p. 293; Suet. Aug. 23; Veil. 
Pat. ii. 118; Dio Cass. Ivi. 18.) 

Armorica or Aremorica, the name of the 
NW. coast of Gaul from the Ligeris {Loire) to 
the Sequana {Seine), derived from the Celtic 
ar, air, ' lapon,' and muir, mor, ' the sea.' The 
Armoricae civitates are enxmierated by Caesar 
{B. G. vii. 75). 

Arna (Amas, -iitis : Civitella d'Artw), a town 
in Umbria near Perusia. 

Arnae ("Apvai), a town in Chalcidice in Mace- 
donia, S. of Aulon and Bromiscus. 

Arne ('Apinj). 1. A town in Boeotia mentioned 
by Homer {II. ii. 507), supposed by Pausanias 
to be the same as Cliaeronea, but placed 
by others near Acraephiuni on tlie E. of the 
lake Copais.— 2. A town in the SW. of Thessoly, 
near the modern Mataranga (Thuc. ii. 12). 



AENISSA 

Arnissa {"Apviinra: Oatrova?), a town in 
Bordaca in Macedonia. 

Arnobius, a native of Africa, lived about a.d. 
300, in tlie reign of Diocletian. He was at first 
a teacher of rhetoric at Sicca in Africa, but 
afterwards embraced Christianity ; and to 
remove all doubts as to the reality of his con- 
version, he wrote, while yet a catechumen, his 
celebrated work against the Pagans, in 7 books 
{Libri septem adversus Gentes), which we still 
possess. It is chiefly valuable for the informa- 
tion which it gives about Greek and Boman 
■customs and ritual. — Editiom. By Orelli, Lips. 
1816 ; by Eeifferscheid, Vindob. 1875. 

Arnoil {'Apvov : Wad-el-Mojib), a consider- 
able river of E. Palestine, rising in the Arabian 
Desert, and flowing W. through a rocky valley 
into the Lacus Asphaltites {Dead Sea). The 
surrounding district was called Arnonas ; and 
in it the Eomans had a military station, called 
Castra Amonensia. 

Arnus (Arno), the chief river of Etruria, 
rises in the Apennines, flows by Pisae, and falls 
into the Tyrrhenian sea. It gave the name to 
the Tribus Arnensis, formed B.C. 387. (Strab. 
^ p. 222 ; Liv. xxii. 2 ; Tac. Ann. i. 79.) 

Aroa ('Aprfa or Ap6r)), the ancient name of 
Patbae. 

Aromata [rd. 'Apdifiara, 'Apufidraiv &Kpov : 
Cape Guardafui), the E.-most promontory of 
Africa, at the S. extremity of the Arabian Gulf : 
also the surrounding district was called Aromata 
or Aromatophora Eegio, with a town 'Apufidrav 
ifjLir6pioy : so named from the abundance of 
■spices which the district produced. 

Ajpi (Arpanus : Arpi), an inland town in 
the Daunian Apulia, founded, according to 
tradition, by Diomedes, who called it "Apyos 
Imriov, from which its later name, Argyri,p]}a 
or Argyripa and Arpi are said to have arisen 
{Ille [Diomedes] urbem Argyripam, patriae 
■cognomine gentis, Verg. Aen. xi. 246). During 
the time of its independence it was a flourish- 
ing commercial town, using Salapia as its liar- 
lour. It was friendly to the Eomans in the 
Samnite wars, but revolted to Hannibal after 
the battle of Cannae, B.C. 216 : it was taken by 
the Eomans in 313, deprived of its independence, 
aoid never recovered its former prosperity. 
(Strab. p. 283 ; Liv. xxii. 12, xxiv. 46.) 

Arpinum (Arplnas, -atis : Arpino), a town of 
Latium on the small river Fibrenus [Fibreno], 
originally belonging to the Volscians and after- 
wards to the Samnites, from whom the Eomans 
wrested it, was a Eoman municipium, and 
received the jus suffragii, or right of voting in 
the Eoman comitia, B.C. 188. {Strab. p. 220 ; 
Liv. xxxviii. 36.) It was the birthplace of 
Marius and Cicero, the latter of whom was born 
in his father's villa, situated on a small island 
fonned by the river Fibrenus. Cicero's brother 
•Qumtus had an estate S. of Arpinum, called 
Arcanum. (Sail. Jug. 67 ; Cic. Legg. ii. 1, 8, 
<id Fam. xiii. 11.) 

Arretium or Aretium (Arretlnus: Arezzo), 
■one of tlie most important of the twelve cities 
of Etruria, was situated in the NE. of the 
country at the foot of the Apennines, and pos- 
sessed a fertile territory near the sources of the 
Arnus and the Tiber, producing good wine and 
corn (Liv. ix. 37, x. 37 ; Strab. pp. 222, 226.) It 
was a Eoman colony and municipium after the \ 
p\a 1 unic war. It was particularly celebrated 
lor its pottery, whicli was of red ware. The 
t^ilnu, from whom Maecenas was descended 
were a noble family of Arretium. The ruins of 
* city 2 or 3 miles to the SE. of Arezzo on a 



AEEIANUS 



121 



height called Poggio di San Cornelia, or Cas- 
tel Secco, are probably the remains of the 
ancient Arretium. 

Arrhapachltis {'Appairaxiris), a district of 
Assyria, between the rivers Lycus and Choa- 
tras. 

Arrhibaeus {'Appt^aios), chieftain of the 
Macedonians of Lyucus, revolted against king 
Perdiccas in the Pelopounesian war. It was to 
reduce him that Perdiccas sent for Brasidas 
(B.C. 424), and against him took place the un- 
successful joint expedition, in which Perdiccas 
deserted Brasidas, and Brasidas effected his 
bold and skilful retreat. (Thuc. ii. 99, iv. 79, 88, 
124 ; Strab. p. 826.) 

Arrhidaeus ('ApptSaios) or Aridaeus ('Apt- 
Scuos). 1. A half-brother of Alexander the 
Great, son of Philip and a female dancer, 
Philinna of Larissa, was of imbecile under- 
standing. He was at Babylon at the time of 
Alexander's death, B.C. 323, and was elected 
king under the name of Philip. The young 
Alexander, the infant son of Eoxana, was asso- 
ciated with him in the government. In 322 
Arrhidaeus married Eurydice. On their return 
to Macedonia, Eurydice attempted to obtain the 
supreme power in opposition to Polysperohon ; 
but Arrhidaeus and Eurydice were made pri- 
soners, and put to death by order of Olympias, 
817. (Pint. Alex. 77 ; Just. xiv. 5 ; Diod. xix. 
52 ; Paus. viii. 7, 5.) — 2. One of Alexander's 
generals, obtained the province of the Helles- 
pontine Phrygia, at the division of the pro- 
vinces which was made in 321, but was deprived 
of it by Antigonus in 319 (Just. xiii. 4 ; Diod. 
xviii. 51, 72). 

Arria. 1. Wife of Caeoina Paetus. When 
her husband was ordered by the emperor Clau- 
dius to put an end to his life, a.d. 42, and hesi- 
tated to do so, Arria stabbed herself, handed 
the dagger to her husband, and said, ' Paetus, 
it does not pain me.' (Plin. Ep. iii. 16 ; Die 
Cass. Ix. 16 ; Mart. i. 14.)— 2. Daughter of the 
preceding, and wife of Tlirasea (Tac. Aim. xvi. 
34). 

Arrianus {'AppiavSs). 1. Of Nicomedia in 
Bithynia, born about A.D. 90, was a pupil and 
friend of Epictetus, and first attracted attention 
as a philosopher by publishing at Athens the 
lectures of his master. In 124 he gained the 
friendship of Hadrian during his stay in Greece, 
and received from the emperor the Boman 
citizenship ; from this time he assumed the 
name of Flavins. In 136 he was appointed 
praefect of Cappadocia, which was invaded the 
year after by the Alani or Massagetae, whom 
he defeated. Under Antoninus Pius, in 146, 
Arrian was consul ; and about 150 he withdrew 
froin public life, and from this time lived in his 
native town of Nicomedia, as priest of Demeter 
and Persephone. He died at an advanced age 
in the reign of M. Aurelius. Arrian was one of 
the most active and best writers of his time. 
He was a close imitator of Xenophon, both in 
the subjects of his works and in the style in 
which they -were written. He regarded his 
relation to Epictetus as similar to that of 
Xenophon to Socrates ; and it was his endea- 
vour to carry out that resemblance. With this 
view he published (1) the philosophical lectures 
of his master (Aiarpi/Sa! 'Ettikt^tov) in 8 books, 
the first four of which are still extant. Edited 
in Schweighauser's Ejncteteae Philoso2>hiae 
Monumenta, vol. iii., and in Coraes' Hdpfpya 
'E\K-Qu. Bt&Moe. vol. viii. (2) An abstract of the 
practical pliilosophy of Epictetus ('E7X6ip/5ioj' 
'£7ri/cTriTou), which is still extant. This cele- 



122 ARRIBAS 
brated work maintained it8 authority for many 
centuries, hoth with Cliristlans and Pagans, 
ihebest editions are those of Schweighauser 
aiid Coraes, in the collections above referred to. 
He also iniblished other works relating to 
Epictetus, which are now lost. His original 
works are (8) A treatise on tlio chase {Kvvt]- 
yVTiKos), which forms a kind of supplement to 
Xenophon's worlc on the same subject, and is 
printed in most editions of Xenophon's works. 
(i) The History of the Asiatic expedition of 
Alexander the Great {'Avdffains 'AKe^dvSpou) in 
7 books, tlie most important of An-ian's works. 
This great work reminds the reader of Xenophon's 
Anabasis, not only by its title, but also by the 
ease and clearness of its style. It is also of 
great value for its historical accuracy, being 
based upon the most trustworthy histories 
written by the contemporaries of Alexander, 
especially those of Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, 
and of Aristobulus, the son of Aristobulus. 
(5) On India {'IvSiK^ or to. 'IvSiko), which may 
be regarded as a continuation of the Anabasis, 
at the end of which it is usually printed. This 
work is written in the Ionic dialect, probably 
in imitation of Ctesias of Cnidus, whose work 
on the same subject Arrian wished to supplant 
by a more trustworthy and correct account. 
The best editions of the Anabasis are by Sm- 
tenis, Berlin, 18G7; Abicht, Leipzig, 1876: of 
the Indica by Schmieder, Halle, 1798. (6) A 
description of a voyage round the coasts of the 
Euxine [TreplirKovs ■kOutov EufeiVou), which had 
been made by Arrian himself during his govern- 
ment of Cappadocia. This Periplus has come 
down to us together with a Periplus of the Ery- 
tlu-aean, and a Periplus of the Euxine and the 
Palus Maeotis, both of which also bear the 
name of Arrian, but they belong to a later 
period. The best editions are in Hudson's 
Geograplii Minores, vol. i., and in Gail's and 
Miiller's collections of the minor Geogi-a- 
phers. (7) A worlc on Tactics (\6yos TOKTiKhs 
or TexvT] TaKTtK-i'i), sometimes ascribed to him, 
is now generally held to be by Aelian. — 2. A 
Roman jurisconsult, probably lived under 
Trajan, and is perhaps the same person with 
the orator Arrianus who corresponded with the 
younger Pliny. He wrote a treatise de Inter- 
dictis, of which the second book is quoted in 
the DiTCst. 

Arribas, Arrybas, Aryrabas, or Tharrytas 

('AppijSay, 'Appv&as, 'Apv/x^as, or Qappvras), a 
descendant of Achilles, and one of the early 
kings of the Molossians in Epirus. He is said 
to have been educated at Athens, and on his 
return to his native country to have framed for 
the Molossians a code of laws and established a 
regular constitution. (Pans. i. 11 ; Plut. Pyrrh. 1.) 

Q. Arrius. 1. Praetor, b.c. 72, defeated 
Crixus, the leader of the runaway slaves, but 
was afterwards conquered by Spartacus. In 
71, Arrius was to have succeeded Verres as 
propraetor in Sicily, but died on his way to 
Sicily (Cic. Verr. ii. 15, iv. 20). — 2. A son of the 
preceding, was an unsuccessful candidate for the 
consulship, B.C. 59. He was an intimate friend 
of Cicero (Cic. 2iro Mil. 17, ad Att. ii. 6, 7.) 

Arrius Aper. [Apek.] 

L. ArruntiuB. 1. Proscribed by the trium- 
virs in B.C. i'A, but escaped to Sext. Pompey in 
Sicily, and was restored to the state with Pom- 
pey. He subsequently commanded the left 
wing of tlie fleet of Octavianus at the battle of 
Actiuni, 31, and was consul in 22. (App. B. C. iv. 
46; Plut. Ant. 66.) — 2. Son of the preceding, 
consul A.p. G. Augustus declared in his last 



ARSACES 

I illness, that Arruntius was not unworthy of the 
empire, and would have boldness enough to 
8617^ it, if an opportunity presented. Tliia 
rendered him an object of suspicion to Tiberius. 
He was charged in a.w. 87, as an accomplice in 
the crimes of Albucilla, and put an end to liia 
own life. (Tac. Ann. i. 8, 18, 76, vi. 27, 47 ; Dio 
Cass. Iviii. 27.) 
Arsa (Azuuga), a town in Hispania Baetica. 
Arsaoes {'ApcraKris], the name of the founder 
of the Parthian empire, which was also borne 
by all his successors, who were hence called the 
Araacidae. — I. He was of obscure origin, of 
Scythian race, according to Strabo from the 
country of the Ochus. He and his brother 
Tiridates who had small satrapies in Bactria. 
under Antiochus II., resenting the tyranny of 
Agathocles, slew him, and driving out tlia 
Sja-ians, established for Arsaces a small Par- 
tisan kingdom with the capital Hecatompylus, 
B.C. 256. (An-ian ap. Syncellus 284 ; Strab. p. 
515 ; Appian, Syr. 65.) He induced the Par- 
thians to revolt from the Syrian empire of the 
Seleucidae, and he became the first monarch of 
the Parthians. This event probably took place- 
about B.C. 250, in the reign of Antiochus II. ; 
but the history of the revolt, as well as of th& 
events which immediately followed, is stated 
very differently by different historians. Arsaces. 
reigned only two years, and was succeeded by 
his brother Tiridates. — II. = Tiridates, reigned. 
37 years, B.C. 248-211, and defeated Seleucus. 
Callinicus, the successor of Antiochus II. — III. 
=Artabaiius I., son of the preceding, was. 
attacked by Antiochus III. (the Great), who, 
however, was unable to subdue his country, and 
at length recognised him as king, about 210 
(Polyb. X. 27; Just. xli. 5). — IV, = Priapatius, 
son of the preceding, reigned 15 years and left 
three sons, Plu'aates, Mithridates, and Artaba- 
nus. — ^V. = Ph.raates I., subdued the Mardi, and, 
though he had many sons, left the kingdom to. 
his brother Mithridates. — VI. = Mithridates I. 
son of Arsaces IV., greatly enlarged the Par- 
thian empire by his conquests. He defeated. 
Demetrius Nicator, king of SjTria, and took him. 
prisoner in 138. Mithridates treated Demetrius, 
with respect, and gave him his daughter Rho- 
dogune in marriage. Mithridates died during- 
the captivity of Demetrius, between 138 and 130 
(Just. xli. 6; Strab. pp. 516, 524; Appian, Syr. 
67). — VII.=Ph.raates II,, son of the preceding, 
carried on war against Antiochus VII. Sidetes, 
whom Phraates defeated and slew in battle, B.C. 
128. Phraates himself was shortly after killed 
in battle by the Scythians, who had been 
invited by Antiochus to assist him against 
Phraates, but who did not arrive till after the 
fall of the former (Just, xxxviii. 10, xlii. 1)- 
— VIII. = Artabanus II., youngest brother of 
Arsaces VI., and youngest sou of Arsaces IV., 
fell in battle against the Thogarii or Tochari, 
apparently after a short reign. — IX. = Mithri- 
dates II., son of the preceding, prosecuted 
many wars with success, and added many 
nations to the Parthian empire, whence he 
obtained the surname of Great. It was in his 
reign that the Ronums first had any official com- 
munication with Parthia. Mithridates sent aa . 
ambassador to Sulla, who had come into Asia. 
B.C. 92, and requested alliance witli tlie Romans- 
(Just. xlii. 2, 4 ; Plut. SiiU. 5.)— X. = (Mnascires 1) 
Notliing is known of the successor of Arsaces. 
IX. Even his name is uncertain.— XI. = Sana- 
trooes, reigned seven years, and died about B.C. 
70. — XII. = Phraates ill., son of tlie preceding. 
Ho lived at the time of the war between tha 



nans and Mithridates of Pontus, by both of 
,m he was courted. He contracted an 
uice with the Romans, but he took no part 
• he war. At a hiter period misunderstand- 
, arose between Pompey and Phi'aates, but 
upey thought it more prudent to avoid a 
, with the Partliiiuis, although Phraates had 
uivaded Armenia, and Tigranes, the 
Armenian king, implored Pompey's 
assistance. Plu-aates was miu-dered 
soon afterwards by his two sons, 
Mitlu-idates luid Orodes (Dio Cass, 
sxwi. 28, 84, xxxvii. 6, xxxix. 56 ; 
Appian, Sijr. 104; Plut.Pom^j. 33-39). 
— XIII. = Mithridates III., son of 
the preceding, succeeded his father 
during the Armenian war. On his 
return from Armenia, Mithi-idates was 
expelled from the throne, on account 
of liis cruelty, and was succeeded by 
his brother Orodes. Mitlu'idates after- 
wards made war upon liis brother, but 
was taken prisoner and jmt to death 
(Dio Cass, xxxix. 50 ; Appian, Sijr. 51 ; Jos. -B. J. 
i. 8). — XIV. = Orodes I,, brother of the preceding, 
was the Parthian Iring whose general Surenas 
defeated Crassus and the Romans, B.C. 53. 
[Cr.vssus.J After the death of Crassus, Orodes 
gave the command of the army to liis son 
Pacorus, who entered Syria in 51 with a small 
force, but was driven back by Cassius. In 50 
Pacorus again crossed tlie Euphrates with a 
much larger army, and advanced as far as 
Antioch, but was defeated near Antigonea by 
Cassius. The Parthians now remained quiet 
for some years. In 40 they crossed the Eu- 
phrates again, under the command of Pacorus 
and Labienus, the son of T. Labienus. They 
overran Syria and part of Asia Minor, but were 
defeated in 39 by Ventidius Bassus, one of 
Antony's legates : Labienus was slain in the 
flight, and the Parthians retired to their own 
dominions. In 38, Pacorus again invaded 
Syria, but was completely defeated and fell in 
the battle. This defeat was a severe blow to 
the aged king Orodes, who shortly afterwards 
smTendered the crown to liis son, Phraates, 
during his lifetime {Dio Cass. xl. 28, xlviii. 
24-41, xlix. 19, 23 ; Just. xlii. 4 ; Appian, B. C. v. 
65 ; Pint. Ant 33 ; Cic. Att. v. 18, Fam.. xv. 1) 
— XV. = Phraates IV. , commenced his reign by 
mm-dering his father, Iris 30 brothers, and his 
own son, who was grown up, that there might 
be none of the royal family whom the Partliians 
could place upon the throne in his stead. In 
consequence of liis cruelty many of the Par- 
thian nobles fled to Antony (37), who invaded 
Parthia in 3(5, but was obliged to retreat after 
losing a gi-eat part of his army (Dio Cass. xlix. 
23-31 ; Plut. Ant. 37-51 ; Strab. p. 523). A few 
years afterwards the cruelties of Phraates pro- 
duced a rebellion against him ; he was driven 
out of the country, and Tiridates proclamied 
king in his stead. Phraates, however, was soon 
restored by the Scythians, and Tiridates fled to 
Augustus, carrying with him the youngest son 
of Phraates (Hor. Od. ii. 2, 17, cf. i. 26, 5, iii. 8, 
19). Augustus restored his son to Phraates, on 
condition of his surrendering the Roman stan 
dards and prisoners taken in the war with 
Crassus and Antony (Dio Cass. li. 18, liii. 33, 
hv. 8; Just. xlii. 5; Suet. Aug. 21 ; Hor. Od. 
IV. ir, 6, ISpist. i. 18). Tliey were given up in 
M ■ their restoration caused universal joy at 
■Home, and was celebrated not only by the 
poets, but by festivals and commemorative 
monuments. Phraates also sent to Augustus 



ARSACES 128 
as hostages his four sons, with their wives and 



children, who were carried to Rome. In a.d. 2, 
Phraates was ijoisoned by liis wife Tliennusa, 
arid her son Pnraataces (Jos. Ant. xviii. 2, 4). — 
XVI. = Phraataces, reigned only a short time, as 
he was expelled by his subjects on account of 
his crunes. The Parthian nobles then elected 




Coin of Phraataces. 
This is a good Bpecimen of the Partliian coins. Obv., head of king; 
rff., Parthian holding a bow, with the legend BA2I.\Ens BAILlEnN 

AHXAKOY EYEHFETOY AIKAIOY tUltANOYS tlAEAAHNOX [Al-TE] MIZIOY . 
A1T=3U. 

as king Orodes, who was of the family of the 
Arsacidae. — XVII. = Orodes II., also reigned 
only a short time, as he was killed by the Par- 
tliians on account of his cruelty. Upon his 
death the Parthians applied to the Romans for 
Vonones, one of the sons of Phraates IV., who 
was accordingly granted to them (Tac. Ann. ii. 
1-4).— XVIII. = Vonones I., sou of Plu-aates IV., 
was also disliked by his subjects, who therefore 
invited Artabanus, king of Media, to take 
possession of the kingdom. Artabanus drove 
Vonones out of Parthia, who resided first in 
Armenia, next in Syria, and subsequently in 
Cilicia. He was put to death in a.d. 19, accord- 
ing to some accounts by order of Tiberius on 
account of his great wealth (Tac. Ann. ii. 1-4, 
56,68; Suet. Tib. 49).— XIX. = Artabanus III., 
obtamed the Parthian kingdom soon after the 
expulsion of Vonones, about A.D. 16. Artabanus 
placed Arsaces, one of his sons, over Armenia, 
and assumed a liostile attitude towai-ds the 
Romans. His subjects, whom he opi)ressed, 
despatched an embassy to Tiberius to beg him 
to send to Partliia Phraates, one of the sons of 
Phraates IV. Tiberius willingly complied with 
the request ; but Phraates upon arriving in 
Syria was carried off by a disease, a.d. 35. As 
soon as Tiberius heard of his death, he set up 
Tiridates, another of the Arsacidae, as a claim- 
ant to the Parthian throne : Artabanus was 
obliged to leave his kingdom, and to fly for 
refuge to the Hyrcaniaus and Carmanians. 
Hereupon Vitellius, the governor of Syria, 
crossed the Euphrates, and placed Tiridates on 
the tlu-one. Artabanus was, however, recalled 
next year (36) by his fickle subjects. He was 
once more expelled by his subjects, and once 
more restored (Tac. Ann. ii. 58, vi. 31-37, 41-44 ; 
Dio Cass. Iviii. 26, Ixix. 27 ; Jos. Ant. xviii. 5). 
He died soon after his last restoration, leaving 
two sons, Bardanes and Gotarzes. — XX. = 
Gotarzes, succeeded his father, Artabanus 
III., but was defeated by his brother Bardanes 
and retired into Hyrcania. — XXI, = Bardanes, 
brother of the preceding, was jiut to death by 
his subjects in 47, whereupon Gotarzes again 
obtained the crown. But as he ruled with 
cruelty, the Parthians secretly begged the 
emperor Claudius to send them from Rome 
Melierdates, grandson of Phraates IV. Clau- 
dius complied with their request, and com- 
manded the governor of Syria to assist Meher- 
dates, but the latter was defeated in battle, 
and taken prisoner by Gotarzes. (Tac. Awt. xi. 



124 AESACES 

S-10, xii. 10-14. The account varieB in Job. 
Ant. XX. 3.) — XXII. = Vonones II., succeeded 
Gotarzes about 51). His reign was Bhort. — 
XXIII, =VologeBes I., son of Vonones II. or 
Artabauus III. Soon after his accession, he 
conquered Armenia, which he gave to his 
brother Tiridates. In 55 he gave up Armenia 
to the Romans, but in 58 he again placed his 
brother over Armenia and declared war against 
the Romans. This war terminated in favour of 
the Romans : the Parthians were repeatedly 
defeated by Domitius Corbulo, and Tiridates 
was driven out of Armenia. At length, in 02, 
peace was concluded between Vologeses and the 
Romans on condition that Nero would sur- 
render Armenia to Tiridates, provided the 
latter would come to Rome and receive it as a 
gift from the Roman emperor. Tiridates came 
to Rome in 63, where he was received with 
extraordinary splendour, and obtained from 
Nero the Armenian crown. Vologeses after- 
wards maintained friendly relations with Ves- 
pasian, and seems to have lived till the reign of 
Domitian (Tac. A7in. xiii. 5-9, xiv. 23, xv. 1-18, 
25-31 ; Dio Cass. Ixii. 19-23, Ixiii. 1-7, Ixvi. 
11). — XXIV. =Pac6ruB, succeeded his father, 
Vologeses I., and was a contemporary of 
Domitian and Trajan (Mart. ix. 39 ; Plin. JEv. 
X. 16). — XXV. = Chosroes or Osroes, succeeded 
his brother Pacorus during the reign of Trajan. 
His conquest of Armenia occasioned the inva- 
sion of f'arthia by Trajan, who stripped it of 
many of its provinces, and made the Parthians 
for a time subject to Rome. [Tbajanus.] Upon 
the death of Trajan in a.d. 117, the Parthians 
expelled Parthamaspates, whom Trajan had 
placed upon the tlu-one, and recalled their 
former king, Chosroes. Hadrian relinquished 
the conquests of Trajan, and made the Eu- 
phrates, as before, the eastern boundary of the 
Roman empire. Chosroes died during the 
leign of Hadrian (Dio Cass. Ixviii. 17-33). — 
XXVI. = Vologeses II., succeeded his father 
Chosroes, and reigned from about 122 to 149 
(Dio Cass. Ixix. 15).— XXVII. = Vologeses III,, 
began to reign in 149. He invaded Syria in 
162, but the generals of the emperor Verus 
drove him back into his own dominions, invaded 
Mesopotamia and Assyria, and took Seleucia 
and Ctesiphon; and Vologeses was obliged to 
purchase peace by ceding Mesopotamia to the 
Romans. From tliis time to the downfall of 
the Parthian empire, there is great confusion in 
the list of kings (Dio Cass. Ixx. 2, Ixxi. 2; 
Capitol. M. Ant. Phil. 8, 9; Ver. 6, 7; 
Eutrop. viii. 10).— XXVIII. = Vologeses IV., 
probably ascended the throne in the reign of 
Commodus. His dominions were invaded by 
Septimius Severus, who took Ctesiphon in 199. 
On the death of Vologeses IV., at the beginning 
of the reign of Caracalla, Parthia was torn 
asunder by contests for the cro^vn between the 
sons of Vologeses (Dio Cass. Ixxv. 9, Ixxvii. 12 ; 
Herodian, iii. 1-10; Script. Aug. Sever. 15, 10). 
— XXIX. = Vologeses V., son of Vologeses IV., 
was attacked by Caracalla in 215, and about 
the same time was dethroned by his brother 
Artabanus (Dio Cass. Ixxvii. 10).— XXX. = Arta- 
banus IV., the last king of Parthia. The war 
commenced by Caracalla against Vologeses was 
continued against Artabanus; but Macrinus, 
the successor of Caracalla, concluded peace 
with the Parthians. In this war Artabanus 
had lost the best of his troops, and the Persians 
seized the opportunity of recovering then- long- 
lost independence. They were led by Arta- 
xerxes (Ardshir), the sou of Sassan, and defeated 



ARSINOE 

the Parthians in three great battles, in the last 
of which Artabanus was taken prisoner and 
killed, A.D. 220 (Dio Cass. Ixxviii. 1-27, Ixxx. 
8 ; Merodian, iv. 0-15; Capitol. Macrin. 8, 12; 
Syncell. p. 077). Thus ended the Parthian 
empire of the Arsacidae, after it had existed 
470 years. The Parthians were now obliged 
to submit to Artaxerxes, the founder of the 
dynasty of the Sasbanidae, which continued to 
reign till a.b. 651. 

Arsacia {'Apacutla: Ru. SE. of Teheran), 
a great city of Media, S. of the Caspiae Portae, 
originally named Rhagae ("Payal) ; rebuilt by 
Seleucus Nicator, and called Europus (EupanrJ j); 
again destroyed in the Parthian wars and re- 
built by Arsaces, who named it after himself 
(Strab. pp. 514, 524). 

Arsacidae, the name of a dynasty of Par- 
thian kings. [AiiSACES.] It was also the name 
of a dynasty of Armenian kings, who reigned in 
Armenia from b.c. 149 to a.d. 428. This dynasty 
was founded by Aiitaxias I., who was related 
to the Parthian Arsacidae. 

Arsamosata {'Apcrafici(raTa, also wrongly 
abbrev. 'XpixMcara: Sheiiishat), a town and 
strong fortress in Armenia Major, between the 
Euplurates and the sources of the Tigris, near 
the most frequented pass of the Taurus (Tac. 
A7m. XV. 10; Plin. vi. 20). 

Arsanias, -ius, or -us {'kpvavias, &c.), the 
name of two rivers of Great Armenia. — 1. 
[Mitrcul], the S. arm of the Euplirates. [Ar- 
menia.] — 2. {Arslan ?), a small stream rising 
near the sources of the Tigris, and flowing W. 
into the Euphrates near Melitene. 

Arsenaria, or -enn- {'Apcrrivapla : Arzaw, 
Ru.), a town in Mauretania Caesariensis, 3 
miles (Rom.) from the sea : a Roman colony 
(Plin. V. 19). 

Arsene. [Abzanene.] 

Arses, Narses, or Oarses ["Apa-ns, Ndpans, 
or 'Oa.par]t), youngest sou of king Artaxerxes 
III. Ochus, was raised to the Persian tlirone 
by the eunuch Bagoas after he had ijoisoned 
Artaxerxes, B.C. 339, but he was murdered by 
Bagoas in the 3rd year of his reign, when he 
attempted to free himself from the bondage in 
which he was kept. After the death of Arses, 
Bagoas made Darius III. king (Diod. xvii. 5 ; 
Strab. p. 730 ; Arrian, An. ii. 14). 

Arsia [Arsa], a river in Istria, fonning the 
boundary between Upper Italy and Illyricum, 
with a town of the same name upon it. 

Arsia Silva, a wood in Etruria celebrated for 
the battle between the Tarquins and the Romans 
(Liv. ii. 7). 

Arsinoe {'Apa-ivSri)- I- Mythological. 1. 
Daughter of Phegeus, and wife of Alcmaeon. 
As she disapproved of the murder of Alcmaeon, 
the sons of Phegeus put her into a chest and 
carried her to Agapenor at Tegea, where they 
accused her of having killed Alcmaeon. [Alc- 
maeon ; Agenor.]— 2. Nurse of Orestes, saved 
the latter from the hands of Clytemnestra, and 
carried him to Strophius, father of Pylades 
(Pind. Pyth. xi. 18). Some accounts call her 
Laodamla.— 3. Daughter of Leucippus and 
Philodice, became by Apollo mother of Eriopis 
and Aesculapius.—" II. Historical. 1. Mother 
of Ptolemy I., was a concubine of Philip, father 
of Alexander the Great, and married Lagus, 
while she was pregnant with Ptolemy. — 2. 
Daughter of Ptoleinv I. and Berenice, married 
Lysimachus, king of Thrace, in i).c. 800, receiv- 
ing the cities of Heracles and Dium as her 
appanage. After the death of Lysimachus in 
281, she lived at Cassandreia in Macedonia. 



ABSINOB 

Her half-brother, Ptolemy Ceraunus, got pos- 
^i ssion of this town tlu-ough promise of mar- 
ii u'e but drove out Arsinoe, and slew her 
two children. Afterwards, in 279, she married 
lu r own brother, Ptolemy II. Philadelphus. 
riuiugh Arsinoe bore Ptolemy no children, she 
was exceedingly beloved by him; he gave her 
luuue to several cities, called a district {yo/xds) 
of Egypt Arsinoi'tes after her, and honoured 
lu r memory in various ways (Just. xxiv. 2 ; 
I'iut. Demetr. 31 ; Paus. i. 7; Theocr. xv. 128; 



AETAPHEENES 



125 




ArBlnoe. daughter of Ptolemy I., and -wife of Ptolemy H. 
Uei:, double cornucopia {Did. Ant. s.v. Mhytoii). 

Athen. p. 497 ; Diet. Ant. s. v. Bhyton.)—3. 
Daughter of Lysimachus, married Ptolemy 11. 
Philadelphus soon after his accession, B.C. 285. 
In consequence of her plotting against her 
namesake [No. 2], when Ptolemy fell in love 
with her, she was banished to Coptos in Upper 
Egypt. She had by Ptolemy tlu-ee children, 
Ptolemy III. Evergetes, Lysimachus, and Bere- 
nice (Polyb. XV. 25 ; Paus. I.e.). It is probable 
that she is the Arsinoe who afterwards married 
Magas, king of Cyrene (Just. xxvi. 3). — 4. Also 
called Eurydiee and Cleopatra, daughter of 
Ptolemy III. Evergetes, wife of her brother 
Ptolemy IV. Philopator, and mother of Ptolemy 
V. Epiphanes. She was killed by Philammon 
by order of her husband (Polyb. v. 83, xv. 25- 
83).— 6. Daughter of Ptolemy XI. Auletes, 
escaped from Caesar, when he was besieging 
Alexandria in n.c. 47, and was recognised as 
queen by the Alexandrians. After the capture 
of Alexandria she was carried to Eome by 
Caesar, and led in triumph by him in 46. She 
was afterwards dismissed by Caesar, and re- 
turned to Alexandria; but her sister Cleopatra 
persuaded Antony to have her put to death, in 
41 (Dio Cass. xlii. 39 ; Caes. B. C. iii. 112; B. 
Alex. 4, 33 ; Appian, B. C. v. 9). 

Arsinoe ('Apcriv6r) : 'Apo-ii/oeiir, or -oVjttjs), the 
name of several cities of the times of the Dia- 
dochi, each called after one or other of the 
persons in the preceding article. — 1. In Aetolia. 
[CoNopA.] — 2. On the N. coast of Cyprus, on 
the site of the older city of Marium (Vldptov), 
which Ptolemy I. had destroyed (Strab. p. 683.) — 
3. A port on the W. coast of Cyprus (Strab. ib.) 
— 4. (Famagosta), on the SE. coast of Cyprus, 
between Salamis and Leucolla (Strab. p. 682.)— 5. 
In Cilicia, E. of Anemurium (Strab. p. 670.) — 6. 
(Ajeroud or Suez), in the Nomos Heroijpolites 
or W. branch of the Eed Sea {Gulf of Suez). 
It was afterwards called Cleopatris. — 7. (Medi- 
net-el-Faiouvi, Eu.), the chief city of the 
Nomos ArsinoTtes in the Heptanomis or Middle 
Egypt [Aegyptus]; formerly called Crocodl- 
lopolis {KpoKoMXuv TfciAis), and the district 
Nomos Crocodilopolites, from its being the 
chief seat of the Egyptian worship of the cro- 
codile. This nomos also contained the Lake 
Moeris and the labyrmth (Strab. p. 809 ; Hdt. ii. 
48 ; PHn. v. 61). — 8. In Cyienaica, also called 
lAUCHEiUA.— 9. On the coast of the Troglodytae 
on the western coast of the Eod Sea (Strab. p. 
"o9). Its probable position is a little below the 



parallel of Thebes.— Some other cities called 
Arsinoe are belter known by other names, 
such as Ephesus in Ionia and Pataua. in 

Lycia. y ■ 7 % . r 

Arsissa or Arsese {'Apcria-cra : Argisli), part of 
the lake Thospitis, in the S. of Ai-menia Major. 

rTHOSPITIS.] 

Artabanus ('Kpra^avos). 1. Son of Hystapes 
and brother of Darius, whom he tried to dis- 
suade from the Scythian expedition, also men- 
tioned in the reign of liis nephew Xerxes, as a 
wise and frank counsellor (Hdt. iv. 83, vii. 
10, 46-53). — 2. A Hyrcanian, commander of 
the body-guard of Xerxes, assassinated this 
king in B.C. 465, with the view of setting him- 
self upon the tlu-one of Persia, but was shortly 
afterwards killed by Artaxerxes (Diod. xi. 69 ; 
Just. iii. 1).— 3. I. II. III. IV., kings of Par- 
thia. [Absaces, III. Vin. XrX. XXX.] 

Artabazus ('Apro^Safos). 1. A Mede, acts a 
prominent part in Xenophon's account of Cyrus 
the Elder (Xen. Cyrop. i. 4, &c.). — 2. A dis- 
tinguished Persian, a son of Pharnaces, com- 
manded the Parthians and Choasmians, in the 
expedition of Xerxes into Greece, B.C. 480 
(Hdt. vii. 66). He sei-ved under Mardonius 
in 479, and after the defeat of the Persians at 
Plataea, he fled with 40,000 men, and reached 
Asia in safety. Afterwards an intermediary 
between Xerxes and Pausanias (Hdt. ix. 41, 
89; Diod. xi. 33-44; Thuc. i. 129).— 3. A general 
of Artaxerxes I., fought against Inarus in 
Egypt, B.C. 462. — 4. A Persian general, fought 
under Artaxerxes II. against Datames, satrap 
of Cappadocia, B.C. 362. Under Artaxerxes III., 
Artabazus, who was then satrap of W. Asia, 
revolted in b.c. 356, but was defeated and obliged 
to take refuge with Philip of Macedonia. He 
was afterwards pardoned by Artaxerxes, and 
returned to Persia ; and he was one of the most 
faithful adherents of Darius III. Codomannus, 
who raised him to high honours. On the death 
of Darius (330) Artabazus received from Alex- 
ander the satrapy of Bactria. One of his 
daughters, Barsine, became by Alexander the 
mother of Heracles ; a second, Artocama, mar- 
ried Ptolemy son of Lagus ; and a third, Artonis, 
married Eumenes. (Diod. xvi. 22 ; Arrian, iii, 
21 ; Strab. p. 578.) 

Artabri, afterwards Arotrebae, a Celtic 
people in the NW. of Spain, near the Promon- 
tory Nerium or Celticum, also called Artabrum. 
after them (C. Finisterre). (Strab. pp. 137, 147.) 

Artace ('Aptokt) : Artaki), a seaport town of 
the peninsula of Cyzicus, in the Propontis : also 
a mountain in the same peninsula. (Strab. 
pp. 576, 582.) 

Artachaees ('ApraxafTjy), a distinguished 
Persian in the army of Xerxes, died while 
Xerxes was at Athos. The mound which the 
king raised over him is still in existence. 
(Hdt. vii. 22, 117.) 

Artacoana {'Aprcucdava, or -Kdvva: Sekh- 
van ?) the ancient capital of Asia, not far from 
the site of the later capital, Alexandbia. 

Artaei ('ApTaxoi), was, according to Hero- 
dotus (vi. 61), the old native name of the Per- 
sians. It signifies noble, and appears, in the 
form Apr a, as the first iiart of a large number 
of Persian proper names. 

Artanes ('ApravTjr). 1. A river in Thrace, 
falling into the Ister. — 2. A river in Bitliynia. 

Artaphemes {'ApToupfpin}s). 1. Son of Hys- 
taspes and brother of Darius. He was satrap 
of Sardis at the time of the Ionian revolt b c. 
500. See Aristagobab.— 2. Son of the former! 
commanded, along with Datis, the Persian 



126 ARTAUNUM 

f'TJ °| ,^'^'^■'"8, wliich was defeated at the 
battle of Marathon, b.c. 490. Artaphernes com- 
manded the Lydiaiia and Mysians in the in- 
vasion of Greece by Xerxes in 480. {Hdt. vi. 
'J4, ; Aesch. Pers. 21.)— 3. An ambassador 
from Ai-taxerxes to Sparta n.c. 42D, intercepted 
by the Athenians (Thuc. iv. 50). 

Artaunum [Salburg near Homburg ?), a 
Roman fortress in Germany on M. Taunus, 
built by Drusus and restored by Germanicus 
(Dio Cass. liv. 38 ; Tac. Ann. i. 56). Others 
take it to be the modern Wiirtzburg. 

Artavasdes or Artabazes {'ApTaj8afr)s). 
1. King of the Greater Armenia, succeeded his 
father Tigranes. In the expedition of Crassus 
ftgainst the Partliians, B.C. 54, Artavasdes was 
an ally of the Romans ; but after the defeat of 
the latter, he concluded a peace with the Par- 
thian king (Plut. Crass. 19-22). In 36 he joined 
Antony in his campaign against the Parthians, 
And persuaded liim to invade Media, because 
lie was at enmity with his namesake Artavasdes, 
iing of Media ; but he treacherously deserted 
Antony in the middle of the campaign. Antony 
accordingly invaded Armenia in 34, contrived 
to entice Artavasdes into his camp, where he 
was immediately seized, carried him to Alex- 
andria, and led liim in triumph. He remained 
in captivity till 30, when Cleopatra had him 
killed after the battle of Actimn, and sent his 
head to his old enemy, Artavasdes of Media, in 
hopes of obtaining assistance from the latter 
(Dio Cass. xlix. 33-40 ; Veil. Pat. ii. 82 ; Tac. 
Aim. ii. 3 ; Plut. 37-50). This Artavasdes 
was well acquainted with Greek literatm-e, and 
wrote tragedies, speeches, and historical works 
(Plut. Grass. 33). — 2. King of Armenia, pro- 
bably a grandson of No. 1, was placed upon the 
throne by Augustus, but was deposed by the 
Armenians (Tac. Ann. ii. 3, 4). — 3. King of 
Media Atropatene, and an enemy of Artavasdes 
I., kmg of' Armenia. Antony invaded his 
■country in 36, at the instigation of the Armenian 
king, but he was obhged to retire mth great 
loss. Artavasdes afterwards concluded a peace 
with Antony, and gave his daughter lotape in 
maiTiage to Alexander, the son of Antony. 
With the Roman help he was successful ; but 
when Antony recalled his troops, he was de- 
feated by Artaxias. After Actium Octavianus 
restored to him his daughter lotape. (Dio 
Cass. xlix. 25-41, h. 16 ; Plut. Ant. 38, 52.) 

Artaxata or -ae (to Kpra^aTa, or -^iara : Ru. 
.above Nakshivan), the later capital of Great 
Armenia, built by Abtaxias, under the advice 
■ of Hannibal, on a peninsula, surrounded by 
the river Araxes. After being burnt by the 
Romans under Corbulo (.\.D. 58), it was restored 
by Tiridates, and called Neroniana. It was 
•still standing in the fourth century. (Strab. 
p. 528 ; Dio Cass. Ixiii. 7 ; Tac. A nn. vi. 39, xii. 
50, xiii. 39.) 

Artaxerxes or Artoxerxes {'Apra^ep^ris or 
'Apro^ep^ris), the name of four Persian kings. 
1. Siu-named Long^imaiius, from the circum- 
stance of his right hand being longer than his 
left, reigned B.C. 465-425. He ascended the 
throne after his father, Xerxes I., had been 
murdered by Artabanus, and after he himself 
had put to death his brother Darius on the 
instigation of Artabanus. His reign was dis- 
turbed by several dangerous insurrections of 
the satraps. . The Egyptians also revolted in 
400, under Inarus, who was supported by the 
Athenians. Tlie first army which Artaxerxes 
sent under his brotlier Achaemones was de- 
feated and Achaemenes slain. The second 



ARTAXIAS 

army wliich he -sent, under Artabazus and 
Megabyzus, was more successful. Inarus was 
defeated in 156 or 455, but Amyrtaeus, another 
clJbf of the insurgents, maintained liimself in 
the marshes of Lower Egypt. At a later period 
(449) the Atlienians under Cimon sent assist- 
ance to Amyrtaeus ; and even after the death 
of Cimon, tlie Athenians gained two victories 
over the Persians, one by land and the other by 
sea, in the neighbourhood of Salamis in Cypnis. 
After this defeat Aftaxerxes is said to have 
concluded peace with the Greeks on terms very 
advantageous to the latter. Artaxerxes was 
succeeded by his son Xerxes II.— 2. Surnamed 
Mnemon, from liis good memorj', succeeded 
liis father, Darius II., and reigned u c. 405-859. 
Cyrus, the younger brother of Artaxerxes, who 
was satrap of W. Asia, revolted against his 
brother, and, supported by Greek mercenaries, 
invaded Upper Asia. In the neighbourhood of 
Cunaxa, near Babylon, a battle was' fought 
between the armies of the two brothers, in 
which Cyrus fell, B.c. 401 (Xen. Anab. i. 8-10. 
Cybus.) ■ Tissaphernes was appointed satrap of 
W. Asia in the place of Cyrus, and was actively- 
engaged in wars with the Greeks. [Thimbkon ; 
Debcyllidas ; Agesilaus.] Notwithstanding 
these pei-petual conflicts with the Greeks, the 
Persian empire maintained itself by the dis- 
union among the Gi-eeks themselves, wliich was 
fomented and kept up by Persian money. The 
peace of Antalcidas,inB.c. 388, gave the Persians 
even greater power and influence than they had 
possessed before. [Ant.vlcidas.] But the em- 
pire was suffering from internal disturbances, 
and Artaxerxes had to carrj' on frequent wars 
with tributary princes and satraps, who en- 
deavoui'ed to make themselves independent. 
Thus he maintained a long struggle against 
Evagoras of Cyprus, from 385 to 376 ; he also 
had to carry on war against the Cardusians, on 
tlie shores of the Caspian Sea ; and his 
attempts to recover Egypt were uusuccessfuL 
Towards the end of his reign he put to death 
his eldest sou Darius, who had formed a plot 
to assassinate him. His last days were still 
further embittered by the unnatural conduct 
of his son Ochus, who caused the destruction 
of two of his brothers, in order to secm'e the 
succession for himself (Plut. Art ax. ; Diod. 
XV. 9, 90-93 ; Just. x. 3). Artaxerxes was suc- 
ceeded by Ochus, who ascended the throne 
under the name of Artaxerxes III. — 3. Also 
called Ochus, reigned B.C. 359-338. In order 
to secure his throne, he began his reign with a 
merciless extirpation of the members of his 
family. He himself was a cowardly and reck- 
less despot; and the great advantages which 
the Persian arms gained during his reign 
were owing only to his Greek generals and 
mercenaries. These advantages consisted In 
the conquest of the revolted satrap Artabazus 
[Artabazus, No. 4], and in the reduction of 
Phoenicia, of several revolted towns in Cj'prus, 
and of Egj'pt, 350. The reins of government 
were entirely In the hands of the eunuch 
Bagoas, and of Mentor the Rliodian. At last 
he was poisoned by Bagoas, and was succeeded 
by Ills youngest son, Auses. (Diod. xvi. 40-52 ; 
xvli. 5.)— 4. The founder of the djmasty of the 

SASS-^NrDiVE. 

Artaxias {'Aprailas) or Artaxes {'Aprd^vv, 
the name of kings of Armenia. — 1. The founder 
of the Armenian kingdom, was one of the 
generals of Antiochus tlie Great, but revolted 
from him about B.C. 188, and became an inde- 
pendent sovereign. Haimibal took refuge at 



AETAYCTES 
•h.. court of Artaxias, and he superintended 
building of AkTaxata, tlie capital of Ar- 
„„>uia. Ai-taxiaa was conquered and taken 
oner by Antiochus IV. Epiphanes, about 
(Strab. pp. 528-53'2 ;Plut. Lacull. 31 ; Ap- 

, , ^Y'- ° 

Vrtavasdes, was made king by the Armenians 
■ '.. u iiis father was taken prisoner by Antony 
t In 20 Augustus, at the request of the 
V , , uenians, sent Tiberius into Ai-menia, in order 
to depose Artaxias and place Tigranes on the 
throne, but Artaxias was put to death before 
Tiberius reached the country. Tiberius, how- 
ever took the credit to himself of a successful 
expedition: whence Horace {Epist i. 12, 20) 
says, ClaucK virtute Neronis Armenius cecidit. 
(Dio Cass. xhx. 39-44, liv. 9; Tac. Aim. u. 3 ; 
•Suet. Tib. 9.)— 3. Son of Polemon, king of 
Pontus, was proclaimed king of Armenia by 
Germanicus, in a.d. 18. He died about 35. His 
original name was Zenon, but Artaxias had 
become a general title of Armenian kings. (Tac. 
Ann. ii. 5(5, vi. 31.) 

Artayctes {'Aprai/KTris), Persian governor of 
Sestus on the Hellespont, when the town was 
taken by the Greeks in B.C. 478, met with an 
ignominious death on account of the sacrilegious 
acts which he had committed against the tomb 
of the hero Protesilaus. (Hdt. vii. 33, 78, ix. 
116, 118-120; Pans. i. 4, 5.) 

Artemidorus {'ApTenlSapos). 1. Surnamed 
Aristophanius, from his being a disciple of 
the celebrated grammarian Aristophanes, was 
himself a grammarian, and the author of several 
works now lost. — 2. Of Cnidus, a friend of 
Julius Caesar, was a rhetorician, and taught 
the Greek language at Eome (Strab. p. 656; 
Plut. Cues. 05). — 3. Daldianus," a native of 
Ephesus, but called Daldianus, from Ifaldis in 
Lydia, his mother's birthplace, to distinguish 
him from the geographer Artemidorus. He 
Uved at Eome in the reigns of Antoninus Pius 
and M. Aurelius (a.d. 138-180), and wrote a 
work on the interpretation of dreams {'Oueipo- 
KpiTiKci), in 5 books, which is still extant. The 
object of the work is to prove that the future is 
revealed to man in dreams, and to clear the 
science of interpreting them from the abuses 
with which the fashion of the time had sur- 
rounded it. The style is simple and good, and 
the book is valuable as giving an account of 
myth and ritual and of contemporary thought. 
—Editiojis. By Eeiff, Lips. 1805 ; by Hercher, 
Lips. 1864. — 4, Of Ephesus, a Greek geo- 
grapher, lived about B.C. 100. He made voyages 
round the coasts of the Mediterranean, in the 
Red Sea, and apparently even in the S. ocean. 
He also visited Iberia and Gaul. The work in 
which he gave the results of his investigations 
consisted of 11 books, of which Marcianus after- 
wards made an abridgment. The original 
work is lost ; but we possess fragments of Mar- 
cianus' abridgment, which contain the periplus 
of the Pontus Euxinus, and accounts of Bithynia 
and Paphlagonia. These fragments are printed 
in Hudson's Geographi Minores, vol. i.— -5. The 
son-in-law of the Stoic Musonius Eufus, himself 
a friend of Pliny the Younger, and one of the 
philosophers expelled from Eome by Domitian, 
A.D. 9a (Plin.^iJ/j. iii. 11). 

Artemis ('Aprfjuis), as presented to us in 
literature, was the daughter of Zeus and Leto, 
twin sister of Apollo, born at Ortygia {Hymn, 
ad Apoll. 15), which is taken to be Delos or 
the small island of Rheneia, close to Delos. 
Hence for most Greeks Delos is their birthplace, 
but local traditions make this claim for other 



AETEMIS 



127 



places named Ortygia, especially at Syracuse 
and Ephesus. [See Obtygia.J Already in Ho- 
meric times Artemis is a Irind of female Apollo : 
that is, she as a female divinity represented the 
same idea that Apollo did as a male divinity. 
Apollo represented the beauty of youths, Ar-. 
temis of maidens (Od. vi. 107, xx. 71) ; as Apollo 
was sung in the paean, so we have "Aprcfits 
vuvla (Pans. viii. 5). As sister of Apollo, Artemis 
is, like her brother, anned with a bow, quiver, 
and arrows, and sends plagues and death 
among men and animals. Sudden deaths, but 
more especially those of women, are described 
as the effect of her arrows. {II. xxi. 483.) These 
deaths are oftenest painless {11.. vi. 428; Od. xi. 
172) ; but also as a punislmient {II. xxiv. 006 ; 
Od. V. 123 ; Niobe) ; she also heals {II. v. 447). 
Delighting in wild beasts, like the Arcadian 
Artemis [see below], she was regarded as the 
Huntress {H. xxi. 511, xxiv. 606 ; Hymn, ad 
Dian. 10). Hence the Attic name for the 
month Elaphebolion (deer-shooting), which 
corresponds to that elsewhere called Artemisios. 
Although not a maiden-goddess in primitive 
religions, she has, as the daughter of Leto, be- 
fore Homer's time come to be so regarded ; and 
the epithets ayvi], irapdevos, a.SjX7)Tri refer to the 
belief then prevalent, that she was never con- 
quered by love (cf. Eur. Hipp. 1801 ; Paus. vii. 
19, 2). She was also, but in post-Homeric 
literature and art (not earlier than the 5th 
century B.C.), connected with the moon, as 
Apollo with the sun, taking the place of Selene 
(even sometimes in the story of Endymion), 
and so called ae\a(r<p6pos (Paus. i. 81), kfitpl- 
iropos (cf. Aesch. Fr. 164 ; Soph. 0. B. 207), 
''Aprefj.is 'EKa.Tr] and "Apr. aiXi)vala (Aesch. 
Siqjpl.GlG; Eur. Med. 390, Fhoen. 176), and 
worshipped in torch-races. [Bendis ; Hecate.] 
It is plain that this worship of Artemis had 
developed from a union of various religious 
observances, and it is necessary to examine the 
different local traditions and rites which have 
combined to form the Artemis described above. 
Prom these traditions, especially from those of 
the Arcadian and Brauronian Artemis, it will 
ai^pear that the deity who was in historic times 
worshipped in Greece as the daughter of Leto 
and sister of Apollo, and as the virgin goddess, 
was developed in most places from a nature- 
goddess, representing and fostering the streams 
which fertilise the earth, the trees which grow 
from it, the wild animals of the wooded hills 
and their increase ; and hence also presiding 
over human birth and motherhood. But it is 
probable that we may go a step further back, 
and infer that this ancient worsliip itself sprang 
from something older — a worship of a goddess 
of increase and harvest under the form of the 
various animals which were each regarded either 
as the tutelar deity of tribes, or as the spirit of 
the com or of the wood, to whom human sacri- 
fice was offered. The deity, at first the animal 
itself, became in some rites the recipient of the 
animal sacrifice : in others, the protectress of 
the animal itself ; and it is not unlikely that 
the choice of different animals in different 
localities depended on the animal totem of the 
tribe or family from which the ritual sprang. 
Recently a stone figure of a bear has been 
found in the Acropolis, which may possibly 
have been an offering to Artemis Brauronia.-— 
1. The Arcadian Artemis is a nature-deity of 
fountains, streams, and wooded hills : in this 
aspect a female Pan rather than a female 
Apollo. (For her connexion with streams see 
Paus. viii. 22, B; Abethusa.) She is called 



128 



AKTEMIS 



SfffTTotva \lfivris and iroraula (Eur. Hipp. 230; 
Pans. V. 14, 4) ; she is worshipped on hills 
(Paus. iii. 20, 7, viii. 36, 5) ; she is also the 
goddess of vegetable fertility, of woods and 
trees ; even her image is hung on trees (Paus. 
viii. 13, 2), thus indicating that her worship 
was formerly that of the tree itself. This will 
explain how she was identified with the goddess 
of the ancient rites at Aricia or Nemi. [See 
Di.\NA.] That she was thus at one time re- 
garded in many places as a goddess of harvest 
appears in the Aetolian story, where Artemis 
resents not receiving harvest-offerings (II. ix. 
530 ; Meleager). It is easy enough to trace 
her special character as huntress of wild ani- 
mals from this Arcadian idea of her dwelling 
in wooded hills. But from the Arcadian story 
of Callisto, who is sometimes Artemis herself, 
and yet was changed into a bear, it appears 
that a primitive worship of animals was trans- 
ferred to this goddess, who thus became their 
patroness, and in a further development the 
huntress. Animals were sacrificed to her at 
the festival of Laphria, and figures of animals 
were carried in processions to do her honour 




Artemis. (Louvre, In Paris.) 

(Paus. vii. 18, 7 ; Theocr. ii. 67 ; Diet. Ant. s.v. 
Laphria). The more ancient totemistic religion 
leaves traces also in her epithet at Tegea, 
Kvaxiaris (Paus. viii. 53. 5), signifying that the 
statue of the deity was clothed in the skin of 
the sacrificed animal [see below], the more 
recent development in her Aetolian epithet 
flfiepaffla, which represents her as taming the 
sacred animals — wolves and deer — which are 
kept in the enclosure of her temple. (Strab. p. 
215 ; Paus. viii. 18 gives a different tradition.) — 
2. Artemis Brauronia, Artemis Orthia, and 
Artemis Taurica. These rites in Attica show 
almost more clearly the absorption of an ancient 
savage religion into that of Artemis. The 
dance of girls in imitation of bears {apKTfla), 
wearing formerly the bear-skin and afterwards 
the saffron robe instead (Aristoph. Lys. 046), 
was the remnant in civilised times of the local 
religion, in which the deity herself was a bear, 
and worshipped with human sacrifices : to which 
refers the story that they were instituted because 
a bear which tore a maiden to pieces had been 
killed. Tradition therefore connected it with 
the worship of Artemis Orthia at Limnaeum m 



Laconia, at which the human sacrifices of 
older times were replaced by the blood of boys 
scourged at the altar (Paus. iii. 16, 7), and also 
vfi)fl\ the savage rites of Artemis Tauropolos in 
the Tauric Chersonese [Iphioenia]. Legend 
clearly represents the rites in Greece as derived 
from those of the Chersonese, and so there is a 
dispute whether the wooden image at Brauron, 
or that at Limnaeum, or that at Laodicea, was 
the actual ^davov brought by Iphigenia. This 
does not prove that the rites actually came 
from the Crimea, but merely that the Greeks 
found a resemblance between the relics of 
savage ritual which they still had and the 
savage ritual which existed later in the Crimea. 
[See also Diet. Ant. s.v. Brauronia.] — 3. Ar- 
temis Tauropolos. Although the poets, from 
the similarity of the name, connect Artemis 
Tauropolos with the bloodthirsty goddess of 
Brauron and Tauri {I. T. 1424 ft. ; Soph. Aj. 
172), there is little real likeness. The chief 
sites of this religion were Samos and Icaria 
(Hdt. iii. 46; Strab. p. 639; Steph. Byz. s.v.) \ 
the name belongs to her also at Amphipolis 
(Died, xviii. 4 ; Liv. xliv. 44), and in some towns 
of Asia Minor. The goddess was regarded as 
presiding over the herds and receiving bloodless 
offerings, and in coins as riding upon a bulL 
Similarly at Pherae, a country of horsemen, 
she presided over horses, and called 'nnro<r6a. 
andefip/TTira (Pind. 01. iii. 27; Paus. viii. 14). In 
each case no doubt there had been the identifi- 
cation with the animal, and probably bloody 
sacrifices ; but the idea of protectress of animals 
only remained. — i. Artemis Eileithyia, as the 
goddess presiding over childbirth. [Ilei- 
THYiA.] Artemis and Eileithyia were regarded 
as distinct deities in earlier poets, but are con- 
fused in the Tragedians {e.g. Eur. Hipp. 166), 
and the epithets etfAoxor, Aox^a, \v(tIC(^vos are 
applied to her. There is no ground for attaching 
any such meaning to Homer II. xxi. 481. 
Some have thought that this function was 
assigned to her as a moon-goddess connected 
with menstruation and with the fertilising dew ; 
but it is much more probable that it was one 
of the attributes of the nature-goddess who 
favoured increase and presided over the young 
alike of animals and of human beings : whence 
she was called also KovpoTp6(pos &c. — 5. Ar- 
temis of Epliesus shows all the characteristics 
of an Asiatic nature-goddess, whose worship the 
lonians have found and have brought into their 
own religion. Her statue, of unknown antiquity, 
which was said to have fallen from heaven 
(5io)r6T€s), was an uncouth and essentially un- 
Greek idol with many breasts, which symbolised 
the productive forces of nature, and differed as 
widely as possible from the Greek ideal of the 
goddess of maiden purity. Later tradition of 
course tried to account for her Ephesian wor- 
ship as though she were the Artemis of Greek 
literature, and Tacitus records a local belief 
that her birthplace, the Ortyg.a of the legend, 
was at Ephesus, not at Delos {Ann. m. 61). 
The Oriental character of her temple sennce, 
ed in the service of eunuon. 




^apiipai, and f^eWUpar, there were also temple 
Zves (UpiSovko.). The tumultuous Vrocj f^o^ 
of her idol, attended with not and Woodshed is 
described by Cluristian writers (Metaphr. Vita 
TiZtliel, Act. Sanct^. 556). T'^e original 
deity of this religion, whether connected, a« 
some think, with Comana or not, Vresen^^^^^ 
points of resemblance with the Asiatic proto- 



AETEMIS 

types of Aphrodite, regarded not only as the 
goddess of fruitfuluess, but also as a moon- 
goddess and as a goddess of the sea, protectress 
of sailors, and having fish among her sacred 
animals (Athen. p. 3til ; Plin. ii. 201 ; cf. Callim. 
Dian. 289); and slie appears to have been for 
the more northern parts of Asia Minor what 
Ashtoretli and the equivalent deities were more 
to the south. [See Apheoditb.] The supposed 
connexion of Ai-temis with the Amazons points 
the same way. The reason for the Greek 
colonists identifying this Oriental deity with 
Artemis may have been either because both 
were regarded as goddesses of the moon, or from 
the Arcadian idea of a deity presiding over 
natural fruitfuluess and birth, and caring for 
the young, as is symbolised by the animals 
upon the lower part of her image. It is remark- 
able that Pausanias mentions a worship of 
Artemis after tlie Ephesian fashion at Alea in 



AEUNS 



129 




Artemis (Diana) of Ephesus. 
Arcadia, and that Pan is said to have 



been 



associated with her m the Asiatic temples. 
Ihe Ephes.an cult was carried by colonist i to 
Marseilles and Spam (Strab. pp. 159, 179). Taci- 
LV ™''ations also the worship of an 

Arteviis Persrca at Hierocaesareia in Lydia, 
apparently akin to fire-worship; for, according 
to Pausamas (y. 27 3), there was 'a Magian 
priest who used barbaric prayers and invoca- 
tions causing fire to blaze spontaneously on 

temnle of ,^^,^^'^'1^^^^^^ was an oracle and 
temple of Artetms Pcrgaea, served bv mendi 

Suid'plit ^''™H,P- Cic. Vcrr l "fo^M; 
Suid Phot. .s.u. -Apr. Tl^py.). [Vox 'AoT^mf 
Wpa see Buitomaktis ; ?or the Roma7deit; 

] J","'^ "^o^' familiar type is the 
cWton «h ^'^'^^y' ^'^^ short 

bow Ll '"T??^"'"'^ " huntress, with 

from Hir/''"''' ^'"^g- the statue 
nom Hadrian's Villa (the Versailles Diana) 



driv: 



'ng a chariot drawn by deer. 



.. or 
Another 



characteristic shows her as a light-goddess or 
moon-goddess, and one of those lionoured by 
the torch-race. She bears a torch in her left 
hand, but is still distinguished by the quiver, 
though the dress is no longer that of the 
huntress. Her connexion with the moon is 
also represented by the atti'ibute of a crescent, 
or by her appearance in a biga. As Artemis 
Tauropolos she is shown riding on a bull. The 
types of the Ephesian Artemis as shown on 
coins and statuettes have no doubt refined upon 
the original as regards the freedom of the arms 
and the character of the face, but still retain 
the multitude of breasts. 

Artemlsiam {'Apre/xlaiov), properly a temple 
of Artemis. 1. A tract of country on the N. 
coast of Euboea, opposite Magnesia, so called 
from the temple of Artemis belonging to the 
town of Hestiaea : off this coast the Greeks 
defeated the fleet of Xerxes, b.c. 480 (Hdt. 
vii. 185, viii. 8 ; Pint. Thevi. 7 ; Diod. xi. 12).— 
2. A promontory of Caria near the gulf Glaucus, 
so called from the temple of Artemis in its 
neighbourhood (Strab. p. 651) = Pedalium (Plin. 
V. 103). — 3. A mountain ridge between Argolis 
and Ajrcadia (Paus. ii. 25, 3, viii. 5, 6). 

Artemita ('ApTe^fra). 1. {Shereban?) a city 
on the Sillas, in the district of Apolloniatis in 
Assyi-ia (Strab. p. 519 ; Ptol. vi. 1). — 2. A city of 
Great Armenia, S. of the lake Arsissa (Ptol. v. 
13, 21)_. There is a village Artemid near Van. 

Artemon {'ApTf/xa>v), a Lacedaemonian, built 
the military engines for Pericles in liis war 
against Samos in B.C. 441 (Plut. Pericl. 27; 
Diod. xii. 28). Pliny (xxxiv. 56) mentions his 
statue by Polycletus. Among the vnriters of 
this name are : I. Artemon of Clazomenae (Ael. 
H. A. xii. 28). — 2. Of Cassandreia, a gramma- 
rian (Athen. p. 694).— 3. Of Pergamus, who 
wrote a history of Sicily. (Frag, of all three in 
Frag. Hist. Graec. ed. C. Miiller.)— 4. Artemon 
of Magnesia, %vrote a treatise on the virtues of 
women (Phot. Sibl. 103). 

M. Artorius, a physician at Rome, was the 
friend and physician of Augustus, whom he 
attended in his campaign against Brutus and 
Cassius, B.C. 42. He was drovraed at sea 
shortly after the battle of Actium, 31 (Veil. 
Pat. ii. 70 ; Appian, B. C. iv. 110 ; Dio Cass, 
xlvu. 41 ; Suet. Aug. 91). 

Arverni, a Gallic people in Aquitania in 
the country of the M. Gehenna, in the modern 
Auvergne. In early times they were the most 
powerful people in the S. of Gaul : they were 
defeated by Domitius Alienobarbus and Fabius 
Maximus in b.c. 121, but stLU possessed con- 
siderable power in the time of Caesar (58). 
Their capital in Caesar's time was Gebgovia, 
afterwards transfen-ed to Nemossus, also named 
Augustonemetum or Arverni on the Elaver 
(Alher), with a citadel, called, at least in the 
middle ages, Clarus Mons, whence the name of 
the modern town, Clermont (Caes. B. G. i. 45, 
vn.7ff. ; Strab. p. 191; VEBCiNGETonix). 

Arvina, a cognomen of the Cornelia gens, 
borne by several of the Cornelii, of whom the 
most important was A. Cornelius Cossus Ar- 
yina, consul b.c. 343 and 822, and dictator 820. 
He commanded the Roman armies against the 
Samnites, whom he defeated in several battles 
(Liv. vii. 19-88). 

^^^T^B, an Etruscan word, was regarded by 
the Romans as a proper name, but perhaps 
signified a younger son in general. 1. Younger 
brother of Lucumo, i.e. L. Tarquinius Priscus. 
—^. Younger brother of L. Tarquinius Super- 
bus, was mui-dered by Ms wife.— 3. Younger 



lao . ARUNTIUS 
Bon of Tarnuiniiis Siiperbus, fell in combat with 
Brutus.— 4. Son of Porsena, fell in battle before 
Ancia.— 6. Of Clusium, invited the Gauls 
across the Alps (Liv. i. 34, 46, 5G, ii. 14, v. 88). 

Aruntius. [Arruntius.] 

Arusianus, Messus or Mesaius, a Roman 
grammarian, lived about a.d. 395, and wrote a 
Latin phi'ase-book, entitled Quadriga, vel 
Exentpla Elocutionmti ex Virgilio, Sallustio, 
Terentio, et Cicerone per literal digesta. It 
is called Quadriga from its being composed 
from four authors, from whom he selects an 
example for each construction in his alpha- 
betical list of substantives, adjectives, prepo- 
sitions and verbs. — Edition. By Lindemann, 
in his Corpus Grammaticorum Latin, vol. i 
p. 199._ 

Arxata ('Aplara : NahsJdvan), the capita of 
Great Armenia, before the building of Artaxata, 
lay lower down upou the Araxes, on the con- 
fines of Media (Strab. p. 529). 

Aryandes i^hpuav^Ds), a Persian, who was 
appointed by Cambyses governor of Egypt, but 
was put to death by Darius, because he coined 
silver money of the purest metal, in imitation 
of the gold money of that monarch (Hdt. iv. 
165, 200). 

Arycanda {'ApvKavSa), a small town of Lycia, 
on the river Arycandus, a tributary of the 
Limyrus (Stephan. s.v. ; Plin. v. 100). 

Arzanene {'ApCauriv-fi), a district of Armenia 
Major, bounded on the S. by the Tigris, on the 
W. by the Nymphius, and containing in it the 
lake Arsene {'Ap(rr]vfi : Erzen). It formed part 

of GOEDYENE. 

Arzen or -es, or Atranutzin {'Ap(-fiv, "ApCes, 
'ArpdvovT^iv : Erzeroum), a strong fortress in 
Great Armenia, near the sources of the Euplira- 
tes and the Araxes, founded in the 5th ceutui-y. 

Asaei ('Acraioi), a people of Sarmatia Asia- 
tica, near the mouth of the Tanai's (Bon) 
(Ptol. v. 9). 

Asander ("Aaavhpos). 1. Son of Philotas, 
brother of Parmenion, and one of the generals 
of Alexander the Great ; appointed governor of 
Lydia, B.C. 334 ; sent to bring reinforcements 
from Europe, 831. After the death of Alex- 
ander in 823 he obtained Caria for his satrapy, 
and took an active part in the wars wliich 
followed. He joined Ptolemy and Cassander 
in their league against Antigonus, but was 
defeated by Antigonus in 313 (Arrian, Anab. i. 
18, iv. 7; Just. xiii. 4; Diod. xix. 62-75).— 
2, A general of Pharnaces II., king of Bosporus. 
He put Pharnaces to death in 47, after the 
defeat of the latter by Julius Caesar, in hopes 
of obtaining tlie kingdom. But Caesar con- 
ferred the kingdom upon Mithridates of Per- 
gamum, with whom Asander carried on war. 
Augustus afterwards confirmed Asander in the 
sovereignty (Dio Cass. xlii. 46, liv. 24 ; Appian, 
Bell. Mithr. 120 ; Bell. Alex. 78). 

Asbystae {'Aa^vcrai), a Libyan people, in 
the N. of Cyrenaica. Their country wasjcalled 
'Aff^vtrr'is (Hdt. iv. 170; Ptol. iv. 4). 

Asca ("Atr/ca), a city of Arabia Felix. 

Ascalabus, sou of Misme. Wlien Demeter 
came to this part of Attica, Misme gave her a 
jar of water, which the goddess drained. Asca- 
labus mocked at her greediness, whereupon 
the goddess changed him to a lizard (Ov. Met. 
V. 446; Nicand. Ther. 484, and ap. Anton. 
Lib. 24). The same story is told of Abas, son 
of Metaneira. fATi.\s. No. 1.] 

AscalaphuB {'AcrKa\a<pos). 1. Son of Ares 
and Astyoche, led, with his brother lalmenus, 
the Minyans of Orchomenos against Troy, and 1 



ASCLEPIUS 
was slain by Deiphobus {II. ii. 511, xiii. 518, 
XV. 110; Paus. ix. 37, 7).— 2. Son of Acheron 
and Gorgyra or Orphne. When Persephone 
waswin the lower world, and Pluto gave her 
permission to return to the upper, pro\'ided she 
had not eaten anything, Ascalaphus declared 
that she had eaten part of a pomegranate. 
Demeter punished him by burying him under 
a huge stone, and when this stone was sub- 
sequently removed by Heracles, Persephone 
changed him into an owl (dir/caAa^oj), by sprink- 
ling him with water from the river Phlegethon 
(Ov. Mat. V. 539 ; Apollod. i. 5, 8). 

Ascalon {'Aa-icdKav: ' A(TKa\<uvuTDS : Aaka- 
Idn), one of the chief cities of the Philistines, .on 
the coast of Palestine, between Azotus and Gaza. 

Ascania {{] 'AcKaAa Ki/ivn). 1. (Lake oj 
Iznik), in Bithynia, a great fresh-water lake, 
at the E. end of which stood the city of Nicaea 
(Iznik). The sun-ounding district was also 
called Ascania (Strab. p. 565).— 2. (Lake ofBuU 
dur), a salt-water lake on the borders of Pbrygia 
and Pisidia, the boundai-y between Pisidia and 
the Roman province of Asia (Strab. p. 565: 
IZ. ii. 862J. 

Ascanius ('Air/cacioy), son of Aeneas by 
Creusa. According to some traditions, Ascanius 
remained in Asia after the fall of Troy, and 
reigned either at Troy itself or at some other 
town in the neighbourhood. According to 
other accounts he accompanied his father to 
Italy. Other traditions again gave the name 
of Ascanius to the son of Aeneas and Lavinia. 
Livy states that on the death of liis father 
Ascanius was too 3'oung to undertake the 
govermnent, and that after he had attained the 
age of manhood, he left Lavinium in the hands 
of his mother, and migrated to Alba Longa. 
Here he was succeeded by his sou Silvius. 
Some writers relate that Ascanius was also 
called Ilus or Julus. The gens Julia at Rome 
traced its origin from J ulus or Ascanius. [For 
the variations of the story and for fuller details, 
see Aeneas.] 

Asciburgium (Ashurg near Miirs), an an- 
cient place on the left bank of the Rhine, 
founded, according to fable, by Ulysses (Tac. 
Hist. iv. 33, Germ. 3). 

Asclepladae, the reputed descendants of 
Asclepius. [AscLEPius.] 

Asclepiades ('Aa/cAijiriaSjjs). 1. A lyric poet 
of Samos early in the 2nd century B.C. who is 
said to have invented the metre called after 
him (Metrum AsclepiadCwm). (Epigrams in 
Antli. Pal.). — 2. There were a great many 
physicians who assumed this name as a sort of 
professional title, the most celebrated of whom 
was a native of Prusias, in Bithynia, who came 
to Rome in the middle of the first century b.c, 
where he acquired a great reputation (Plin. vii. 
124, xxiii. 38, xxvi. 12). Nothing remains of liis 
writings but a few fragments published by Gum- 
pert, Asclepiadis Bithijni Fragmeitia, Vinar. 
1794. 

Asclepiodorus {'AmK-nmSSaipos). 1, A general 
of Alexander the Great, afterwards made 
satrap of Persia by Antigonus, B.C. 817 (Arrian, 
Anab. iv. 18 ; Diod. xix. 48). — 2. An Athenian 
painter, a contemporary of Apelles (Plin. xxxv. 
107). 

Asclepius ('Aff/fAjjirirfj), called Aesculapius 

by the Romans, the god of the medical art : at 
first in all probability the deity of a Thessaliaii 
oracle. The name is connected by some modem 
scholars with a.crKd\afios (which is taken to have 
meant a serpent as well as a lizard), by others 
with &\ku. In the Homeric poems he is not a 



ASCLEPIU6 
deity, but simply the 'blameless physician' 
(ivThp aavnav), whose sons, Machaon and Po- 
dalirius, were the physicians in the Greek army, 
and ruled over Trioca, Ithome, and Oechaha. 
The coniTUon story of later poets relates that he 
was the son of Apollo and Coronis, the daughter 
of Phlegyas, and that when Coronis was with 
child by" Apollo, she became enamoured of 
Ischys, an Arcadian. Apollo, informed of this 
by a raven, which he had set to watch her, 
or, according to Pin- 
dar, by his own pro- 
phetic powers, sent 
his sister Artemis to 
kill Coronis. Arte- 
mis accordingly de- 
stroyed Coronis in 
her own house at 
Laceria ui Thessaly, 
on the shore of lake 
Baebia. According to 
Ovid (Met. ii. 605), it 
was Apollo himself 
who killed Coronis 
and Ischys. When 
the body of Coronis 
was to be burnt, 
either Apollo or Her- 
mes saved the child 
Asclepius from the 
Hames, and carried 
him to Chiron, who 
instructed the boy in 
the art of healing 
and in hunting. In 
this account the He- 
siodic poem Eoeae 
and Pindar (Pyth. 
iii.) mainly agree, 
gives greater credit to 
writer has given 



ASCONIUS 



181 




Asclepius. (Statue at Florence.) 



except that Pindar 
Apollo than the earlier 

The legend is continued by Pindar that he 
not only cured all the sick, but called the dead 
to life again. But while he was restoring 
Glaucus (or according to Verg. Aen. vii. 761, 
Hippolytus) to life, Zeus killed him with a flash 
of lightning, as he feared lest men might con- 
trive to escape death altogether. He was 
married to Epione, and besides the two sons 
spoken of by Homer, we also find mention of 
the following children of his : Telesphorus, 
laniscus, Alexenor, Aratus, Hygieia, Aegle, 
laso, and Panaceia, most of whom are only 
personifications of the powers ascribed to their 
father. The fact is that the traditions are 
modified according to the place to which they 
belong. Thessaly and then Boeotia appear to 
have been the earliest seats of his worship. 
Hence the descent of Asclepius from Phlegyas. 
But, as the worship passed into the Pelopon- 
nesus, we find Phlegyas a native of Epidaurus, 
with a daughter Aegle (or Coronis), who bears 
Asclepius, the god of healing, to Apollo, but 
without mention of any catastrophe. (Inscr. of 
a poem by Isyllus of Epidaurus, "Etp-qix. 'Apx- 
1885.) Similarly we find an Arcadian storv 
which makes him the son of Arsinoe and Arsip- 
pos, and a Messenian story which makes him 
the son of Arsinoe and Apollo (see Pausan. ii. 
26; Cic. Nat. De. iii. 22, 57). O. Miiller and 
later writers are probably right in the conclu- 
sion that Asclepius, the deity of the Phlegvae 
was once the rival of Apollo, and that the 
Idea of his sonship to Apollo was introduced 
to reconcile the two cults when the Apollo 
worship predominated. We may go a step 
lurther back and recognise in Asclepius the 



survivor of a serpent worship which preceded 
the Greek theology in that country, and was 
perhaps even then connected with an oracle.. 
It is true that the poets from Homer onwards 
represent him as a hero who dies, and that in 
very late writers we find him among the 
Argonauts and in the Calydonian hunt ; but 
the fact remains that in his temples he was 
worshipped as a god. Thraemer has noticed 
that out of 320 places where his cult was pre- 
served, only four cities show traces of a hevOi 
worship : from three of these we have the some- 
what dubious mention of his tomb, the fourth 
is Athens, where T]pSia are mentioned in the 
Asclepieion ; but this may well refer to a hero 
worshij} of some of the Asclepiadae. The chief 
temples of Asclepius were at Tricca, Tithorea, 
Athens, Pergamus, Colophon, and above all, 
Epidaurus, from which place the worship of 
Asclepius was introduced into Eome to avert a. 
pestilence B.C. 293 (Liv. x. 47). In the recently 
discovered Mimes of Herodas (No. 4) there is a 
description of his temple, probably at, Cos (cf. 
Strab. p. 657), and of the offerings made. The 
rites for these temples consisted in lustral bath- 
ings of the worshippers, and in offerings of sacri- 
fices, more especially of cakes, and of libations : 
among the sacrifices is to be noticed that of a 
cook (Plat. Phcied. ad fin. ; Herodas, 4, 13), the 
reason for which is uncertain : some have sug- 
gested that the cock is the herald of the dawn (of 
a new life) : those who regard Asclepius as repre- 
senting the winds cite Pausan. ii. 34, 2, where a 
cock is the sacrifice to avert wind hurtful to the 
vines. The essential part of his temple worship 
was the sleeping in the temple itself [incuhatin : 
see Arist. Plut. 421 ff.), where an oracle through 
a dream revealed to the patient the method of 
cure. That such dream apparitions could easily 
be contrived by the priests is obvious, and there 
is no doubt that the remedies were such as the 
priests believed, rightly or -svrongly, would be 
beneficial. The cure, real or supposed, was; 
commemorated by an ex voto tablet. Hence 
these temples supplied the place of public 
hospitals (see Diet, of Antiq. s. v. Valetudi- 
naria). The supposed descendants of the god 
were called the Asclepiadae, to whom Hippo- 
crates belonged ; in them was by inheritance 
the knowledge of medicine, and from them in 
gi-eat part, though not exclusively, were taken 
the priests of the hfrKMiinua. In art the god ia 




Asclepius and a Sick Man. 
(MlUin, Gal. Mitth., tav. 82, No. 105.) 

represented (except in later Roman art) as a 
bearded man with a head something like that 
of Zeus ; the distinctive attribute is a staff with 
a serpent twisted round it : he often stands by 
the Omphalos (as in the Florentine statue) ; 
with him we find, on coins and reliefs, his 
daughter Hygieia and the boy Telesphonas. 

Q. Asconius Pedianus, a Eonmn grammarian, 
born at Patavium (Padua), about B.C. 2 lost 
his sight in his 78rd year in the reign of Vespa- 

k2 



182 ASCORDUR 
«iau, and died in his 85tli year in the reign ol 
Domitian. His most important work was a 
'Commentary on tlie speeches of Cicero, and 
we still possess fragments of his Commentaries 
on the Pro Cornelio, In Piaoiuim, Fro Milone, 
Pro Scauro and In Toga Candida. They 
refer chiefly to points of history and antiquities, 
great pains being bsstowed on the illustration 
of those constitutional forms of the senate, the 
popular assemblies, and tlie courts of justice, 
which were fast falling into oblivion under the 
empire. The notes on the Verrine orations, 
which bear the name of Asconius, are wi-itten 
in an unclassical style, and belong to a later 
period, probably the 4th century or later- 
Edited in the 5th volume of Cicero's works by 
Orelli and Baiter. There is a valuable essay 
on Asconius by Madvig, Hafniae, 1828. 

Ascordus, a river in Macedonia, which rises 
in M. Olympus and flows between Agassa and 
Dium into the Thermaic gulf. 

Ascra {"KcrKpa: 'AcrKpaios), a town in Boeotia 
on M. Helicon, where Hesiod resided, who had 
removed thither with his father from Cyme in 
Aeolis, and who is therefore called Ascraeus 
(Strab. pp. i09, 413 ; Hes. Oj). 638). 

Asculum. 1. Picenum (Asculanus : Aseoli), 
the chief town of Picenum and a Roman muni- 
cipium, was destroyed by the Romans in the 
Social War (b.c. 89), but was afterwards rebuilt 
(Strab. p. 241 ; Flor. i. 19 ; Caes. B. C. i. 15 ; Cic. 
pro Sull. 8). — 2. Apulum (Ascullnus: Ascoli 
di Satriano), a town of Apulia in Daunia on 
the confines of Samnium, near which the 
Romans were defeated by Pyrrhus, B.C. 279 
(Mor. i. 18 ; Plut. Pyrrh. 21 ; Zonar. viii. 5). 

Ascuris (Ezero), a lake in M. Olympus in 
Perrhaebia in Thessaly, near Lapathus (Liv. 
xliv. 2). 

Asdriibal. [Hasdrubal.] 

Asia {ri 'Acrea), a town in Arcadia, not far 
from MegalopoKs. (Strab. pp. 275, 343 ; Pans. viii. 
27, 3). 

Asellio, P. Sempronius, tribune of the 
soldiers under P. Scipio Africanus at Nimiantia, 
B.C. 133, wrote a Roman history from the 
Punic wars inclusive to the times of the 
Gracchi (Gell. ii. 13, v. 18, xiii. 22). 

Asellus, Tib. Claudius, a Roman eques, was 
deprived of liis horse by Scipio Africanus 
Minor, when censor, B.C. 142, and in Iris tribune- 
ship of the plebs in 139 accused Scipio Africa- 
nus before the people (Gell. ii. 20, iii. 4 ; Cic. 
de Or at. ii. 64, 66). 

Asia ('Affia), daughter of Oceanus and 
Tethys, wife of lapetus, and mother of Atlas, 
Prometheus, and Epimetheus (Hes. Th. 349 ; 
Apollod. i. 2). According to some traditions, 
the continent of Asia derived its name from her 
(Hdt. iv. 45). 

Asia ('Adi'o: 'Airifvs, -lavSs, idrris, -ariKSs: 
Asia), also in the poets Asis ('Aff'is), one of the 
three great divisions which the ancients made 
of the known world. It is doubtful whether the 
name is of Greek or Eastern origin; but, in 
either case, it seems to have been first used by 
the Greeks for the W. part of Asia Minor, 
especially the plains watered by the river 
Cayster, where the Ionian colonists first 
settled; and, thence, as their geographical 
knowledge advanced, they extended it to the 
whole country E., NE., and SE. Apart from the 
use of "Affios h-fi^div used of this plain (Horn. 
II. ii. 461), the earliest writers who use the 
name are Pindar (who speaks of the land oppo- 
site Rhodes as a promontory of Asia, 01. vii. 
18), Aeschylus (who separates Europe and Asia 



ASIA 

by the Cimmerian Bosporus, Pr. 780), and 
Hecataeus. The Greek legends respecting the 
and the Trojan expeditions, and 
ot »r mythical stories, on the one hand, and the 
allusioiui to commercial and other intercourse 
with the peoijle of Asia Minor, Syria, and 
Egypt, on the other hand, indicate a certain 
degree of knowledge of the coast from the 
mouth of the Phasis, at the E. extremity of the 
Black Sea, to the mouth of the Nile. This 
knowledge was improved and increased by the 
colonisation of the W., N., and S. coasts of 
Asia Minor, and by the relations into which 
these Greek colonies were brought, first with 
the Lydian, and then with the Persian empires, 
so that, in the middle of the 5th century b.c, 
Herodotus was able to give a pretty complete 
description of the Persian empire, and some 
imperfect accomits of the parts beyond it; 
while some knowledge of S. Asia was obtained 
by way of Egypt ; and its N. regions, with their 
wandering tribes, formed the subject of marvel- 
lous stories which the traveller heard from tlie 
Greek colonists on the N. shores of the Black 
Sea. The conquests of Alexander, besides the 
personal acquaintance which they enabled the 
Greeks to form with those provinces of the 
Persian empire hitherto only known to them 
by report, extended their knowledge over the 
regions watered by the Indus and its four 
great tributaries (the Punjab and Scinde) ; the 
lower course of the Indus and the shores be- 
tween its mouth and the head of the Persian 
Gulf were explored by Nearchus ; and some 
further knowledge was gained of the nomad 
tribes which roamed (as they still do) over the 
vast steppes of Central Asia by the attempt of 
Alexander to penetrate on the NE. beyond the 
Jaxartes [Sihoun) ; while on all points, the 
Greeks were placed in advanced positions from 
wliioli to acquire further information, especially 
at Alexandria, whither voyagei-s constantly 
brought accounts of the shores of Arabia and 
India, as far as the island of Taprobane, and 
even beyond tliis, to the Malay peninsula and 
the coasts of Cochin Cliina. On the E. and N. 
the wars and commerce of the Greek kingdom 
of Syria carried Greek knowledge of Asia no 
further, except in the direction of India to a 
small extent, but of com'se more acquaintance 
was gained with the countries already subdued, 
until the conquest of the Parthians shut out, 
the Greeks from the country E. of the Tigris- 
valley ; a limit which the Romans, in their 
turn, were never able to pass. They pushed 
their arms, however, further N. than the Greeks 
had done, into the mountains of Armenia, and 
they gained information of a great caravan 
route between India and the shores of the 
Caspian, through Bactria, and of another com- 
mercial track leading over Central Asia to the 
distant regions of the Seres. This brief sketch 
will show that all the accm-ate knowledge of the 
Greeks and Romans respecting Asia was con- 
fined to the countries which slope down S.- 
wards from the great mountam-cliain formed 
by the Caucasus and its prolongation beyond 
the Caspian to the Himalayas : of the vast 
elevated steppes between these mountains and 
the central range of the Altai (from which the 
N. regions of Siberia again slope down to the 
Arctic Ocean) they only knew that they were 
inhabited by nomad tribes, except the country 
directly N. of Ariana, where the Persian em- 
pire had extended beyond the mountain-chain, 
and where the Greek kingdom of Bactria had 
been subsequently established.— The notions of 



ASIA 

the ancients respecting the size and form of 
/^sia were such as might be mf erred from what 
has been stated. Distances computed from the 
accounts of travellers are always exaggerated ; 
and hence the S. part of the continent was 
supposed to extend much further to tlie E. than 
it really does (about 60° of long, too much, 
according to Ptolemy), while to the N. and NE. 
parts, which were quite unknown, much too 
small an extent was assigned. However, aU 
the ancient geographers, except PUny, agreed m 
considering it the largest of ttie tlu'ee divisions 
of the world, and all believed it to be sur- 
rounded by the ocean, with the curious excep- 
tion of Ptolemy, who recurred to the early 
notion, that the E. parts of Asia and the SB. 
parts of Africa were united by land which 
enclosed the Indian Ocean on the E. and S. 
(Plm. V. 47 ; Ptol. vii. 8). The different 
opinions about the boundaries of Asia on the 
side of Africa are mentioned under Afkica : on 
the side of Europe the boundary was formed by 
the river Tanais {Don), the Palus Maeotis {.Sea 
of Azof), Pontus Euxinus {Black Sea), Fvo^pon- 
tis {Sea of Marmora), and the Aegean {Archi- 
pelago). — The most general division of Asia 
was into two parts, which were different at 
different times, and known by different names. 
To the earliest Greek colonists the river Halys, 
the E. boundary of the Lydian Iringdom, formed 
a natural division between Upper and Lower 
Asia {ri &vw 'A., or to &v<ai 'Afflrjs, and t; Kara! 
"A., or TO KOLTU TVS 'Affirms, or 'A. ij dvrhs 
"A\vos iroTanov) ; and afterwards the Euphrates 
was adopted as a more natural boundary. 
Another division was made by the Taurus into 
A. intra Tauriim, i.e. the part of Asia N. and 
NW. of the Taurus, and A. extra Taurum, all 
the rest of the continent ("A. ivrhs rov Tavpou, 
'A. eKrhs rov Tavpov). The division ultimately 
adopted, but apparently not till the 4th cen- 
tury of our era {e.g. in Justin) was that of A. 
Major and A. Minor. — 1. Asia Major ('A. t) 
HeydXri) was the part of the continent E. of the 
Tanais, the Euxine, an imaginary line drawn 
from the Euxine at Trapezus {Trehizoncl) to 
the Gulf of Issus, and the Mediterranean : thus 
it included the countries of Sarmatia Asiatica 
with all the Scythian tribes to the E., Colchis, 
Iberia, Albania, Armenia, Syria, Arabia, Baby- 
lonia, Mesopotamia, Assyria, Media, Susiana, 
Persis, Ariana, Hyrcania, Margiana, Bactriana, 
Sogdiana, India, the land of the Sinae and 
Serica ; respecting which, see the several 
articles. — 2. Asia Minor {'Avia f) /uKpd : 
Anatolia), was the peninsula on the extreme 
W. of Asia, bounded by the Euxine, Aegean, 
and Mediterranean on the N., W., and S. ; and 
on the E. by the mountains on the W. of the 
upper course of the Euphrates. It was for the 
most part a fertile country, intersected with 
mountains and rivers, abounding in minerals, 
possessing excellent harbours, and peopled, 
from the earliest known period, by a variety of 
tribes from Asia and from Europe. For parti- 
culars respecting the country, the reader is 
referred to the separate articles upon the parts 
into which it was divided by the later Greeks: 
namely, Mysia, Lydia, and'Caria, on the W. ; 
Lycia, Pamphylia, and Cilicia, on the S. ; 
Bithynia, Paphlagonia, and Pontus, on the E. ; 
and Phrygia, Pisidia, Galatia, and Cappadooia, 
in the centre; see also the articles Troas, 
Aeolia, Ionia, Dokia, Lycaonia, Pehgamum, 
Halvs, Sanoabiuh, Tauutjs, (fee— 3. Asia Pro- 
pria ('A. ii iSlus KaKovfxevri), or mm})lv Asia, the 
iloman province, formed out of the kingdom of 



ASMIEAEA 188 

Pergamum, which was bequeathed to th(5 
Romans by Attalus III. B.C. 188 (Liv. Ep. 58, 
59 ; Plut. Ti. Gracch. 14 ; Justin, xxxvi. 4 ; 
Str'ab. p. 624 ; Plin. xxxiii. 14fci), and the Greek 
cities on the W. coast, and the adjacent 
islands. It included, as arranged by M'. 
Aquillius B.C. 129 (Strab. p. 646), the districts 
of Mysia, Lydia, Caria, and Phrygia ; but it did 
not include Bhodes (cf. Cic. pro Place. 27, 65). 
The town and districts of Cibja-a were included in 
Asia by SuUa ; but in B.C. 50 the three districts 
of Cibyi-a, Apamea and Synnada were included 
in the province of Cilicia : after B.C. 49 they 
belonged to Asia (cf. Cic. Favi. xiii. 67). Ti.e 
eastern part of Phrygia Magna belonged to 
Galatia after 36 B.C. It was governed by a 
propraetor (sometimes, however, called pro- 
consul) ; but after B.C. 27, when it was assigned 
to the senate, by a proconsul. Sulla for purposes 
of tribute divided it into 44 regions ; but the 
distribution which prevailed was the grouping 
of several into Conventus, or dioceses, for 
judicial purposes, taking the name of the prin ■ 
cipal town. Under the empire seven cities of 
Asia stood forth as f!br]rpoir6Xeis, Smyrna, Sardis, 
Synnada, Pergamum, Lampsacus, Cyzicus, 
Ephesus, of which the last was distinguished 
as the chief of aU by the title irp<arr]. Under 
Diocletian Asia was divided into seven small 
provinces : 1. Asia proconsularis, chief town 
Ephesus ; 2. Hellespontus, chief town Cyzicus ; 
8. Lydia, chief town Sardis ; 4. Phrygia prima, 
or Facatiana, chief town Laodicea ; 5. Phrygia 
secunda, or salutaris, chief town Eucarpia ; 
6. Ccirift, chief town Aphrodisias : 7. Insularum 
provincia, chief town Rhodes. [For its fluctua- 
tions of freedom see Rhodus ; for the religious 
organisation of Asia, see Diet. Ant. s. v. 
Asiarchae.] 

Asinarus {'Acrlvapos: Fiume di Note or 
Freddo'!), a river on the E. side of Sicily, on 
which the Athenians were defeated by the 
Syracusans, B.C. 418; the Sj'raousans celebrated 
here an annual festival called Asinaria (Thuc. 
vii. 84;_Plat. Nic. 28). 

Asine {'Aaluri : 'Acnvalos). 1. A town in La- 
conica on the coast between Taenarum and 
Gythium (Strab. p. 868). — 2. A town in Argolis, 
W. of Hermione, was built by the Dryopes, who 
were driven out of the to^vn by the Argives 
after the first Messenian war, and built No. 3 
{II. ii. 560; Paus. ii. 36; Strab. p. 373). — 3. 
{Saratza ?), an important town in Blessenia 
near the Promontory Acritas, on the Blessenian 
gulf, which was hence also called the Asiuaean 
gulf [Paus. iv. 34, 12). 

Aslnia Gens, plebeian, came from Teate, the 
chief town of the Marrucini ; and the first per- 
son of the name mentioned is Herius Asinius, 
the leader of the Marrucini in the Marsio war, 
B.C. 90 (cf. Sil. Ital. xvii. 458). The Asinii are 
given under their surnames, Gallus and Pollio. 

Asius {"Aa-ios). 1. Son of Hjrrtacus of Arisbe, 
and father of Acamas and Phaenops, an ally of 
the Trojans, slain by Idomeneus {II. xiii. 389, 
xvii. 582). — 2. Son of Dymas and brother of 
Hecuba, whose form Apollo assumed when he 
roused Hector to fight against Patroclus {II. 
xvi. 715). — 3, Of SamoB, one of the earliest 
Greek poets, lived probably about b.c. 700. He 
wrote epic and elegiac poems, which have 
perished with the exception of a few fragments. 
(Athen. 125, Paus. vii. 4, 2.) Fragm. in Poet. 
Lyr. Bergk. 

Asmiraea, a district and city of Serica in the 
N. of Asia, near mountains called Asmiraei 
Montes, which are supposed to be the Altai 



134 



ASOPUS 



raugo, and the city to be Khaviil, in the cen- 
tre of Chinese Tartary (PtoL vi. 16; Amm. 
Marc, xxiii. G). 

As5pus ('Acranrds). 1. {BaailiJcos), a river in 
Peloponnesus rises near Phlius, and flows 
through the Sioyonian territory into the Corin- 
thian gulf {II. iv. 883 ; Strab. pp. 271, 882, 408, 
409 ; Thuc. ii. 5). — 2. {Asopo}, a riven in Boeo- 
tia, forms the N. boundary of the territory of 
Plataeae, flows through tlie S. of Boeotia, and 
falls into the Euboean sea near Delpliinium in 
Attica. The battle of Plataeae was fought on 
the banks, B.C. 479 (Hdt. ix. 51).— 3. A river 
in Phthiotis in Thessaly, rises in M. Oeta, and 
flows into the Maliac gulf near Thermopylae 
(Strab. p. 382).— 4, A river in Pares {Id. ii.)— 5. 
A river in Phrygia, flows past Laodicea into 
the Lycus. — 6. A town in Laconica on the E. 
side of the Laconian gulf (Strab. p. 364 ; Paus. 
iii. 21, 22). 

Asopus, the river god, is claimed both by 
the Boeotians and the Sicyonians as their 
indigenous deity with a somewhat similar 
genealogy (Pans. ii. 5, 2). Asopus was the son 
of Poseidon and Pero (according to others of 
Oceanus and Tethys, of Poseidon and Kelusa, 
or Zeus and Eurjuome). He married Metope, 
daughter of the river god Ladon, who bore be- 
sides Ismenus and Pelasgos, a great number of 
daughters. In the tablet dedicated at Olympia 
by Phlius, Nemea, Aegina, Corcyra, and Thebe 
are named (Paus. v. 22, 5). To these Apollo- 
doruB adds Salamis, Euboea, Cleone, Tanagra, 
Thespiae, Oenia, and Chalcis. A story (which 
clearly started in Sicyon) runs that Zeus carried 
off Aegina : Asopus followed to Corinth, and, 
having created a spring in Acrocorinthus, where 
water had been scarce, he learned from Sisy- 
phus the name of the robber. As he still per- 
sisted in the pursuit Zeus smote him with a 
thunderbolt, and from that time the river 
sarries down charcoal in its bed (ApoUod. iii. 
12; Eur. I. A. 697; Anton. Lib. 38). Aegina 
was conveyed to the island which took her 
name, or, according to one story, was changed 
into an island. These many daughters seem to 
indicate partly the towns connected by religious 
rites or otherwise with the two chief rivers ; 
partly places to which the name passed, whether 
as a local name for a stream, or as representing 
the worship of river-deities (cp. the name Are- 
thusa). Other daughters of Asopus are Antiope 
and Evadne. The name Asopis apphes to the 
daughters, Asopiades to Aeacus, son of Zeus and 
Aegina. 

Aspadana ('A<nraSa.va: Isiiahanl), a town 
of the district Paraetacene in Persis. 

Asparaglum {Iscarpar), a tovm in the terri- 
tory of Dyn-hachium in Illyria (Caes. B. C. iii. 
80, 76). 

Aapasia {'Aa-Traffla). 1. The elder, of Mile- 
tus, daughter of Axiochus, the most celebrated 
of the Greek Hetaerae (see i)ic!;. of Antiq. s. v.), 
came to reside at Athens. Here she was visited 
by Athenians most distinguished for position 
and culture, offering what may be compared to 
a salon for witty and even learned conversation. 
Socrates is said to have been among those 
found there ; but in especial she gained the 
affections of Pericles, who separated from his 
wife and took Aspasia to live with him, in as 
close a union as could be formed with a 
foreigner. There was no doubt much exaggera- 
tion as to the political influence which she 
exerted, and the stories of her inducing Pericles 
to make war on Samos for the sake of Miletus, 
and on Sparta because of Aspasia's quarrel with 




ACpACIA 
.\spa6ia (Visconti). 



ASPII 

Megara (Plut. Pericl. 24; Aristoph. Ach. 
497), may be dismissed as lampoons. The 
enemies of Pericles accused Aspasia of impiety 
(ao-6^ftia), and it required all the personal influ- 
ence of Pericles, who defended her, and his 
most earnest entreaties, to procure her acquittal. 
On the death of Pericles (b.c. 429), Aspasia is 
said to have attached herself to one Lysicles, a 
dealer in cattle, and to have mode him by her 
instructions a first- 
rate orator. The son 
of Pericles by Aspasia 
was legitimated by a 
special decree of the 
people, and took his 
father's name. Some 
of the sayings of As- 
pasia are collected 
in Mulierum Grace. 
Fragmenta, by Wolf, 
1789. The bust here 
engraved was found a'< 
Civita Vecchia : the 
genuineness of the in- 
scription is, however, 
now disputed. — 2. The 
yomiger, a Phocaean, 
daughter of Hermoti- 
mus, was the favourite 
concubine of Cyrus the i"' 
Younger, who called 
her Aspasia after the 
mistress of Pericles, her previous name having 
been Milto. After the death of Cyrus at the 
battle of Cunaxa (b.c. 401), she feU into the hands 
of Artaxerxes. When Darius, son of Artaxerxes, 
was appointed successor to the tlu:one, he asked 
his father to surrender Aspasia to him. Arta- 
xerxes gave her up ; but he soon after took her 
away again, and made her a priestess of a temple 
at Ecbataua, where strict celibacy was requisite. 
(Plut. Artax. 26-29; Just. x. 2.) 
Aspasii. [Aspu.] 

AspasIuB (Acrirairios). 1. A Peripatetic philo- 
sopher, lived about a.d. 80, and ^vrote commen- 
taries on most of the works of Aristotle. A 
portion of his commentaries on the Nicoma- 
chean Ethics is still preserved. — 2. Of Byblus, 
a Greek sophist, lived about .\.d. 180, and wrote 
commentaries on Demosthenes and Aeschines, 
of which a few extracts are preserved. 

Aspendus CAo-irecSos : "Aa-TreVSios, Aspen- 
dius : Dasliaslikehr or Manaiigat), a strong 
and flourishing city of Pamphylia, on the small 
navigable river Eurymedon, 60 stadia (6 geog. 
miles) from its mouth : said to have been a 
colony of the Argives (Strab. p. 667 ; Thuc viii. 
81 ; Polyb. v. 78). 

Asper, Aemiliius, a Roman grammarian, 
of the age of Trajan, who wrote commentaries 
on Terence and Virgil, must be distinguished 
from a very inferior gramraai-ian of the 6th cen- 
tury, usually called Asper Junior, the author 
of a small work entitled Ars Gramniatica, 
printed in the Ch-ammaf. Lat. Auctores, by 
Putschius, Hanov. 1605. For remains of Aem- 
ilius Asper see Hagen, PhiJolog. xxv. 

Asphaltites Lacus or Mare_ Mortuum 
('AfftpaATrns or 2oSo/urTij \invri or ri 6d\a(ra-a ?; 
veicpa : Dead Sea), the great salt and bitumi- 
nous lake in the SE. of Palestine, which re- 
ceives the water of the Jordan. It has no visible 
outlet, and its surface is considerably below 
the level of the Mediterranean. (Diod. Sic. 
ii. 48.) 

Aspii or Aspasii ('AirTrioi, 'AffTdirioi), an 

Indian tribe, in tlie district of the Paropanu- 



ASPIS 

sadae, between the rivers Choes {Kama) and 
Indus in the NE. of Afghanistan and the 
NW. of the Punjab (Arrian, A.n.jY. 23). 

Aspis ('Atnris). 1. Clypea {Khhta/i), a city 
on a promontory of the same name, near the 
NE. point of the Carthaginian territory, 
founded by Agathocles, and taken in the first 
Punic War by the Romans, who called it Clypea, 
the translation of 'Airin's, a name said to be 
derived from the shield-like hill on which it 
stands (Strab. p. 834; Polyb. i. 29, 36).— 2, 
(Marsa-Zaffran ? Bu.), in the African Tripoli- 
tana, the best harbour on the coast of the gi-eat 
SjTtis (Strab. p. 836).— 3. [Abconnesus.] 

Aspledon ('A(rirA.i)Saiv : 'A<r7rA7)5()i'ioj), or 
Spledon, a town of the Minyae in Boeotia on 
the river Melas, near Orchomenus; built by 
the mytliical Aspledon, son of Poseidon and 
Midea (II. ii. 510 ; Strab. p. 410), 

Assa ("Ao-o-a : 'haaaioi), a town in Chalci- 
dice in Macedonia, on the Singitic gulf (Hdt. 
vii. 122). 

Assaceni ('AffffoK-nvo^, an Indian tribe, in the 
district of the Paropamisadae, between the 
rivers Cophen {Cabool) and Indus, in the NW. 
of the Punjab) (Curt. viii. 10; Arr. An. iv. 25; 
Strab. p. 698). 

Assaracus ('kaaapaKos), king of Troy, son of 
Tros, father of Capys, grandfather of Anchises, 
and great-gi-andfather of Aeneas. Hence the 
Eomans, as descendants of Aeneas, are called 
domus Assaraci {Verg. Aen. i. 284). [Tkos.] 

Assesus CAirirrjo-Ji), a town of Ionia near 
MUetus, with a temple of Athene surnamed 
'Ao-o-rjo-fa (Hdt. i. 19). 

Assorus ('Affcraipds or 'htraiLpiov : 'kacrmpivos : 
Asdro), a small town in Sicily between Enna 
and AgjT-'ium. It contained a temple of the 
local river god Chrysas, which Verres tried to 
plunder (Cic. Verr. iv. 44). It was a Sicel 
town, and a faitliful ally of Dionysius in b. c. 
396 (Diod. xiv. 58). 

Assus {"Aacros : "'Acffios, 'Aercrevs : Asso, Ru., 
near Berani), a flourishing city in the Troad, 
on the Adramyttian Gulf, opposite to Lesbos : 
afterwards called Apollonia : the birthplace of 
Cleanthes the Stoic fStrab. pp. 610, 735). 

Assyria ('Actrupia : 'Aaavpios, Assyrius : 
Kurdistan). [The name is said to be derived 
from an ancient capital, Assur = ' river-bank,' 
now Kaleh Sherghat, on the right bank of the 
Tigris : others derive the name of the town 
from the Assyiian god Asur.] — 1. The country 
properly so called, in the narrowest sense, was 
a district of W. Asia, extending along the E. 
side of the Tigris, which divided it on the W. 
and NW. from Mesopotamia and Babylonia, and 
bounded on the N. and E. by M. Niphates and 
M. Zagrus, whicli separated it from Armenia 
Media, and on the SE. by Susiana. It was 
watered by several streams, flowing into the 
Tigris from the E.; two of which, the Lyous or 
Zabatus (Great Zab), and the Caprus or Zabas 
or Anzabas (Little Zab), divided the country 
into three parts : that between the Upper Tigris 
and the Lycus was called Aturia (a mere dia- 
lectic variety of Assyria), was probably the 
most ancient seat of the monarchy, and con- 
tained the capital, Nineveh or NiNUS : that 
between the Lycus and the Caprus was called 
Adiabene : and the part SE. of the Caprus con- 
tained the districts of Apolloniatis and Sitta- 
cene. Another division into districts, given by 
Ptolemy, is the following : An-hapacliitis, Cala- 
wne, Adiabene, Arbelitis, Apolloniatis, and 
Sittacene. — 2. In a wider sense the name was 
applied to the whole country watered by the 



ASTACUS 



135 



Euphrates and the Tigris, between the moun- 
tains of Armenia on the N., those of Kurdistan 
on the E., and the Arabian Desert on the W., so 
as to include, besides Assyria Proper, Mesopo- 
tamia and Babylonia (Strab. p. 736) ; nay, there 
is sometimes an apparent confusion between 
Assyria and Syria (Verg. Georg. ii. 465).— 3. 
By a further extension the word is used to 
designate the Assyrian Empire in its widest 
sense. The early history of this great monarchy 
cannot be given here in any detail. It was far 
less ancient than the Babylonian monarchy. 
The Assyrian rulers were at first merely petty 
princes of Assur, subject to Babylon, among 
whom Sammas-Bimmon, who built the temple 
of Eimmon at Assur, is dated 1820 B.C. The 
first ' king ' of Assyria seems to have been Belu- 
sumeli-capi, about 1700 B.C. ; but it was not till 
the reign of Bimmon-nirari (the historical 
Ninus), about 1330 b.c, that the king of Assyria 
stood forth as completely independent, a rival 
and superior of the Babylonish king, and Nine- 
veh became the capital. Babylon was captured 
by Tiglath-Adar, king of Assyria, in 1270, but 
regained its independence in the next reign, 
when the Assyrians were at war with the Hittite 
empire, whicli Tiglath-PUeser I. overthrew for 
a time in 1130. The empire of this king and 
his successors, though at some periods curtailed 
by Babylonian, Hittite, or Syrian enemies, 
included the countries just mentioned, with 
Media, Persia, and portions of the countries to 
the E. and NE., Armenia, Syria, Phoenicia, and 
Palestme, except the kingdom of Judah ; and, 
beyond these limits, some of the Assyrian kings 
made incursions into Arabia and Egypt. The 
empire, however, dwindled in the eighth century 
B.C., several provinces revolted, and the dynasty 
fell about 750. Pul or Poros, who then seized 
the throne and called himself Tiglath Pileser II. 
founded the ' second ' Assyrian empire and 
restored all its power, which was further ex- 
tended by Shalmaneser IV., and Sargon, who 
made himself master of Syria and of Babylon 
(whose king he took captive) before his death 
in 705. His son, Sennacherib, failed in his 
attempt to conquer Egypt, and met with disas- 
ter in Judaea, 700 B.C. This so weakened the 
empire, that after the death of Assurbani-pal 
(S.uiDAN.\PALUs) the Medes revolted and formed 
a separate kingdom, and at last, in B.C. 606, the 
governor of Babylonia united with Cyaxares, 
the king of Media, to conquer Assyi-ia, which 
was divided between them, Assyria Proper fall- 
ing to the share of Media, and the rest of the 
empire to Babylon. The king (prob. Esarhad- 
don II.) perished, and Nineveh was rased to the 
ground. [Comp. B.\bylon and Medi.\.] 

Asta (Astensis). 1. (Asti in Piedmont), an 
inland town of Liguria on the Taiiarus, a Bomau 
colony (Plin. iii. 49). — 2. (Mesa de Asta), a 
town in Hispania Baetioa, near Gades, a Roman 
colony^ with the surname Begia (Strab. p. 140). 

Astaboras (' AaTa^6pas : Atbarah or Tacazza) 
and Astapus ('Aa-Tairovs, Bahr-el-Azak ovBlve 
Nile), two rivers of Aetliiopia, having their 
sources in the highlands of Abyssinia, and unit- 
ing in about 17° N. Lat. to form the Nile. The 
land enclosed by them was the island of Meboe. 

Astacus C AaroKos), father of Isinarus, 
Leades, Asphodicus, and Melanippus (Hdt. v 
67 ; Aesch. Th. 407 ; Apollod. iii. 6). 

Astacus ("AaroKos : ' A<Tra.Kr]v6s). 1. (Dra- 
gomestre), a city of Acarnania, on the Acheloiis 
(Strab. p. 459).— 2, A city of Bithynia, at the SE. 
corner of the Sinus Astacenus ('AffTojcnvh? 
kSKttos), a bay of tho Propontis, was a colony 



186 ASTAPA 

from Megara, but afterwards received fresh 
colonists from Athens, who called the place 
Olbia COK^ia) (Strab. p. 563; Scyl. p. 35). It 
was destroyed by Lysimachus, but rebuilt on a 
neighbouring site, at the NE. corner of the 
gulf, by Nicomedes I., who named his new city 

NlCOMEDIA. 

Astapa {JEntepa), a town in Hispania Baetica, 
burnt by the inliabitants when the Romans 
besieged it (Liv. xxviii. 22 ; Appian, Hisp. 83). 

AstapuB. [AsTjVboras.] 

Astarte. [Aphbodite and Syria Dea.] 

Astelepbus ('A<Tre\e<pos), a river of Colchis, 
falling into the Buxine 4 miles N. of the 
Hippus. 

Asteria ('Ao-repia), daughter of the Titan 
Coeus and Phoebe, sister of Leto (Latona), wife 
of Perses, and mother of Hecate. In order to 
escape the embraces of Zeus, she is said to have 
taken the form of a quail (ortyx, oprvl), and to 
have thrown herself down from heaven into the 
sea, where she was metamorphosed into the 
island Asteria (the island which had fallen from 
heaven like a star), or Ortygia, afterwards 
called Deloa. Cicero makes her the mother of 
the Tyrian Heracles. (Hes. Th. 409 ; Apollod. 
i. 2 ; Cic. N. D. iii. 16, 42.) 

Asterion or Asterius l^harfplwv or 'Aa-repios), 
1. Son of Teutamus, and king of the Cretans, 
married Europa after she had been carried to 
Crete by Zeus, and brought up her three sons, 
Minos, Sarpedon, and Rhadamanthys, of whom 
Zeus was the father. — 2. Son of Cometes, Pyre- 
mus, or Priscus, by Antigone, daughter of 
Pheres, was one of the Argonauts (Ap. Bh. i. 
85). 

Asteris or. Asteria ('Xarepls, 'Affrepla), a 
small island between Ithaca and CephaUenia 
{Od. iv. 846 ; Strab. pp. 59, 456). 

Astermm {'Affrepiov), a town in Magnesia in 
Thessaly {II. ii. 735 ; Strab. p. 439). 

Asteropaeus {'AarepoiraTos), son of Pelegon, 
leader of the Paeonians, and an ally of the 
Trojans, was slain by Achilles {II. xxi. 140-200). 

Astigi, a town in Hispania Baetica on the 
river Singulis, a Roman colony with the sur- 
name Augusta Firina (Strab. p. 141). 

Astraea (Ao-TpoTa), daughter of Zeus and 
Themis, or, accordmg to others, of Astraeus and 
Eos. During the golden age, this star-bright 
maiden lived on earth and among men, whom 
she blessed; but when that age had passed 
away, Astraea, who tarried longest among 
men, withdrew, and was placed among the stars, 
where she was called UapOevos or Virgo. Her 
sister AlSds or Pudicitia, left the earth along 
mth her {ad superos Astraea recessit, hac 
[Pudicitia] comite, Juv. vi. 19 ; cf. Ov. Met. i. 
149 ; Hyg. Ast. ii. 25 ; Arat. Phaen. 96). 

Astraeus {'Aarpaios), a Titan, son of Crius 
and Eurybia, husband of Eos (Aurora), and 
father of the winds Zephyrus, Boreas, and 
Notus, Eosphorus (the morning star) and all 
the stars of heaven. Ovid {Met. xix. 545) calls 
the winds Astraei [adj.] /raires, the ' Astraean 
brothers.' (Hes. Th. 376.) 

Astura. 1. {La Stura), a river m Latium, 
rises in the Alban mountains, and flows between 
Antium and Circeii into the Tyrrhenian sea. 
At its mouth it formed a small island with a 
town upon it, also called Astura {Torre d' As- 
tura) : here Cicero had an estate. (Strab. p. 232 ; 
Cic. Att. xii. 19, 40, Fam. vi. 19.)— 2. {Ezla), 
a river in Hispania Tarraconensis, flownig mto 
the Durius. . 

Astures, a people in the NW. of Spain, 
bounded on the E. by the Cantabri and Vaccaei. 



ASYCHIS 

on the W. by the Gallaeci, on the N. by the 
Ocean, and on the S. by the Vettones, thus in- 
habi'Wng the modern Asturias and the northern 
part of Leon and Valladolid. They contained 
22 tribes and 240,000 freemen, and were divided 
into the Augustani and Transmontani, the 
former of whom dwelt S. of the mountains as 
far as the Durius, and the latter N. of the 
mountains down to the sea-coast. The country 
of the Astures was mountainous, rich in minerals 
and celebrated for its horses : the people them- 
selves were rude and warlike. Their chief town 
was Asturica Augusta (Astorga). (Strab. pp. 
153, 167 ; Plin. iii. 85.) 

Astyages {'Aarvayrts), son of Cyaxares, last 
king of Media, reigned B.C. 594-559. Alarmed 
by a dream, he gave his daughter Mandane in 
marriage to Cambyses, a Persian of good family, 
by whose son Cyrus he was dethroned. [For 
details see Cybus.] 

Astyanax {'Aarvava^, son of Hector and 
Andromache : his proper name was Scaman- 
drius, but he was called Astyanax or ' lord of 
the city ' by the Trojans, on account of the ser- 
vices of his father {II. vi. 400 ; Plat. Cratyl. 
392 b). After the taking of Troy the Greeks 
hurled him down from the walls, that he might 
not restore the kingdom of Troy. This is pro- 
phesied in II. xxiv. 734, and related as per- 
formed either by resolution of the Greeks or as 
a private act of Neoptolemiis in Eur. Tro. 720, 
Pans. X. 25, 4 (citing Lesches), Eur. And. 10, 
Ov. Met. xiii. 415, Hyg. Fab. 109. Other tradi- 
tions make him sm'^ave and found cities in the 
Troad (Strab. p. 607). 

Astydamas ('AcrTuSa^uos). 1. A tragic poet, 
son of Morsimus, the great-nephew of Aeschylus 
[Phtlocles], wrote 240 tragedies, and gained 
the prize 15 times. His first tragedy was acted 
B.C. 399. — 2. Son of the above, and a tragic poet 
of considerable eminence, since it is recorded 
that a statue to him was decreed on account of 
liis play Parthenopaeus, and that he won the 
prize in two consecutive years. 

Astydamia ('Ao-ruSoMfa)- !■ Daughter of 
Amyntor and mother of Tlepolemus by Hera- 
cles.— 2. Wife of AcASTUS. 

Astymedusa {'A<rTvixfSov(ra), wife of Oedipus 
after the death of Jocasta. 

Astynome {'Aa-Tuvofiri), daughter of Chryses, 
better known under her patronymic Chryseis. 

Astyoohe or AstyocMa {'AffTvixv or 'Ao-rurf- 
Xeia). 1. Daughter of -Actor, by whom Ares 
begot Ascalaphus and lahnenus. — 2, Daughter 
of Phylas, king of Epliyi-a in Thesprotia, became 
by Heracles the mother of Tlepolemus. 

Astyochus {'Aarvoxos), the Lacedaemonian 
admiral in B.C. 412, commanded on the coast of 
Asia Minor, where he was bribed by the Persians 
to remain inactive. ^ 

Astypalaea {'Aa-rvirdXma : ' AffTVTraXaifvs, 
'A(rTvira\aidTT}s: Stampalia), one oi tiie Spo- 
rades in the S. part of the Grecian archipelago 
(so called after the daughter of Phoenix), with 
a town of the same name, founded by the Me- 
garians, which was under the Romans a libera 
oivitas. {Astypaliia regna, i.e. Astypalaea, 
Ov. Met. vii. 461.) (Strab. p. 488 ; Plin. iv. 71.) 
An inscription of B.C. 105 mentions it as a 
civitas foederata {C. L G. 2485). [See also 
Cleomedes.] . 

Astyra (to "Aa-rvpa.), a town of Mysia, NW. 
of Adramyttium, on a marsh connected with the 
sea with a grove sacred to Artemis surnamed 
'Aarvplm, or -vvi, (Strab. p. 613 ; Xen. Hell. iv. 

^' AsycMs {"Affvxis), an ancient king of Egypt 



ATABULUS 

succeeded Myoeiunus (Hdt. ii. 186). He 
imist therefore be the kiug Shepses-ka-f, the 
List of the Fourth Dynasty, whose date is placed 
1 \ Brugsch at 3C00 B.C. 

Atabulus, the name in Apuha of the parching 
Si;, wind, the Sirocco, which is at present called 
in Apulia. ^ 

Atabyris or Atabyrium {'Arafivptov), the 
lu^jhest mountain in Rhodes on the SW. of that 
i-laud, on which was a celebrated temple of 
7 . us Atabyrius, said to have been founded by 
Althaemenes, the grandson of Minos. (Find. 
01. vii. 87 ; Strab. p. 655 ; Diod. v. 59.) 

Atagis. [Athesis.] 

Atalailta('ATaA.a>'T77). 1, The Arcadian Ata- 
lanta, was the daughter of lasus (lasion or 
lasius) and Clymene. Her father, who had 
wished for a son, was disappointed at her birth, 
and exposed her on the Parthenian (virgin) 
hill, where she was suclded by a ahe-bear, the 
symbol of Artemis. After she had growm up 
she lived in pure maidenhood, slew the centaurs 
who pursued her, and took part in the Caly- 
donian hunt. Her father subsequently recog- 
nised her as his daughter ; and when he desired 
her to marrj', she required every suitor who 
wanted to win her, to contend with her first in 
the foot-race. If he conquered her, he was to 
be rewarded with her hand, if not, he was to be 
put to death. This she did because she was 
the most swift-footed of mortals, and because 
the Delpliic oracle had cautioned her against 
marriage. She conquered many suitors, but 
was at length overcome by Milan ion with the 
assistance of Aplu'odite. The goddess had given 
him 3 golden apples, and during the race he 
dropped them one after the other : their beauty 
charmed Atalanta so much, that she could not 
abstain from gathering them, and Milanion thus 
gained the goal before her. She accordingly 
became his wife. [PjVBTHenopaeds.] They 
■were subsequently both metamorphosed into 
lions, because they had profaned by their em- 
braces the sacred grove of Zeus. (Callim. 
Dian. 216 ; Hyg. Fab. 99 ; Prop. i. 1. 10 ; Paus. 
iii. 24. 2 ; Apollod. iii. 9. 2.)— 2. The Boeotian 
Atalanta. The same stories are related of her 
as of the Arcadian Atalanta, except that her 
parentage and the localities are described dif- 
ferently. Thus she is said to have been a 
daughter of Schoenus, and to havel)een married 
to Hippomenes. Her foot-race is transferred 
to the Boeotian Onchestus, and the sanctuary 
which the newly married couple profaned by 
their love, was a temple of Cybele, who meta- 
morphosed them into lions, and yoked them to 
her chariot (Ov. Met. viii. 318, x. 565; Hyg. 
Fab. 185). It is clear that these are not to be 
regarded as distinct personages. Indeed, Ata- 
lanta herself, in whatever locality her story is 
placed, seems to be an expression in mortal 
form of Artemis the virgin huntress, round 
whom the local legends have gathered, and, as 
is often the case, the representative of the 
oddess becomes— not in this instance her child, 
nt her foster-child, or the foster-child of her 
symbolical animal. [See Artemis.] An attri- 
bute of Artemis, the goddess of springs, is seen 
tn the story of her striking water from a rock 
(Paus. I. c). 

Atalante ('AraKavTri : 'AraKavToios). 1. A 
jimall island in the Euripus, on the coast of tlie 
Opuntian Locri, with a small town of the same 
name (Strab. pp. 61, 895 ; Thuc. ii. 82, iii. 89).— 
A A town of Macedonia on the Axius, in the 
neighbourhood of Gortynia and Idomene 
IThuc. u. 100). 



ATELLA 187 

Atarantefl {'ArdpavTes), a people in the E. of 
Libya, described by Herodotus (iv. 184). 

Atarbechis. [Aphboditopolis.] 

Atarneus or Atarnea {'Arapvevs : Diheli), a 
city on M. Cane, on the coast of Mysia, oppo- 
site to Lesbos : a colony of the Chians : the 
residence of the tyrant Hermias, with whom 
Aristotle resided some time : destroyed before 
the time of Pliny (Hdt. i. 160 ; Strab. p. 670 ; 
Plin. V. 122). 

Ataulphus, Athaulphus, Adaulphus (i.e. 
Athaulf, ' sworn helper,' the same name as that 
which appears in later history under the form 
of Adolf or Adolphus), brother of Alaric's ^vife. 
He assisted Alaric in liis invasion of Italy, and 
on the death of that monarch in a.d. 410, he 
was elected king of the Visigoths. He then 
made a peace with the Romans, married Pla- 
cidia, sister of Houorius, retired with his nation 
into the S. of Gaul, and finally withdrew into 
Spain, where he was murdered at Barcelona. 
(Jomand. de Eeh. Get. 32.) 

Ataz {Aiide), originally called Narbo, a river 
in Gallia Narboneusis, rises in the Pyrenees, 
and flows by Narbo Martius into the Lacus 
Rubresus or Rubrensis, which is connected with 
the sea (Plin. iii. 32). In Polyb. iii. 87, xxxiv. 
10, the river itself is called Narbo. From this 
river the poet P. Terentius Varro obtained the 
surname Atacinus. [V,\JiEO.] 

Ate ("At?)), daughter of Eris or Zeus, was an 
ancient Greek divinity, who led both gods and 
men into rash and inconsiderate actions. She 
personifies the infatuation which comes upon 
the guilty and lures them to ruin, thus making 
sin work its own punishment. She once even 
induced Zeus, at the birth irl' Heracles, to take 
an oath by wliich Hera was afterwards enabled 
to give to Eurystheus the power which had 
been destined for Heracles. When Zeus dis- 
covered his rashness, he hurled Ate from 
Olympus and banished her for ever from the 
abodes of the gods. In the myth of II. ix. 502 
Ate speeds on her work of evil for man, while 
behind come the mediating Prayers (Aira/) who 
henl the mischief for those who regard them, 
but entreat Zeus to bring greater evil on the 
stubborn. In II. xix. 85 Agamemnon says that 
the cause of liis guilt is the infatuation which 
the fates brought on him, and that this Ate is 
a ' goddess born of Zeus who goes softly over 
men's heads,' i.e. takes men unawares, and leads 
them to ruin. In the tragic writers Ate appears 
in a different light : she avenges evil deeds and 
inflicts just pmiishments upon the offenders 
and their posterity, so that her character is 
almost the same as that of Nemesis and 
Erinnys; but still she has gi-own out of the 
idea that sin brings its punislmient. She 
appears most prominent in the dramas of 
Aeschylus, and least in those of Euripides, with 
whom the idea of Dike (justice) is more fully 
developed. 

AteiUS, surnamed Praetextatus, and Philo- 
logus, a celebrated grammarian at Rome, abou - 
B.C. 40, and a friend of Sallust, for whom he 
drew up an Epitome [Breviarium) of Roman 
history. After the death of Sallust Ateius lived 
on intimate terms with Asiniua Pollio, whom 
he assisted in his literary pursuits. (Sueton. 
Gramm. 10.) 

Ateius Capito. [Capito.] 

Atella (Atellanus ; Aversa), a town in Cam- 
pania between Capua and Neapolis, originally 
inhabited by the Oscans, aftenvards a Roman 
municipium and a colony. It revolted to Han- 
nibn,l (u.c. 216) after the battle of Cannae, and 



188 ATERNUM 
the Romans in consequence transplanted its I 
inhabitants to Calatia, and peojiled the town 
with new citizens from Nuoeria. Atella owes 
its celebrity to the Atellanae Fabulac or Oscan 
farces, which took their name from this town. 
{Bid. of Antiq. s.v. Satura.) 

Aternum (Pescara), a town in central Italy 
on the Adriatic, at the mouth of the river 
Aternus {Pescara), was the common harbour of 
the Vestini, Marrucini,and Peligni (Strab. p. 241). 

Aternus. [Ateknum.] 

Ateste (Atestlnus : Esie), a Roman colony in 
the country of the Veneti in Upper Italy (Mart. 
X. 98). 

Athacus, a town in Lyncestis in Macedonia. 

Athamania ('Ada/jLavia : 'ABafidv, -ayos), a 
mountainous country in the S. of Epirus, on the 
W. side of Pindus, of which Argithea was the 
chief town. The Athamanes were a Thessalian 
people, who had been driven out of Thessaly by 
the Lapithae. They were governed by inde- 
pendent princes, the last of whom was Amyn- 
ANDER. (Strab. pp. 434, 449.) 

Athamas {'A6a.ij.as), son of Aeolus and Ena- 
rete, and king of Orcliomenus in Boeotia. At the 
command of Hera, Athamas married Nephele, 
by whom he became the father of Pheixus and 
Helle. But he was secretly in love with the 
mortal Ino, the daughter of Cadmus, by whom 
he begot Learchus and Melioertes; and Nephele, 
on discovering that Ino had a greater hold on 
his affections than herself, disappeared in anger. 
Having thus incurred the anger both of Hera ' 
and of Nephele, Athamas was seized with mad- 
ness, and in tliis state killed his ovm son, Le- 
archus ; Ino threw herself with Melicertes into 
the sea, and both were changed into marine : 
deities, Ino becoming Leucothea, and Melicertes 
Palaemon. Athamas, as the murderer of his 
son, was obliged to flee from Boeotia, and 
settled in Thessaly. — Hence we have Atha- 
■.nantlades, son of Athamas, i.e. Palaemon ; and 
Atha^nantis, daughter of Athamas, i.e. Helle. 
[See Phrixus, Ino, Melicertes.] 

Atianagia {Agramunt ?), the chief town of 
the Ilergetes in Hispania Tarraconensis. 

AthanarlCUS, king of the Visi-Goths during 
their stay in Dacia. In .\.d. 367-369 he carried 
on war with the emi^eror Valens, with whom he 
finally concluded a peace. In 374 Athanaric 
was defeated by the Huns, and, after defending 
himself for some time in a stronghold in the 
mountains of Dacia, was compelled to fly in 
380, and take refuge in the Roman territory. 
He died in 881. (Anun. Mar. xxvii. 5, xxx. 3 ; 
Sozom. vi. 37.) 

Athanasius, archbishop of Alexandria A.D. 
326. (See Diet, of Christian Biogr.) ^ 

Athene {' AO^nvai-n or 'AQ-qvala, whence 'AOt)vaa 
contracted in Attic into 'Aet)va., in Trag. 'Aflaca ; 
in older Ionic 'Ae-i]vri), one of the great 
deities of the Greek race, personifying to them 
the guiding influence of life, in wise counsel, 
in industry, and in strategy of war. The story 
of her birth, as jiven in Hesiod and m Hymn, 
ad Apoll, tells that Metis (= wise counsel) 
was the wife of Zeus, and being pregnant with 
Athene was, in the form of a fly which he had 
persuaded her to assume, swallowed by him, 
because he found that her child would be his 
superior in might (Hes. Th. 886). Athene was 
then born from the head of Zeus : springing 
forth, as Pindar tells, fully armed with a great 
shout {01. vii. 35). This has all the appearance 
of a very old tradition from primitive ancestors ; 
but Homer, perhaps because lie constantly 
discards the more grotesque myths which Hesiod 



ATHENE 

retains, does not mention it, though his know- 
ledge of it may perhaps be traced in II. v. HI',, 
and in the epithets d^pifMOTraTpi) and Tpiroyivna. 
The>»story fixed on later Tritonis in Libya uh 
the scene of her birth (cf. Apollod. i. 3, Gj : 
and from Hdt. iv. 180 it may be surmised that 
some local sea or water deity, daughter of 
Poseidon, had become identified with Athene. 
Out of her other name Pallas (often a surname 
ITaWas 'ABrjvr]), which some derive from her 
hrandishing the spear, others interpret as 
= ' maiden,' probably arose a later story that 
she was the daughter of the giant Pallas (Tzetz. 
ad Lyc. 355 ; Cic. N.D. iii. 23, 59). In Homer 
she appears as the champion of the Greek.s, 
and in the Odyssey especially of the wise 
Odysseus (cf. II. x. 244). She is already not 
only the goddess of wisdom {voKv&ovXos), but 
also the goddess of war, yet always of war 
tempered by prudence (II. i. 206) ; already the 
goddess of womanly industries {II. v. 735, ix. 
390), and of other arts {Od. vi. 233), whence 
came the later surname ''E.pyavn (Paus. i. 24) ; 
and already the protectress of Greek states 
{epu(T'nrTo\is, II. vi. 305) : whence she was after- 
wards 'AO. TToXids or TToAiovxos. From this cha- 
racter as helper of industries she is regarded in 
later literature as the goddess of agriculture also, 
and so as the giver of the olive to Athens. The 
story ran that, in the reign of Cecrops, Poseidon 
and Athene contended for the control of Athens : 
the gods decreed that whichever produced the 
gift most useful to mortals should possess the 
city. Poseidon struck the ground with his 
trident, and a horse appeared : Athene made 
the olive spring up, and was adjudged the giver 
of the best gift and the protectress of Athens 
(Hdt. vili. 55 ; Apollod. iii. 14). A contest 
between two deities generally means that the 
new religion brought in by immigrants pre- 
vailed over some older cult. It is probable in 
this case that the worship of Poseidon had been 
established by the Pelasgic inhabitants of 
Attica, to whom the Lapithae belonged, and 
that the Ionian immigrants made that of Athene 
take the chief place. Thenceforth she was 
entreated and thanked for the fruits of the 
land and other aid. Her coimexion with the 
harvest appears in the story of Erechtheus, and 
in the festivals of the Panathenaea, the Plyn- 
teria, the Procharisteria, the Oschophoria, 
the Arrhephoria, and the Scirophoria. [Diet. 
Ant. s.vv.J. As divine patroness of all arts, 
and not merely of weaving, she was at Athens 
the especial deity of the potters : this brought 
about a union of her worship with that of 
Hephaestus (as well as Prometheus) in the 
torch-race [Diet. Ant. s.v. Lampadedromia , 
which accounts for the connexion of these two 
deities in myths. The Peplos in the Pan- 
athenaea shows her as the weavers' goddess. 
[For the special myths of her in connexion with 
weaving, see Arachne.] As goddess of war wo 
find her in post-Homeric story celebrated in the 
battle of the giants and the Gorgon (Eur. Hec. 
466, Ion, 987 ; Verg. Aen. iii. 578 ; Paus. viii. 
47), whence her epithets yopyo^6vos, ytyavro- 
Kereipa. But she was also the goddess of 
military arts in general and so of martial music 
(Pind. Pyth. xii. 6; cf. 'Ad^ivn 2d\my^, Paus. 
ii. 21, 8), and of war-ships [Argo] : both music 
and ship were represented in the Panathenaea 
(both attributes, however, might be derived from 
her care for art and for commerce). It is more 
doubtful whether we should regard, as some do, 
her epithets iV:n'a, xaAii'iTU (cf. Beli.ebophon), 
Sa^Liamwos, as goddess of horees and chariots 



ATHENE 



189 



itii the idea of war-horses and tvar-chariots, 
r with an older reUgion in which the horse 
,113 a sacred animal to her as it was to Poseidon 
I'aus. i. 30, 4, ii. 4; Piud. 01. xiii. 79; Soph. 
> C. 1071). She was the inventress also, by 
line accounts, of the Pyrrhic dance (PloA.Legg. 
I'M b), and, as giver of victory in war, was 
worshipped in 'AS-livq Ni'kt) (Paus. i. 42, 4). She 
was in fact N/kt; a-Krepos, the wingless Victory, 
to distinguisli her from the conventional symbol 
of winged Victory. As protectress of cities she 
was called ttoMovxos not only at Athens but in 
other states (Paus. i. 4'2, iii. 17) : at Athens in 
this character she presided over the phratries or 
clans, and sacrifice was offered to her at the 
Apaturia. In many local legends of the Pelo- 
ponnesus, connected apparently with the Dorian 
conquest, she appears as the friend and ally of 
Heracles (Paus. v. 17, 11, vi. 19, 12). The 
animals sacred to her were the owl, the serpent, 
and the cock : for the last Pausanias (vi. 26, 2) 
gives the rather doubtful reason that the cock 




.\thene. (.\egina Marbles.) 

was a pugnacious bird ; the serpent was prob- 
ably consecrated to her as representative of an 
old local religion connected with Erichthonius. 
As regards the owl, the most reasonable expla- 
nation IS that at one time she was worshipped 
as the owl itself in the primitive days of animal 
worship, and that when Greek art and civili- 
sation rejected monstrous forms of deities and 
chose the idealised human form, then the owl 
became merely her sacred bird or her symbol 
on coins. (Even Homer seems to presei-ve a 
iWjce of this primitive religion when he makes 
Athene assume the foi-m of a bird : II. vii. 59 : 
Od.m. 872, v. 353.) It is impossible to accept 
tlie ide_^a that Homer when he called Athene 
y^avmms pictured her to himself as an owl- 
•aced deity, but there is much probability that 
cos«'?W ^ ^'^^ ^^^^ it i« even 

attached the sense of ' keen-eyed ■ to the word 

owHnL 1 "^u " f"" ^P'*^' ^l^i'^h meant 
cent p ■. T*"^ reasonable than to ac- 

dtrivprf"''' fJ'T '"^e name was actuallv 
aenved from the flashing of lightning ; for there 



is in truth very slight ground for the supposi- 
tion that Athene was originally conceived as a 
goddess of the thunderstorm. Arguments for 
this origin from the thunderstorm, which are far 
from satisfactory, are 
found in the aegis, and 
even in Pindar's descrip- 
tion of her birth. Others 
see in the Athene myth 
the clouds, and argue 
that her attribute of 
weaving was imagined 
from the fleecy clouds 
of heaven : others again 
upon the doubtful foun- 
dation of etymology 
base the conclusion that 
she was the goddess of 
dawn or of light. It is 
better not to regard 
Athene as a nature god- 
dess at all, but simply as 
the divinity of wisdom, 
of arts and of industry : 
the ideal for the Greek 
race of the policy and 
skill which brought pro- 
sperity to the state and 
their protectress against 
barbarism: a deity who, 
far from resembling the 
nature deities, is always 
the inviolate maiden goddess. Besides the 
Athenian festivals mentioned above, the Argive 
ceremony deserves special notice, in which the 
archaic image of Athene was washed in the 
river Inachus, as a symbolical cleansing of the 




Statuette of Athene 
f arthenoB. 




Athene. (From a Statue In the Hope CoUeotion. 

blood-stained goddess after her battle with 
the giants. (CaUim. Lavacr. Pall.) She was 
worshipped also at Epidaurus in the temple 
of Asclepius as Athene Hygieia, in which 
character she had an altar at Athens It is 
remarkable that the serpent and the cock were 



140 



ATHENAE 



sacred to Asclepius as well as to Athene, but 
there is not sufficient clue to the origin of the 
conBecration of these animals to warrant a 
conclusion that they belonged to her healing 
character especially. The temple of Athene 
Itonia, near Coronea, was famous for the 
meeting of the Boeotian congress. In archaic 
art Athene was represented (1) as a throned and 
unarmed deity, which may have been the form 
in the ^Sayov of Athene Polias ; (2) as a goddess 
armed with helmet, shield, and spear, which 
was the form of the Palladium. The armed 
type was adopted and idealised by Phidias in 
his famous statues, the colossal Athene Pro- 
machos on the Acropolis [Acropolis] and that 
of Athene Parthenos, which we know from copies 
as wearing a high omaraented helmet, the aegis 
(a goat skin plated with scales, and having the 
Gorgon's head in the centre) on her breast, carry- 
ing the figure of victory in her right hand and 
resting her left on a shield. Often her helmet is 
the ' Corinthian ' visored helmet, plain, with 
openings for eyes and mouth : this helmet she 
wears on many coins, and in other represen- 
tations, thrown back on the head : the Attic 
hehnet which she wears on Athenian coins has 
a high (t>d\os [see coin on p. 144], but not so 
high as that of Athene Parthenos, a neck-piece 
fitting close to the neck, and a narrow guard for 
the face which can be moved up or down. Her 
face has a dignified type of beauty with some- 
what compressed lips, a broad clear brow, and 
thoughtful eyes. The characteristic objects 
often added are the owl, the serpent, and the 
olive branch. 

Athenae ('ABtivai, also 'Mi\vr] in Homer : 
^ABr]va'ios, Atheniensis : Athens), the capital of 
Attica, is situated about three miles from the 
sea coast, in the central plain of Attica, which 
is enclosed by mountains on every side except 
the south, where it is open to the sea. This 
plain is bounded and sheltered on the NW. by 
Mt. Parnes, on the NE. by Mt. Pentelicus, on 
the SE. by Mt. Hymettus, and on the W. by 
Mt. Aegaleos. In the southern part of the 
plain there rise several eminences. Of these 
the most prominent is a lofty insulated moun- 
tain, with a conical peaked summit, now called 
the Hill of St. George, which used to be 
identified by topographers with the ancient 
Anchesmus, but which is now admitted to be 
the more celebrated Lycabettus. This moun- 
tain, which was not included mthin the ancient 
walls, lies to the north-east of Athens, and 
forms the most striking feature in the environs 
of the city. It is to Athens, as a modem 
writer has aptly remarked, what Vesuvius is 
to Naples or Arthur's Seat to Edinburgh. The 
visitor to Athens is probably surprised when he 
sees Lycabettus that so little is said of it in 
Attic witers — in Plato, for instance, that it 
should only once be mentioned (Grit. p. 112), 
and then without much distinction. Strabo 
however, does mention it as being the charac- 
teristic height of Athens, as Taygetus was of 
Sparta, or Atabyris of Rhodes (p. 454). South- 
west of Lycabettus there are four hills of 
moderate height, all of which formed part of 
the city. Of these the nearest to Lycabettus, 
and at the distance of a mile from the latter, 
was the Acropolis, or citadel of Athens, a 
square craggy rook rising abruptly about 150 
feet, with a flat summit of about 1000 feet long 
from east to west, by 500 feet broad from north 
to south. Immediately west of the Acropolis, 
is a second hill of irregular form, the A.reiopa- 
gus. To the south-west there rises a thu-d hill. 



tlie Pnyx, on which the assemblies of the 
citizens were held; and to the south of the 
latter is a fourth hill, known as the Museum. 
On the eastern and western sides of the city 
there run two small streams, both of which are 
nearly exhausted by the heats of summer and 
by the channels for artificial irrigation before 
they reach the sea. The stream on the east, 
called the Ilissus, was joined by the Eridanue 
close to the Lyceum outside the walls, and 
then flowed in a south-westerly direction 
through the southern quarter of the city. The 
stream on the west, named the Cephissus, runs 
due south at a distance of about a mile and a 
half from the walls. South of the city lay the 
Saronic gulf and the harbours of Athens. As 
in the case of most early towns in Greece, and 
indeed elsewhere, the first settlement was made 
on the most defensible eminence of the plain, 
and this was the Acropolis, which was at once a 
more convenient height and a more convenient 
shape than the peaked Lycabettus. [See Acko- 
POLis.] This was the nucleus round which 
later Athens grouped itself when it had gro^vn 
to be the head of a united Attica. [See under 
Attica, Cecrops, Theseus.] The city was 
burnt by Xerxes in B.C. 480, but was soon re- 
built under the administration of Themistocles, 
and was adorned with public buildings by 
Cimon and especially by Pericles, in whose 
time (B.C. 460-429) it reached its greatest splen- 
dour. Its beauty was chiefly owing to its 
public buildings, for the private houses were 
mostly insignificant, and its streets badly laid 
out. Towards the end of the Peloponnesian 
war, it contained 10,000 houses (Xen. Mem. iii. 
6, 14), wliioh at the rate of 12 inhabitants to 
a house would give a population of 120,000, 
though some writers make the inhabitants as 
many as 180,000. Under the Eomans Athens 
continued to be a great and flourishing city, 
and retained many privileges and immimities 
when S. Greece was formed into the Roman 
province of Achaia. It suffered greatly on its 
capture by Sulla, B.C. 86, and was deprived of 
many of its privileges. It was at that time, 
and also dming the early centuries of the 
Clu:istian aera, one of the chief seats of learn- 
ing, and the Romans were accustomed to send 
their sons to Athens, as to a University, for 
the completion of their education. Hadrian, 
who was very partial to Athens and frequently 
resided in the city (a.d. 122, 128), adorned it 
with many new buildings, and his example was 
followed by Herodes Atticus, who spent large 
sums of money upon beautifying the city in the 
reign of BI. Aurelius. — Athens consisted of 
three distinct parts united with one line of 
fortiflcations. I. The Acropolis {' l^Kp6t:o\is) or 
PoLis {n6\Ls), also called the Upper City (t) 
&VW irdKis), which is described m a separate 
article [Acropolis]. II. The Asty (rh Atrru), 
also called the Lower City (t) KaronrdMi) to dis- 
tinguish it from the Acropolis, surrounded with 
walls by Themistocles. LU .The three harbour- 
towns of Piraeus, Munychia, and Phalerum, 
also surrounded with walls by Themistocles, 
and connected with the city by means of the 
l07iq walls (ra /xcucp^ rdxv), built under the 
administration of Pericles. The lo'ig walls 
consisted of the wall to Phalerum on the fc.. 35 
stadia long (about 4 miles), and of the ^va'l to 
Piraeus on the W., 40 stadia long about 4* 
miles) ; between these two, at a short distance 
from the latter and parallel to it. another waU 
was erected, thus making two walls If ^ 
the Piraeus (sometunes called to fffceA.?)), 



ATHENAE 

a narrow passage between tliem Tliere were 
therefore three long walls in aU; but the name 
of Long Walls seems to have been confined to 
the two leading to the Piraeus, while the one 
leading to Phalerum was distinguished by the 
name of the Phalerian Wall {rh *aKr]piKbv 
Te'tYos). The entire circuit of the walls was 
1744 stadia (nearly 22 mUes), of which 48 stadia 
(nearly oh miles) belonged to the city, 75 stadia 



141 

passed over the hill of the Museum including 
in after times the monument of Philopappus ; 
they then continued a little to the north of the 
IHssus, including the Olympieum ; on the E. 
thev did not extend as far as the Lyceum.— 
Gates. On the W. side were :— (1) Dipyhim 
(AhvXov, more anciently Qpiaa'iai or Kepa^tiKol). 
the most frequented gate of the city, leading 
from the inner Ceramicus to the outer Cera- 



Stadia 



1. Parthenon 

2. Erechtheum 

3. Propylaea 

4. Prytaneum 

5. Temple of Asclepius 

6. Stoa of Eumenea 

7. Mon. of tasarates 

8. Eleusinium 

9. Metroon 
10. Bouleuterion 

',fl'ff}^ u. r/io/os 

12. Temple of Furies 
'i'l' 13. Temple of Area 
14. Enneacrounos 
^r"^ .15. So-called Prison of 

"§Z /" _ -.^^^ocrates 



> Sunium 




Walker fjr Loutall sc. 



Map of Ancient Athens. 



(9i miles) to the long walls, and 56^ (7 miles) 
to Piraeus, Munychia, and Phalerum. — Topo- 
graphy of the Lower City— Walls, The line of 
the walls surrounding the whole city, which were 
built by Themistocles (Thuc. i. 90) can be traced 
with certainty (see map above), and a portion of 
them is especially noticeable near the Dipylon 
Gate. On the "W. they passed over the hill of the 
Nymphs and included the Pnyx; on the S. they 



micus, and to the Academy. It consisted of 
two gates which with the walls joining them 
inclosed a rectangular space : hence the name 
' double-gate ' : each gate had double doors with 
a centre pier : remains of the southern tower 
which defended the gate are traceable. The 
name of tliis gate has been the more celebrated 
from a find in this spot of a number of vases 
with geometric pattern which gave the desig- 



142 



ATHENAE 



nation ' Dipylon vase ' to this clasH. [Diet. 
Ant. s. V. Vas.\ This was the gate througli 
wliich the procession to Eleusis passed : )ience 
it is Galled by Plutiivch 'lepal irvKai. [It was 
long supposed that this Sacred Gate was a 
separate oponing : but the opening so explained 
has been shown to be a watercourse through 
which the Eridanus flowed.] The name Thri- 
asian was given because it led to the Eleusinian 
deme Thria. It is probable that the name 
'Hpi'oi iruAai, tlie Gate of the Dead, belonged to 
this gate also because it led to the Ceramicus. 
(2) The Piraean Gate {rj UeipaiKi] tt. : Plut. Sidl. 
14), between the Dipylon and the Nymphs' 
Hill. (8) The Melitian Gate (al MfAir^Ses ir.), 
so called because it led between the Long 
Walls to the demus Melite, within the city. 
On the S. side, going from W. to E. : — (4) 
The Itonian Gate {al 'ItwvIhi it.), near the 
Ilissus, where the road to Phalerum began. 
On the E. side, going from S. to N. : — (5) The 



outer Ceramicus; the S. part of the inner 
, Ceramicus contained the Agora (kyopa), or 
j ' market-place.' The political Agora occupied 
the ^ipaoe immediately surrounding the Areio- 
I pagUB and between the Areiopagus, Pnyx and 
Acropolis, and there also was the market-place 
1 of commerce ; l)ut as business increased, tlie 
market for buying and selling was pushed 
! further out into the Ceramicus N. and NE. to 
the neighbourhood of the Stoa of Attalos and 
j the Colonos Agoraios (the hill on which the 
j temple falsely called Theseum stands ; and in 
Roman times further East to the Stoa of 
I Hadrian and gate of Athene Archegetis. This 
gate of Athene Archegetis was built from dona- 
tions of Julius Caesar and Augustus, as an in- 
scription on it records. It seems to mark the 
SE. entrance to the Agora of the Roman period : 
whether, as some have conjectured, it was de- 
signed to mark some special jioint in state 
processions, cannot be determined. The re- 




Modulus 1:40.000 
1234 



Walker &■ BMttall S(. 



Plan of the Harbours of Athens. 



Gate of Diochares [al Aioxapovs ir.), leading to 
the Lyceum.— 6. The Diomean Gate (rj Aiofiv'ts 
TTvK-n, Alciphr. iii. 51, 4), leading to Cynosarges 
and the demus Diomea. On the NE. side : 
(7) The Acharnian Gate (al 'AxapviKoi it.), 
leading to the demus Acharnae on the North.— 
8. The Knights' Gate {at 'ImrdSes irv\at, Alciphr. 
iii 51, 4) whose position is not known. Sonie 
take it to be an exit near the Olympieum lead- 
ing to Sunium. There were other unnamed 
gates : e.g. one leading to the Stadium prob- 
ably existed. It must be obssrved that near 
these gates (great double gates, and therefore 
usually, though not invariably, spoken of m 
the plural) there was a postern door (tuMsJ, 
for toot-passengers: e.g. near the Achar- 
nian Gate (Plat. Lys. p. 208 a). - Chief 
Districts, The inner Ceramriciis (KfP": 
ti(iK6s), or 'Potters' Quarter,' in the W. of 
the city, extending N. as far as the gate 
Dipylon by which it was separated from tne 



mains now extant, standing in the modern 
' Poikile Street,' consist of four Doric columns 
with an architrave and a plain pediment. The 
demus Melite lay south of the inner Ceramicus, 
and W. of the Agora, reaching nearly as far as 
the Museum hill on the south and on the north 
to the Piraean gate and Colonos Agoraios 
(Dem. c. Con. p. 1258, § 7 ; Plut. Farm. 120). 
The position of the demus Scambo7tidae is 
disputed by recent writers. Some place it 
outside the city; others make it a city 
deme to the south-west of the Acropolis: 
the latter view is on the whole the best. 
The demi CoUytus and Cydathcnaeum 
cannot be placed with certainty : probably 
the former lay in the northern part of the city, 
the latter south of the Acropolis. CoelA 
a district south of Collytus and the Museum, 
along the Ilissus, in which were the graves of 
Cimon and Tliucydides. Li>n7tac, a district K 
of Melite and Collvtus, between the Acropohs 



..nd the nissus. Diomea, a district in the E. 
r*l,p ritv near the gate of the same name and 

eounc that ifeldits sittings there P^^^ 
s v) was accessible on the S. side by a flight 
of steps cut out of tlie rock. On its N. 
slope stood a temple of Ares : the chasm on he 
NE side near the top is supposed to be the 
,hrine of the :i.^^ua\ (Eumenides) and lower 
down was the tomb of Oedipus Traces of 
primitive houses, of an early date, like those on 
the Acropolis have been found on this hill. 
The Hill of the Nymphs, NW. of the Areiopa- 
gus so called because an inscription notes it as 
sacred to the Nymphs: another has been found 
on it telling that part of the hill was a precinct 
of Zeus. The Pynx (UvvO, a semicircular hill, 
SW of the Areiopagus, where the assemblies ot 
tlie people were held in earlier times, for after- 
wards the people usually met in the Theatre of 
Dionysus (Diet. Ant. s. v. Ecdesia). The 
platfomi for speakers, or bema, which was the 
basis or steps of an altar to Zeus is still visible 
with three rows of seats cut in the rock behind 



ATHENAE 

still standing, belong to the completed temple 
of Hadrian (180 A.D.) The well-preserved 
Doric temple on the rising ground of Colonos 
Agoraios, which used to be known as the 
temple of Theseus ' [Theseum), is probably the 
temple of Hephaestus (Pans. i. 14, 0). The 
real temple of Theseus (of which no traces 
are discovered) stood near the temple of the 
Dioscuri, which was under the N. Bide of the 
Acropolis near the temenos of Agraulos. The 
Temple of Ares stood on the NW. s ope of the 
Areiopagus. The Metroiin {^rtrp^ov), or temple 
of the mother of the gods (in which the state 
archives were kept) in the Agora on the NW. of 
the Areiopagus, near the Bouleuterion and 
TholoB. The temple of Demeter and Kore ana 
that of Triptolemus in the same precinct 
(Eleusinion) just S. of the Areiopagus ; of 
Artemis Eucleia SE. of the Pnyx ; of Aphrodite 
Pandemos under the SW. of the Acropolis ; ot 
Apollo Patrobs a little N. of the Metroon ; of 
Dionysus just S. of the Theatre, and of 
Asclepius, whose site has been excavated (dis- 
covering among other remains the ancient 
well), under the Acropohs to the W. of the 
Theatre. The temple of Serapis, built after 
Ptolemy Philadelphus introduced that worship 
into Greece, seems to have stood NE. of the 
Acropolis and NW. of the Olympieum. (2) The 





The Bema of the Pnyx at Athens. 



it. The Prytanes seated on these faced the 
people, who stood in a semicircular space (not 
originally a downward slope) between the bema 
and the Agora. The Museum (or hill sacred to 
the Muses), S. of the Pnyx and the Areiopagus, 
on which was the monument of Philopappus, 
and where the Macedonians built a fortress. — 
Streets. Of these we have little information. 
We read of the Piraean Street, which led from 
the Piraean gate to the Agora ; of the Street of 
the Hermae, which was probably an avenue 
at the N. side of the Agora fonned by two 
lines of Hermae running towards the Dipylon 
from the ends of the Stoa Poecile and the Stoa 
Basileios respectively ; of the Street of the 
Tripods, on the E. of the Acropolis. This 
street ran in a curve from the Prytaneum to 
the eastern entrance of the Theatre : it was 
bordered on each side by shrines surmounted 
by the gilt or bronze tripods dedicated by the 
tribe successful in the choregia. Of these the 
monument of Lysicrates remains, and the base 
of another has been discovered. — Public 
Buildings. (1) Temples. Of these the most 
important was the Olympieum ('OKvfx.iTUiov), 
or Temple of the Olympian Zeus, SE. of the 
Acropolis, near the Ilissus and the fountain 
CalUrrhoe. This temple was begun by Peisi- 
stratus and left unfinished by his sons : was 
carried on further by Antiochus Epiphanes, 
who employed the architect Cossutius, working 
in the Corinthian style : of this work traces 
have been found sufficient to recover the plan of 
the half-finished temple of Antiochua. The 
magnificent remains, 15 Corinthian columns 



Senate House {0ov\fvT'lipiov), next to the 
Metroon, NW. of the Areiopagus, and on the 
other side of this nearer the Areiopagus (3) 
the Tholos {d6\os), a round building with 
umbrella-shaiied roof in which the Prytanes 
and certain other officials (aeftriTOi) dined in the 
period after Peisistratus, when the business 
quarter was shifted to the N. of the Areiopagus 
[see Diet. Ant. s.v. Prytaneum']. (4) The Pry- 
taneum, in which were the state hearth and sa- 
cred fire, and where foreign princes and envoys 
and specially honoured citizens, and in old times 
the Prytanes, dined at the state expense [see 
Diet. Ant. s. v.]. The Prytaneum formerly 
stood to the SW. of the Acropolis, in what was 
probably the old Agora. Later, probably after 
the Boman conquest, the new Prytaneum was 
built on the NW. side of the Acropolis. In it 
were preserved Solon's tables of law. (5) Stoae 
or Halls, supported by pillars, and used as 
places of resort in the heat of the day, of 
which there were several in Athens. (Diet, of 
Ant. art. Porticus.) In the Agora there were 
three : the Stoa Basileios {ffroa fiaff'iKetos), 
the court of the King-Archon, on the W. side of 
the Agora under the E. slope of the Colonus 
Agoraios ; the Stoa Poecile [ffToa iroMiAri), on 
the N. side of the Agora, so called because 
it was adorned with fresco painting of the 
battle of Marathon by Polygnotus ; and the 
Stoa Eleuthcrius (crroa. iKeuOepios), or Hall of 
Zeus Eleutherius on the S. side of the Stoa 
Basileios. The Stoa of Attalus, which has 
been wrongly called ' the Gymnasium of 
Ptolemy,' can be identified by an inscription 



ATHENAE 
of the epistyle. It was built by Attalos II., and 
stoo(l, where its remains may now be seen, in 
t he N. part of the Agora near the Stoa Poecile; 
the btoa of the Giants, apparently so called 
from the statues which adorned it, of which 
there are some remains of different dates, stood 
about 90 yards to the West of the Stoa of 
Attalus; the Stoa of Eumenes under the S. 
rocks of the Acropolis running from the Theatre 
to the Odeum of Herodes. The so-called ' Stoa 
of Hadrian ' was not strictly a Stoa, but formed 
part of the north front of the Gymnasium of 
Hadrian. The extant remains consist of a wall 
faced with a row of seven Corinthian columns. 
This formed the eastern portion of the north 
front. In the centre was originally a portico 
giving access to the interior, and to the west of 
that a wall faced with columns corresponding 
to what is now called Hadrian's Stoa. The ex- 
cavations, carried as far as the modern ' Aeolus ' 
Street, show that the gymnasium was of great 
size. Pausanias (i. 18, 9) says that it had 100 



columns of African marble. (6) Theatres. The 
Theatre of Dionysus, on the SE. slope of the 
Acropolis, was the great theatre of the state (Bict. 
of Ant. s.v. Theatrum); besides this there were 
three Odea {cfiSeTa), for contests in vocal and in- 
strumental music {Diet, of Ant. S.V.), an ancient 
one near the fountain Enneacrounos [see below], 
a second built by Pericles, close to 
the Theatre of Dionysus, on the SE. 
slope of the Acropolis, and a third 
built by Herodes Atticus, in honour 
of his wife Eegilla, on the SW. slope 
of the Acropolis, of which there are 
still considerable remains. (7) Sta- 
dium {rh 'SraStov), S. of the Ilissus, 
in the district Agrae. Its site has been 
fixed by the excavations of 1870. It 
is said to date from the time of the 
orator Lycurgus, and to have been 
greatly improved and adorned with 
marble by Herodes. It is supposed to 
have had room for 40,000 spectators. 
Between the actual Stadiiun and the 
river remains of a portico are traced. 
(8) Monuments. The Monument of 
Andronicus Cyrrhestes, called the Tov>er of the 
Winds, an octagonal building N. of the Acro- 
polis, still extant, was a horologium. (Diet, 
of Ant. art. Horologium.) In the interior of 
this octagonal tower was a water-clock, which 
is said to have been served with water from 
the Clepsydra well on the Acropolis. Part of a 
covered aqueduct is traceable. The Choragic 
Monument of Lysicrates, frequently but erro- 
neously called the Lantern of Demosthenes, 
still extant, in the Street of the Tripods (see 
above). The Monument of Nicias (Chora- 
gus of boys in B.C. 320), of which the founda- 
tions are thought to be identified close to the 
Odeum of Herodes. Fragments of the faQade 
were discovered built into the ' Beule ' Gate. 
It is probable that this Choragic monument 
was pulled down to make room for the road 
when this odeum was built. The Monument of 
Thrasylhis, victor with a chorus of men in the 
same year (320), stood against a cave in the 
rock above the Theatre of Dionysus. It seems 
to have been nearly perfect up to the Turkish 
siege in 1826 : there are still remains of 
pilasters and three inscriptions. The statues 
of the Eponymi (the heroes who gave their 
names to Attic tribes) stood in the Agora prob- 
ably just to the E. of the Areiopagus and S. of 
the Tholos: those of Harmodius and Aristo- 
geiton a little nearer to the Hill of the 



M'mphs.— Fountains. The wells of Asclepius, 
of the Eumeiiides on the Areiopagus and the 
Clepsydra on tlie Acropolis have been noticed 
above. Of still greater topographical and 
liteftiry importance are the springs Callirrhoe 
and Enneacrounos about which there has been 
some confusion. The true account seems to be 
that Enneacrounos (' Nino Conduits) was 
between the Areiopagus and the Pynx, near 
the SW. comer of the former, being the water 
supply of the ancient Agora ; the traces of the 
conduit made by Peisistratus are found here. 
It onco bore the common name for springs 
Callirrhoe, and this has caused a confusion 
with the Athenian Callirrhoe oftenest men- 
tioned (Thuc. ii. 15 ; Hdt. vi. 137 ; Plat. Phaedr. 
229), which was near the banks of the Ilissus 
between that stream and the Olympieum, the 
vaults of which temple are connected by a 
subterranean passage with the spring. This 
Callirrhoe still bears the same name. In 
Plato's day there was already a confusion 
between the two springs in connexion with the 
legend of Oreithyia. — Suburbs. The Outer 
Ceramicus (6 e^oi Ka\ovu€vos), NW. of the 
city, was the finest suburb of Athens ; origin- 
ally the 'Potters' Quarter' had been one 
single district, but the wall of Themistocles cut 
ofi the Inner from the Outer Ceramicus at tht 




Coin of Athens. 
Obv., head of .\thene ; rev., owl and amphora 
HpuxXct. Euryclides was one of the w/jorr 
figures probably ' " ' * 

above. 



legend ^vpvilXri—Apiapi~ 

a.1 In 217 B.C. The three 
represent the seal of one of the magistrates named 



Dipylon Gate ; through tliis suburb passed the 
sacred road to Eleusis, and at the gate another 
road branched to the AcABEin.^ which stood at 
the further end of the district, six stadia from 
the city. The Outer Ceramicus was used as a 
burial-place, and here those who had fallen in 
war had a public funeral and a monument (cf. 
Thuc. ii. 34 ; Aristoph. Av. 394 ; Dem. de Cor. 
§ 297). A vast number of sculptured grave 
stones and inscriptions have been found here. 
Of these monuments the finest were just outside 
the Dipylon Gate, where they had been pre- 
served by the debris of ruin and rubbish caused 
by Sulla's destruction of the neighbouring wall, 
under which they lay buried till 1863. Cynos- 
arges [rh Kvv6(Tapy(s), E. of the city, outside 
the gate Diomea, a gymnasium sacred to 
Heracles, where Antisthenes, the founder of 
the Cynic school, taught. Lyceum (rb h.vK(iov), 
SE. of the Cynosarges, a gymnasium sacred to 
Apollo Lyceus, where Aristotle and the Peripa- 
tetics taught. Others place the Lyceum a little 
to the North of the Cynosarges. No certain 
means of identification have yet been dis- 
covered. The Gardens (k^ttoi) and temple of 
Aphrodite were close to the right bank of 
the Ilissus (on the opposite side to tlie Sta- 
dium), between the city wall and the river. 
Here was the famous statue of Aphrodite by 
Alcamenes. 



ATHENAE 

Athenae {'Afl^i'oi) : Atenah), a seaport town 
of Pontus, named from its temple of Athene. 

Athenaeum. 1. In Arcadia, near Megalopolis 
fPaus viii. 44 ; Plut. Cleom. i).—2. In Epirus, 
in the district of Athamania {Liv. xxvui. 1). 

Athenaeus ("Ae^vaios). 1. A learned Greek 
cn-ammarian, of Naucratis in EgjTt. lived about 
A D 280, first at Alexandria and afterwards at 
Eome. ' His extant work is entitled the Deipno- 
sophistae {AenTVO(ro<picrTal), i.e. the Banquet 
of the Learned, in 15 books, of which the first 
2 books, and parts of the 3rd, 11th, and 15th, 
exist only in an Epitome. The work may be 
considered one of the earliest collections of 
what are called Ana, being an immense mass 
of anecdotes, extracts feom the wi-itmgs of 
poets, historians, dramatists, philosophers, 
orators, and physicians, of facts in natural 
history, criticisius, and discussions on almost 
every conceivable subject, especially on Gas- 
tronomy. Athenaeus represents kimseU as de- 
scribing to liis friend Timocrates a full account 
of the conversation at a banquet at Eome, at 
which Galen, the physician, and Ulpian, the 
jurist, were among the guests. — Editions. By 
Casaubon, Genev. 1897; by Schweighiiuser, 
Argentorati, 1801-1807 ; by W. Dindorf, Lips. 
1827 ; by Meineke, Lips. 1867. — 2, A contempo- 
rary of ArchLinedes, wrote a work on military 
engines (Trepl ^iT;xai"')."^Ta};'), addressed to Mar- 
oeUus ; edited by C. Wescher, 1867.— 3. A cele- 
brated physician, founder of the medical sect 
of the Pneumatici, born at Attalla in Cilicia, 
practised at Kome about a.d. 50 (ed. C. Kiihn, 
1867). 

Athenagoras {'ASrivaySpas), an Athenian phi- 
losopher, converted to Christianity in the second 
cent. A.D. [See Diet, of Christ. Biogr.] 

Athenais {'ASrivats). 1. Surnamed Philo- 
siorgus, wife of Ariobarzanes II., king of Cap- 
padocia, and mother of Ariobarzanes III. (Cic. 
adFam. xv. 4). — 2. Daughter of Leontius, after- 
wards named Eudocia. 

Athenion ('A6i)vloiv), a CiUcian, one of the 
commanders of the slaves in the second Servile 
War in Sicily, defeated L. Licinius Lucullus, 
but was at length conquered and killed B.C. 101 
by the consul M'. Aquillius (Flor. iii. 19). 

Athenodorus ("Afirji/tOwpos). 1. Of Tarsus, a 
Stoic philosopher surnamed Cordylio, was the 
keeper of the library at Pergamus, and after- 
wards removed to Eome, where he lived with 
M. Cato, at whose house he died (Strab. p. 674 ; 
Plut. Cat. Mill. 10).— 2. Of Tarsus, a Stoic 
philosopher, surnamed Cananites, from Cana 
in Cilicia, the birthplace of his father. He was 
a pupil of Posidonius at Rhodes, and taught at 
Apollonia in Epirus, where the young Octavius 
(subsequently the emperor Augustus) was one 
of his disciples. He accompanied the latter to 
Eome, and became one of liis intimate friends. 
In his old age he returned to Tarsus, where lie 
died at the age of eighty-two. He was the 
author of several works, which are not extant 
(Suet. Clajid. 4 ; Strab. p. 674.)— 3. A sculptor, 
the son and pupil of Agesander of Ehodes, 
whom he assisted in executing the group of 
Laocoon. [Agesander.] 

Athesis {Adige or Etsch), rises in the Rhae- 
tian Alps, receives the Atagis (Eisach), flows 
through Upper Italy, past Verona, and falls 
™° tne Adriatic by many mouths (Strab. p. 207). 

Athmone {'Adixovii, also 'ABnovla and''A0Mo- 
vw : ABfiovds, fem. 'Adfiovls), an Attic demus 
Belonging to the tribe Cecropis, afterwards to 
one tnbe Attalis. 

AthoB ("Aflaii, also 'Aeuv : 'Aeulrns : HagMon 



ATLAS 



145 



Oros, Monte Santo, i.e. Holy Mountain), the 
mountainous peninsula, also called Acte, which 
projects from Chaldice in Macedonia. It is 
mentioned in II. xiv. 229. At the extremity of 
the peninsula the mountain rises abruptly 
from the sea to a height of 6349 feet ; there is 
no anchorage for ships at its base, and the 
voyage round it was so dreaded by mariners 
that Xerxes had a canal cut tkrough tbe 
isthmus which connects tbe peninsula with 
the mainland, to afiord a passage to his fleet 
(Hdt. vii. 23 ; Thuo. iv. 109 ; Diod. xi. 1 ; Mel. 
ii. 2, 10). The isthmus is about li mile across ; 
and there are distinct traces of the canal still 
to be seen ; so that we must not imitate the 
scepticism of Juvenal (x. 174), who refused to 
beheve that the canal was ever cut. The 
peninsula contained several flourishing cities 
in antiquity, and is now studded with numerous 
monasteries, cloisters, and chapels, whence it 
derives its modern name. In these monas- 
teries some valuable MSS. of ancient authors 
have been discovered. 

Athribis ("Aflpi/Sis), a city in the Delta of 
Egypt ; capital of the Nomos Athribltes. 

Atia, mother of Augustus. 

Atilia or Atillia Gens, the principal members 
of which are given under their surnames Cala- 
TiNUS, Regulus, and Sebbanus. 

Atilicinus, a Roman jurist of the first cent. 
A.D., is referred to in the Digest. 

Atilius or Acilius. 1. L., one of the earliest 
of the Eoman jurists who gave public instruc- 
tion in law, probably lived about B.C. 100. In 
Pompon. Dig. i. 2, 2, 38, he appears as Atilius, 
but in Cic. de Senect. 2, 6 as Acilius. He wrote 
commentaries on the laws of the Twelve 
Tables. — 2. M., one of the early Roman poets, 
wrote comedies imitated from the Greek {pal- 
liatae) about 200 B.C. (Cic. adAtt. xiv. 20). He 
is probably the translator of SoT^h. Electra (Cic. 
Fin. i. 2, 5). 

Atina (Atinas, -atis : Atina), a town of the 
Volsci in Latium, afterwards a Roman colony 
(Ver^. Aen. viii. 6, 30 ; Plin. ixii. 11). 

Atmtanes {'AnvTaves), an Epirot people in 
Hlyria, on the borders of Macedonia ; their 
country, Atintania, was reckoned part of Mace- 
donia (Thuc. ii. 80 ; Liv. xiv. 80). 

Atius Varus. [Vabus.] 

Atlanticum Mare. [Oceanus.] 

Atlantis ('ArKavris, sc. yrjcros), according to 
an ancient tradition, a great island W. of the 
Pillars of Hercules in the Ocean, opposite 
Mount Atlas : it possessed a numerous popula- 
tion, and was adorned with every beauty ; its 
powerful princes invaded Africa and Europe, 
but were defeated by the Athenians and their 
allies ; its inhabitants afterwards became wicked 
and impious, and the island was in consequence 
swallowed up in the ocean in a day and a 
night. This legend is given by Plato in the 
Timaeiis, and is said to have been related to 
Solon by the Egyptian priests. There was an 
old legend of a victory of Athens over the 
Atlantenes, which was worked on a peplos at 
the Panathenaea. (Schol. ad Plat. iJep. 327 ; 
Diod. iii. 53.) The Canary Islands, or the 
Azores, which perhaps were visited by the 
Phoenicians, may have given rise to the legend ; 
but some modem writers regard it as indicative 
of a vague belief in antiquity in the existence 
of the W. hemisphere. (Plat. Tim. p. 24, Crii. 
pp. 108, 118.) 

Atlas CAtXos), son of lapetus and Clymene, 
and brother of Prometheus and Epimetheus. 
He made war with the other Titans upon Zeus, 



14B 



ATLAS 



and being conquered, was condemned to bear 
heaven on his head and hands, standing in the 
far west where day and night meet, at the 
apparent junction of sky and sea. (Hes. Th. 
517, 746.) According to Homer (OcZ. i. 52, vii. 
245), Atlas bears the long columns which keep 
asunder heaven and earth (or, as some inter- 
pret, he was merely in charge of the pillars 
which keep apart, or which support on both 
sides), and he seems to be imagined there as a 
giant standing on the floor of the sea ; he is in 
that account the father of Calypso. It does 
not follow that Homer's idea of holding the 
pillars is necessarily older than the simpler 
idea of Hesiod, which makes Atlas himself the 
pillar ; and no explanation of the myth is pre- 
ferable to that which assumes it to have arisen 
from the idea that lofty mountains supported 
the heaven. Later traditions distort the ori- 
ginal idea still more, by making Atlas a man 
who was metamorphosed into a mountain. 
Thus Ovid {Met. iv. 626 seq.) relates that Per- 
seus came to Atlas and asked for shelter, which 




Atlas. (From the Farnese Collection.) 

was refused, whereupon Persevis,by means of the 
head of Medusa, changed him into M. Atlas, on 
which rested heaven with all its stars. Others 
try to rationalise, and represent Atlas as a 
powerful king, who possessed great knowledge 
of the courses of the stars, and who was the 
first who taught men that heaven had the form 
of a globe. Hence the expression that heaven 
rested on his shoulders was regarded as a 
merely figurative mode of speaking. (Diod. iii. 
60, iv. 27 ; Pans. ix. 20.) At first, the story of 
Atlas referred to one mountain only, which was 
believed to exist on the extreme boundary of 
the earth; but, as geogi-aphical knowledge ex- 
tended, the name of Atlas was transferred to 
other places, and thus we read of a Mauretanian, 
Italian, Arcadian, and even of a Caucasian, 
Atlas. The common opinion, however, was, that 
the heaven-bearing Atlas was in the N W . of 
Africa. [See belowO Atlas was the father of the 
Pleiades by Pleione or by Hesperis ; of the 
Hyades and Hesperides by Aethra; and of 
Oenomaus and Maia by Sterope. Dione and 



ATKEUS 

Calypso, Hyas and Hesperus, are likewise called 
his children. Atlas was represented as bearing 
a burden on his shoulders: in earlier times, 
before the idea of a sphere obtained, merely a 
rud* mass of rock ; later, a sphere with zodiacal 
Bigiw.—Atlantiddes, a descendant of Atlas, es- 
pecially Mercury, his grandson by Maia (comp. 
Mercuri facunde nejios Atlantis, Hor. Od. 
i. 10), and Hermaphroditus, son of Mercury. — 
Atlantias and Atlantis, a female descendant of 
Atlas, especially the Pleiads and Hyods. 

Atlas Mons CAt^os : Atlas), was the general 
name of the great mountain range which covers 
the surface of N. Africa between the Mediter- 
ranean and Great Desert (Sahara), on the N. 
and S., and the Atlantic and the Lesser Syrtis 
on the W. and E. ; the mountain chains SE. of 
the Lesser Syrtis, though connected with the 
Atlas, do not properly belong to it, and were 
called by other names (Hdt. iv. 184). The N. 
and S. ranges of this system were distinguished 
by the names of Atlas Minor and Atlas Major, 
and a distinction was made between the 3 
regions into which they divided the country. 
[Atbica.] 

Atossa (^hTocr<Ta), daughter of Cyrus, and 
wife successively of her brother Cambyses, of 
Smerdis the Magian, and of Darius Hystaspis, 
over whom she possessed great influence. She 
bore Darius 4 sons, Xerxes, Blasistes, Achae- 
menes, and Hystaspes. (Hdt. iii. 68, 133 ; 
Aesch. Pers.) 

Atrae or Hatra CArpai, Ta"ATpa : 'A.Tpr)v6s, 
Atrenus : Hadr, SW. of Mosul), a strongly for- 
tified city on a high mountain in Mesopotamia, 
inhabited by people of the Arab race. 

Atratinus, Sempronius. 1. A., consul b.c. 
497 and 491. — 2. L., consul 444 and censor 443. 
— 3. C, consul 423, fought unsuccessfully 
against the Volscians, and was in consequence 
condemned to pay a heavy fine. — 4. L., accused 
M. Caelius Eufus, whom Cicero defended, 57 
(jpro Gael. 1, 3, 7). 

Atrax ("Arpoi), a town in Pelasgiotis in 
Thessaly, inhabited by the Perrhaebi, so called 
from the mythical Atrax, son of Peneus and 
Bura, and father of Hippodamla and Caenis . 
(Liv. xxxii. 15). 

Atrebates {'ArpePaToi), a people in Gallia . 
Belgioa, in the modern Artois, a corruption of I 
their name. In Caesar's time (b.c. 57) theynum- • 
bered 15,000 warriors : their capital was NE^rE- ■ 
TOCENNA. Part of them crossed over to Britain, , 
where they dwelt in the upper valley of the i 
Thames. (Caes. E.G. ii. 4, 16, 23.) 

Atreus ('Arpeus), son of Pelops and Hippo- ■ 
damia, grandson of Tantalus, and brother of I 
Tliyestes and Nioippe. [Pelops.] He was first : 
married to Cleola, by whom he became the ; 
father of Plisthenes ; then to Aijrope, the widow ' 
of his son PHsthenes, who was the mother of I 
Agamemnon, Blenelaus, and Anaxibia, either ■ 
by Plisthenes or by Atreus [AoAjrEMNONj ; and 1 
lastly to Pelopia, the daughter of his brother \ 
Thyestes. In Homer there is no hint of tra- ■ 
gedy: Atreus dies, leaving the kingdom to! 
Thyestes 'rich in flocks' [11. ii. 105); but mi 
the post- Homeric epics a story appears whicAi 
was adopted by the Tragedians. The strife! 
with Thyestes is first traceable to a golden x 
lamb, which Hermes gave as the pledge oil 
sovereignty to the possessor (cf. Aesch. Ag. 
1585 • Eur. Or. 988, El. 719). In consequence? 
of th4 murder of their half-brother Clirysippus,. 
Atreus and Tliyestes were obliged to take to 
flight; they were hospitably received at My- 
cenae (Thio. i. 9); and, after the death pli 



ATEIA 

Eurystheus, Atreus became king of Mycenae. 
Thyestes seduced Aerope, the wife of Atreus, 
and was in consequence banished by his 
brotlier : from liis place of exile he sent Plis- 
thenes, the son of Atreus, whom he had 
brought up as his own child, in order to slay 
Atreus ; but Pliathenes fell by the hands of 
Atreus, who did not know that he was his own 
son. In order to take revenge, Atreus, pre- 
tending to be reconciled to Thyestes, recalled 
him to iMycenae, killed his 2 sons, and placed 
then- flesh before their father at a banquet, who 
unwittingly partook of the horrid meal. Thy- 
estes fled with horror, and the gods cursed 
Atreus and his house. The kingdom of Atreus 
was now visited by famine, and the oracle 
advised Atreus to call back Thyestes. 
Atreus, vainly seajfching for him in the 
land of king Thesprotus, married as his 
third wife, Pelopia, the daughter of Thy- 
estes, whom he believed to be a daughter 
of Thesprotus. Pelopia was at the time 
■vvith child by her own father. This child, 
Aegisthus, afterwards slew Atreus because 
the latter had commanded him to slay 
his own father Thyestes. [Aegisthus.] 
Atria. [Adria.] 

Atrides ('ATpei'STjj), a descendant of 
Atreus, especially Agamemnon and Me- 
nelaus. 

Atropatene ('ArpoiraTTjr^), or Media 
Atropatia the NW. part of Media, adja- 
cent to Ai-menia, named after Atropates, 
a native of the country, who, having leen made 
its governor by Alexander, founded there a 
kingdom, which long remained independent 
alike of the Seleucidae, the Parthians, and the 
Romans, but was at last subdued by the Par- 
thians (Strab. p. 523 ; Just. xiii. 4). 

Atropates (ArpoTraTris), a Persian satrap, 
fought at the battle of Gaugamela, b.c. 331, and 
after the death of Darius, was made catrap of 
Media by Alexander. His daughter was mar- 
ried to Perdiccas in 324 ; and he received from 
liis father-in-law, after Alexander's death, the 
province of tlie Greater Media. (Diod. xviii. 3 ; 
Arrian, iv. 18.) [Atropatene.] 

Atropos. [MoiBA',.] 

Atta, T. Quintius, a poet of the national or 
Roman Comedy (togata), which represented 
Italian scenes, died B.C. 77. He is praised for 
his vivid delineation of character. Horace [Ep. 
ii. 1, 79) speaks of his plays as acted in his time. 

Attaginus i^kTraylvos), son of Phrynon, a 
Theban, betrayed Thebes to Xerxes, b.c. 480. 
-■Uter the battle of Plataeae (479) the other 
Oreeks required Attaginus to be delivered up 
to them, but he made his escape. (Hdt. ix. 88 ; 
Pans. vii. 10.) 

Attalia {'ATTaAeia : 'ATTaA.65T7jy or -ari^s). — 
1. A city of Lydia, fonnerly called Agroira 
{kyp6iipa), and refounded by one of the kings 
of Pergamus.— 2. (Aclalia), a city on the coast 
of Pamphylia, for which it was the port, near 
• the mouth of the river Catarrhactes, founded 
'y Attains II. Philadelphus, and subdued by 
tlie Romans under P. Servilius Isauricus (Strab. 

■ p. 007). 

' CArraAoj). 1. A Macedonian, uncle 

I t *u Philip mai-ried in B.C. 337. 

:H the nuptials of his niece, Attalus offered an 
I'lsult to Alexander, and, on the accession of 
■lie latter was put to death by his order in Asia 
•nmor, whither Pliilip had previously sent him 

■ to secure the Greek cities to his cause (Diod. 



ATTICA 



147 



of Alexander (b.c. 328), he served under Per- 
diccas, whose sister, Atalante, he had married ; 
and after the death of Perdiccas (321), he joined 
Alcetas, the brother of Perdiccas; but their 
united forces were defeated in Pisidia by Anti- 
gonus in 320. — 3. Kings of Pergamus— {I.) 
Nephew of Phii-et^veeus, succeeded his cousin, 
Eumenes I., and reigned B.C. 241-197. He 
made head against the Gauls, and assumed the 
title of king after his success (Strab. p. 624 ; Liv. 
xxxviii. 16). He gained much of the territory of 
the Seleucidae. He took part with the Romans 
against Philip and the Achaeans. In 201 he 
fought with the Rhodians against Philip, whose 
attack on Pergamus he repelled. He died in 197, 
when he was joining the Romans against Philip. 




\Ta ' , °f -^ndromencstheStymphaean, 
undone of Alexander's officers; after the death 



Coin of Attalus I. 
head of Philetaerue, the touuaur of the dynasty; T"CtJ., 
Athene, seated, ero-v\ning with w-reath name of *iaetaipoy 
betw een biinch of grapes and a. 

He was celebrated not only in war, but for his en- 
couragement of literature and art. He founded 
the library of Pergamus : the Pergamene 
sculpture began -with representations of hia 
Gallic victories, one of which is the dying Gaul 
(the so-called Gladiator) of the Capitolino 
Museum. — (II.) Surnamed Philadelphus, 2nd 
son of Attalus I., succeeded his brother Eu- 
menes II., and reigned 159-133. Like his father 
he was an ally of the Romans, and he also en- 
couraged the arts and sciences. — (III.) Sur- 
named Philometor, son of Eumenes II. and 
Stratonice, succeeded his uncle Attalus II., and 
reigned 138-133. He is known to us chiefly for 
the extravagance of his conduct and the murder 
of his relations and friends. In his will he 
made the Romans his heirs ; but his kingdom 
was claimed by Aristonicus. [Aristonicus.] — 
4. Roman emperor of the West, was raised to 
the throne by Alaric, but was deposed by the 
latter, after a reign of one year (a.d. 409, 410), 
on account of his acting without Alaric's advice. 
— 5. A Stoic philosopher in the reign of Ti- 
berius, was one of the teachers of Seneca, who 
speaks of him in the highest terms (Ep. 108). 

Atthis or Attis ("Arflis or 'ArTis), daughter 
of Cranaus, from whom Attica was believed to 
have derived its name. The two birds into 
which Philomele and her sister Procne were 
metamorphosed were likewise called Attis. 
[Phllomela.] 

Attica [t] 'Attik^j, sc. 71)), a division of Greece, 
has the form of a triangle, two sides of which 
are washed by the Aegaean sea, while the third 
is separated from Boeotia on the N. Iby the 
mountains Cithaeron and Parnes. Megaris, 
which bounds it on the NW., was formerly a 
part of Attica. In ancient times it was called 
Acte and Actice ("A/cTr/ and 'Aifriffi,), or the 
' coastland ' [Acte], from which the later fonn 
Attica is said to have been derived : but accord- 
ing to traditions it derived its name from Atthis, 
the daughter of the mythical king Cranaus. 
Attica is divided by many ancient writers iulo 

1.2 



148 ATTICUS 

3 districts. 1. The Highlands [t] Simpia, also 
opeivii 'ATTiKii)), the NE. of tlie country, oon- 
taiiiing the range of Pariies and extending S. 
to the promontory Cynosura : the only level 
part of this district was the small plain of Ma- 
rathon opening to the sea. 2. The Plaiii (t) 
ireSlas, to ire'Sioi'), the NW. of the country, in- 
cluded both the plain round Athens and the 
plain round Eleusis, and extended S. to the 
promontory Zoster. 8. The Soa-coast District 
(/; irapaKia), the S. part of the country, termi- 
nating in the promontory Suniiun. Besides 
these 3 divisions we also read of a 4th, The 
Midland District (nBiT6yaia), still called Me- 
sogia, an undulating plain in the middle of the 
country, bounded by M. Pentelicus on the N., 
M. Hymettua on the W., and the sea on the E. 
The soil of Attica is not very fertile : the greater 
part of it is not adapted for growing corn ; but 
it produces olives, figs, and grapes, especially 
the 2 former, in great perfection. The country 
is dry : the chief river is the Cepliissus, which 
rises iu Parnes and flows tlirough the Athenian 
plain. The abundance of wild flowers in the 
country made the honey of M. Hymettus very 
celebrated in antiquity. Excellent marble was 
obtained from the quarries of Pentelicus, NE. 
of Athens, and a considerable supply of silver 
from the mines of Laurium near Sunium. The 
area of Attica, including the island of Salamis, 
which belonged to it, contained between 700 and 
800 square miles ; and its population in its flou- 
rishing period was probably about 500,000, of 
vsrhich nearly 4-5ths were slaves. Attica is said 
to have been originally divided into 12 inde- 
pendent states (traditionally by Cecrops), which 
Philochorus names as Cecropia (= Athens), 
Eleusis, Epacria, Decelea, Aphidnae, Thoricus, 
Brauron, Cythera, Spliettus, Cepliisia, Phale- 
rum, and the Tetrapolis of N. Attica, formed 
by Marathon, Oenoe, Tricorythus, and Proba- 
lintlius, and occupied by settlers of Dorian 
origin. These 12 communities probably pre- 
sent the names of the most important places 
in early times, and are marked by various 
local sacred rites, which reappear in the mytho- 
logy of literature. To Theseus is ascribed the 
union of Attica, which is thought to have been 
effected by an immigration of Ionian maritime 
people who combined with the old inhabitants 
of ' Cecropia ' in uniting the other districts with 
Athens as the head. At some time, which seems 
to be the period of Ionian iromigration, the 
people were divided (in Ionian fashion) into 4 
tribes : Geleontes, Hopletes, Argadeis, Aegico- 
reis, a distribution which tradition assigns to 
Ion ; but there was also a triple division (Dorian 
fasliion) into Eupatridae or nobles, Geomori or 
husbandmen, and Demiurgi or artisans : each 
of the 4 tribes seems to have had tliis thi-eefold 
composition. Clisthenes (b.c. 610) abolished the 
old tribes and created 10 new ones, according 
to a geogr-aphical division : these tribes were sub- 
divided into 174 demi, townships or comvmnes. 
(For detaib, see Diet, o f Ant. art. Tribus.) 

Atticus Herodes, Tiberius Claudius, a cele- 
brated Greek rhetorician, born about a.d. 104, at 
Marathon in Attica. He taught rhetoric both at 
Athens and at Eome, and his school was fre- 
quented by the most distinguished men of the 
age. The future emperors M. Aurelms and L. 
Verus were among his pupils, and Antoniivus 
Pius raised him to the consulship ni 148. He 
possessed immense wealth, a great part of which 
he spent in embellishing Athens, where he built 
the Odeum [Diet. Ant. b.v. Theatrum), and a 
Stadium. [Athen.ve.] He made gifts also of 



ATTILA 

building and sculpture to Corinth, Olympia, and 
Delphi (Paus. i. 19, ii. 1, vi. 21, x. 32.) He 
had a friendship, sometimes interrupted, with 
PuQjfTo. He died in 180. He wrote numerous 
works, none of which have come down to us, 
with the exception of an oration, entitled ritpl 
iroKiTelas, the genuineness of whicli, however, is 
very doubtful. It is printed in the collections 
of the Greek orators, and by Fiorillo, in. Herod is 
Attici quae siiversunt, Lips. 1801. 

Atticus, T. Pomponius, a Roman eques, born 
at Rome, u.c. 109. His proper name after his 
adoption by Q. Caeoilius, the brother of his 
mother, was Q. Caecilius Pomponianus Atticus. 
His surname, Atticus, was given liim on account 
of liis long residence in Athens and liis intimate 
acquaintance with the Greek language and lite- 
rature. He was educated along with L. Tor- 
quatus, the yomiger C. Marius, and M. Cicero. 
Soon after the breaking out of the civil war be- 
tween Marius and Sulla, he resolved to take no- 
part iu the contest, and accordingly removed to- 
Athens. During the remainder of his life, he 
kept aloof from all political affairs, and thus, 
lived on the most intimate terms with the most, 
distinguished men of all parties. He was equally 
the friend of Caesar and Pompey, of Brutus 
and Cassius, of Antony and Augustus ; but his. 
most intimate friend was Cicero, whose corre- 
spondence with liim, beginning in 68 and con- 
tinued down to Cicero's death, is one of the 
most valuable remains of antiquity. He re- 
tmTied to Rome iu C5, when he came into 
possession of the inheritance from Caecilius. 
He purchased an estate at Buthrotum in Epi- 
rus, between which place, Athens and Rome,, 
he divided the greater part of his time, engaged 
in literary pursuits and in commercial under- 
takings, by which he greatly increased his. 
wealth. He died at Rome in 32, at the age of 
77, of voluntary starvation, when he found that, 
he was attacked by an incurable illness. His. 
wife, PiHa, to whom he was married in 56, when 
he was 53 years of age, bore him. only one child, 
a daughter, Pomponia or Caecilia, whom Cicero- 
sometimes calls Attica and Atticula. She was . 
married in the lifetime of her father to M. 
Vipsanius Agrippa. The sister of Atticus, Pom- 
ponia, was married to Q. Cicero, the brother of" 
the orator. The life of Atticus by Cornelius 
Nepos is to be regarded rather as a panegjT.-ic 
upon an intimate friend, than strictly speaking- 
a biography. In pliilosophy Atticus belonged 
to the Epicurean sect. He was thoroughly 
acquainted with the whole circle of Greek and 
Roman literature. So high an opinion was. 
entertained of his taste and critical acumen, 
that many of his friends, especially Cicero, were, 
accustomed to send him their works for re-s'ision 
and correction. None of his own writings have 
come down to us. 

Attila ('Attt)A.os or 'ArrlKas, German Etzel, 
Hungarian Ethele), king of the Huns, attained 
in A.D. 434, with his brother Bleda (in German 
BlGdel), to the sovereignty of all the northern 
tribes between the frontier of Gaul and the 
frontier of Cliina, and to the conmiand of an 
army of at least 500,000 barbarians. He gi-adu- 
ally concentrated upon himself the awe and 
fear of the whole ancient world, which ulti- 
mately ex-pressed itself by affixing to his name 
the well-known epithet of ' the Scourge of God. 
His career divides itself into two parts. The* 
first (a.d. 445-450) consists of the ravage of the- 
Eastern empire between the Euxine and the 
Adriatic and the negotiations with Theodosius 
II., which followed upon it. They were ended 



ATTILIUS 

by a treaty whicli ceded to Attila a large teni- 
tory S. of the Danube and an annual tribute. 
The second part of his career was the invasion 
of the Western empire (450-452). He crossed 
the Bhine at Strassburg, but was defeated at 
Chalons by Aetius, and Theodoric, king of the 
Visigoths, in 451. He then crossed the Alps, 
and'took Aquileia in 452, after a siege of 3 
mouths, but he did not attack Eome, in conse- 
quence, it is said, of his interview with Pope 
Leo the Great. He recrossed the Alps towards 
the end of the year, and died in 453, on the 
night of his marriage with a beautiful girl, vari- 
ously named Hilda, Ddioo, Mycolth, by the 
bursting of a blood-vessel. In person Attila 
was, like the Mongolian race in general, a short 
tliickset man, of stately gait, with a large head, 
dark complexion, fiat nose, thin beard, and bald 
with the exception of a few white hairs, his eyes 
small, but of great bi-illiancy and quickness. 
(Priscus, 33-76 ; Jomand. de Beh. Get. 32-50.) 
Attilius. [Atilius.] 

Attis, Atys, or Attin CAttis, or^Arrrys). 1. A 

Phrygian deity belonging to the myth of the 
Phrygian 'Great Mother' [CraELE]. In the 
mystical Eastern story current at Pessinus 
Agdistis had been mutilated by the gods, and 
from the blood sprang an almond tree, whose 
fruit was gathered by Nana, the daughter 
of the river-god Sangarius. She bore a sou, 
the beautiful Attis (who in Ovid's version is 
the son of Nana and a shepherd), who was 
reared by goats in the mountains. Agdistis, 
who in this story becomes identified with 
Cybele, fell in love with him [other versions 
represent a rivahy between two personages, 
Cybele and Agdistis], and when Attis wished 
to marry the daughter of the king of Pessinus 
(or the nympih Sagaritis), the goddess drove 
him mad, so that he mutilated himself beneath 
a pine tree, into which his spirit passed ; at its 
foot violets sprang up from his blood (Paus. vii. 
17; Diod. iii. 58 ; Amob. adv. Gent. v. 5 ; Catull. 
63 ; Ov. Fast. iv. 223). The fir tree wreathed 
with violets became a sacred emblem of Attis 
in the wild festivals of Cybele, whose priests, in 
memory of Attis, were eunuchs. Attis dead 
was mourned for two days, and then a feast of 
joy was celebrated for his recovery. [For the 
history of these ceremonies at Eome see Did. 
Ant. s. V. Megalensia.~\ There is much resem- 
blance in the character of this myth, though 
not in its details, to the Eastern myth of Adonis. 
It symboUses the growth of life in nature, 
especially of plant and tree life, its death and 
its resurrection, as well as the twofold character 
of natural production, the male and the female. 
[For some further mystei'ies connected with 
ihesevites see Diet. Ant. s. y. TauroboUmn.'] — 

2. Son of Manes, king of the Maeonians, from 
whose son Lydus, his son and successor, the 
Maeonians were afterivards called Lydians. — 

3, A Latin chief, son of Alba, and "father of 
Capys, from whom the Atia Gens derived its 
■origin, and from whom Augustus was believed 
to be descended on his mother's side. — 4, Son 
of Croesus, slain by Adrastus. 

Attius. [Accrus.] 

Attius or AttuB Navius. [Navius.] 

Attius Tullius. [Tullius.] 

Aturia {'Arovpia). [AssYBiA.] 
_ Aturus {Adour), a river in Aquitania, rises 
w the Pyrenees and flows through the ten-itory 
•of the Tarbelli into the ocean. 

Atymnius {'Atv/xvios or "Arvfivos), son of Zeus 
and Cassiopea, a beautiful boy, beloved by Sar- 
pedon. Others call him son of Phoenix. He 



AUGUEINUS 149 

was worshipped especially at Gortyna. When 
Sarpedon quan-elled with Minos he took Atym- 
nius with him to Asia Minor, where he seems 
to be identified with Miletus. 

Aufidena (Aufidenas, -atis : Alfidena), a 
town in Samnimn on the river Sagrus. 

AufidluB. 1. Cn,, a learned liistorian, cele- 
brated by Cicero [Tusc. v. 3H ; Fin. v. 19) for ^ 
the equanimity with which he bore blindness, 
was quaestor B.C. 119, tribunus plebis 114, and 
finally praetor 103.— 2. T., a jm-ist, quaestor 
B.C. 86, and aftenvards propraetor in Asia. — 
3. Bassus. [Bassus.]— 4. Lurco. [Ldbco.]— 
5. Orestes. [Obestes.] 

Aufidus [Ofanto], the principal river of 
Apulia, rises in the Apennines, in the territory 
of the Hirpini in Samnium, flows at first with a 
rapid current (hence violens and acer, Hor. 
Od. iii. 30, 10, Sat. i. 1, 58), and then more 
slowly (stagna Aiifida, 3il. Ital. x. 171), into 
the Adriatic. Venusia, the birthplace of Horace, 
was on the Aufidus. 

Aug-arus. [Abg.usus.] 

Auge or Augia {Aiiyr] or Avyela), daughter 
of Aleus and Neaera, was a priestess of Athene, 
and mother by Heracles of Telephus. Lhe 
afterwards married Teuthras, liing of the 
Mysians. 

Augeas or Augias {Avyeas or Avyelas), son 
of Phorbas or Helios (the Sun), and king of the 
Epeans in Elis. He had a herd of 3000 oxen, 
whose stalls had not been cleansed for thirty 
years. It was one of the labours imposed upon 
Heracles by Eurystheus to cleanse these stalls 
in one day. As a reward the hero was to 
receive the tenth part of the oxen ; but when 
he had accomplished liis task by leading the 
rivers Alpheus and Penevis through the stables, 
Augeas refused to keep his promise. Heracles 
thereupon killed liim and his sons, with the 
exception of Phyleus, who was placed on the 
throne of his father. (Paus. v. 1, 7 ; Theocr. 25; 
Diod. iv. 13 ; ApoUod. ii. 5.) Another tradition 
represents Augeas as dying a natm-al death at 
an advanced age, and as receiving heroic 
honours fi-om Oxylus (Paus. v. 3, 4). 

Augila {to. AljyiXa: AiijilaJi), an oasis in the 
Great Desert of Africa, about 3^° S. of Cyrene, 
and 10 days' jommey W. of the Oasis of Am- 
mon, abounding in date palms, to gather the 
fruit of wliich a tribe of the Nasamones, called 
AugQae {Avyl\ai), resorted to the Oasis, which 
at other times was uninhabited (Hdt. iv. 172). 

Augurinus, Genucius. 1. T., consul b.c. 451, 
and a member of the first decemvirate in the 
same year. — 2, M., his brother, consul 445. 

Augurinus, Minucius. 1. M., consul b.c. 
497 and 491. He took an active part in the 
defence of Coriolanus, who was brought to trial 
in 491, but was unable to obtain his acquittal. — 
2. L., consul 458, carried on war against the 
Aequians, and was surrounded by the enemy 
I on Mt. Algidus, but was delivered by the dic- 
tator Cincinnatus. — 3. L., was appointed prae- 
fect of the corn-market {praefectus annonae) 
439, as the people were suffering from grievous 
famine. The ferment occasioned by the assas- 
sination of Sp. Maelius in this year was ap- 
peased by Augurinus, who is said to have gone 
over to the plebs from the patricians, and to 
have been chosen by the tribunes one of their 
body. Augurinus lowered the price of corn in 
three market days, fixing as the maximum an 
as for a modius. The people in their gratitude 
presented liim with an ox having its horns gilfc, 
and erected a statue to his honour outside the 
Porta Trigemina. (Liv. iv. 12-16.) 



160 AUGUSTA 

Augusta, the name of several towns founded [ 
or colonised by Augustus. 1. A. Asturioa. 
[AsTUHEs.]— 2. A. Emerita (Merida), in Lusi- 
tania on the Anas (Giuuliana), colonised by 
Augustus with the veterans (emeriti) of the 
fifth and tenth legions, was a place of consider- 
able importance, and the capital of Lusitania 
(Strab. pp. 151, 150; Dio Cass. hh.2C; Aus. Ord. 
Nob. Urb. 8).— 3. A. Firma, [Astigi.]— 4. A. 
Praetoria [Austa), a town of the Salassi in 
Upper Italy, at the foot of the Graian and 
Pennine Alps, colonised by Augustus with 
soldier's of tlie praetorian cohorts. The modern 
town still contains many Roman remains ; the 
most important of which are the town gates 
and a triumjihal arch. (Strab. iJ. 106 ; Dio Cass, 
liii. 25.) — 5, A, Rauracorum (Augst), the capital 
of the Rauraci, colonised by Munatius Plancus 
B.C. 4-t, was on the left of the Rhine near the 
modern Basle : the ruins of a Roman amphi- 
theatx'e are still to be seen. Its first name was 
Colonia Raurica : the title Augusta was added 
under Augustus. — 6. A. Suessonum {Soissons), 
the capital of the Suessones in Gallia Belgica, 
probably the Noviodumivi of Caesar (B.G. ii. 
12). — 7. A, Taurinorum (Twin), more anciently 
called Taurasia, the capital of the Tam-ini on 
the Po, was an important town in the time of 
Hannibal, and was colonised by Augustus 
(Polyb. iii. 60 ; Tac. Hist. ii. 66). Its unport- 
ance was greatly owing to the fact that it 
led to the passes of the Cottian Alps, the 
M. Genevre, and the M. Cenis. [Alpes.] — 
8. Trevirorum, [Tbevtri.] — 9. Tricastinorum 
(Aouste), the capital of the Tricastini in Gallia 
Narbonensis. — 10. A. Vindelicorum (Augs- 
burg), capital of Vindelicia or Rhaetia Se- 
cunda on the Lisus (Lech), colonised by Drusus 
under Augustus, after the conquest of Rhaetia, 
B.C. 14. 

Augustinus, Aurellus, the most illustrious 
of the Latin Fathers, born a.d. 354, at Tagaste, 
an inland town in Numidia. [Diet, of Christian 
Biogr.'] 

Augustobdna (Troyes), afterwards called 
Trioassae, the capital of the Tricasii or Tricasses 
in Gallia Lugdunensis. 

Augustodiiiium. [Bibbacte.] 

Augustonemetum. [Abvekni.] 

Augustoritum. [Lemovices.] 

Augustus, the first Roman emperor, was 
born on the 23rd of September, b. c. 63, and 
was the son of C. Octavius by Atia, a daughter 
of Julia, the sister of C. Julius Caesar. His 
original name was C. Octavius, and, after his 
adoption by his great-uncle, C. Julius Caesar 
Octavianus ; the title Augustus was given him 
by the senate and the people in 27 as a mark of 
peculiar ranli and claim to veneration. Octavius 
lost his father at 4 years of age, but his edu- 
cation was conducted with great care by his 
grandmother Juha, and by his mother and step- 
father, L. Marcius Philippus, whom his mother 
man-ied soon after his father's death. C. J uhus 
Caesar, who had no male issue, also watched 
over his education with solicitude. In 45 
he was sent by Caesar to Apollonia in Illy- 
ricum, where some legions were stationed, 
that he might acquire a more thorough prac- 
tical training in military affairs, and at the 
same time prosecute his studies. He was at 
Apollonia when the news reached him of his 
uncle's murder at Rome in March 44, and he 
forthwith set out for Italy, accompanied by 
Agrippa and a few other friends. On landing 
near Brundusium at the beginning of April, he 
heard that Caesar had adopted him in his testa- 



AUGUSTUS 

ment and made him his heir. On reaching- 
Rome about the beginning of May, he demanded 
nothing but the private property which Caesar 
had^left him, but declared that he was resolved 
to avenge the murder of his benefactor. An- 
tony had spent a great part of the money left 
by Caesar in bribes to Dolabella and others ; 
and Octavius gained popularity by paying all 
the legacies out of what remained to him. The 
state of parties at Rome was most perplexing ; 
and one cannot but admire the extraordinary 
tact and prudence which Octavius displayed, 
and the skill with which a youth of barely 20 
contrived to blind the most experienced states- 
men in Rome, and eventually to carry all his 
designs into effect. He had to contend against 
the republican party as well as against Antony, 
who foresaw that Octavius would stand in the 
way of his views, and had therefore attempted, 
though without success, to prevent him from 
accepting the inheritance from his imcle. 
Octavius, therefore, resolved to crush Antony 
first as the more dangerous of his two enemies^ 
and accordingly made overtures to the republi- 
can party. These were so well received, espe- 
cially when 2 legions went over to him, that 
the senate conferred upon him the title of 
praetor, and sent him with the two consuls of 
the year, C. Vibius Pansa and A. Hu-tius, to- 
attack Antony, who was besieging D. Brutus, 
in Mutina. Antony was defeated and obHged 
to fly across the Alps ; and the death of the 
2 consuls gave Octavius the command of all 
their troops. Cicero now showed liis distrust 
of his motives : the senate became alarmed, 
and determined to prevent Octavius from ac- 
quiring further power. But he soon showed 
that he did not intend to become the senate's 
servant. Supported by his troops he marched 
upon Rome, from which Cicero had retired^ 
and demanded the consulship, which the terri- 
fied senate was obliged to give him. He was 
elected to the office along -svith Q. Pedius, and 
the murderers of the dictator were outlawed. 
He was foi-mally admitted into the patrician 
gens Julia, and henceforth known as Octavianus. 
He now marched into the N. of Italy, pro- 
fessedly against Antony, who had been joined 
by Lepidus and was descending from the Alps, 
ai, the head of the combined 17 legions. Octa- 
vianus and Antony now became reconciled ; and, 
at a meeting on an island on the river Rhenus 
near Bononia (Bologna), it was agreed that the. 
Western provinces should be divided between 
Octavianus, Antony, and Lepidus, under the 
title of triumviri rei 2yublicae constitueiidae, 
and that this aiTangement should last for the 
next five years. Octavianus received Sicily, 
Sardinia, and Africa; Lepidus, Spam and 
Gallia Narbonensis ; Antony, the rest of the 
two Gauls. Octavianus and Antony with 19 of 
the legions were to wrest the Eastern provinces 
from Brutus and Cassius. They pubhshed a 
proscriptio or hst of all their enemies, whose 
lives were to be sacrificed and then: property 
confiscated; upwards of 2000 equites and 
300 senators were put to death, among whom 
was Cicero. Soon afterwards Octavianus and 
Antony crossed over to Greece, and defeated 
Brutus and Cassius at the battle of Phihppi m 
42 by which the hopes of the republican party 
we're ruined. The triumvirs thereupon made a 
new division of the provmces. Lepidus obtained 
Africa, Octavianus the rest of tlie "Western 
provinces, and Antony all the Eastern : Octa- 
vianus returned to Italy to reward his veterans 
with the lands he had promised them. Hero a. 



new war awaited liim (41), excited by Fulvia, 
the wife of Antony. She was supported by 
L .(Viitonius, the consul and brother ot the 
triumvir, who tlirew himself mto the fortified 
town of Perusia, wliich Octavianus succeeded m 
taking in 43. Antony now made preparations 
for war, but the opportune death of Fulvia led 
to a reconciliation between the triumvu^s, who 
concluded a peace at Brundusium. A new 
division of the provinces was again made : 
Octavianus obtained all the parts of the empire 
W. of the town of Scodra in lUyricum, and 
Antony the E. provinces, while Italy was to 
belong to them in common : Lepidus retained 
Africa. It is probable that this reconciliation 
gave the theme for Virgil's Fourth Eclogue. 
Antony married Ootavia, the sister of Octavi- 
anus, in order to cement their alliance. In 39 
Octavianus concluded a peace with Sext. Pom- 
peius, whose fleet gave him the command of 
the sea, and enabled him to prevent corn from 
reaching Rome. For a short time Pompeius, 
as a fourth ruler, received a share of provinces. 
But this peace was only transitory. As long as 
Pompeius was independent, Octavianus could 
not hope to obtain the dominion of the West, 
and he therefore eagerly availed himself of the 
pretext that Pompeius allowed piracy to go on 
in the Mediterranean, for the purpose of 
declaring war against him. In 36 the contest 
came to a final issue. The fleet of Octavianus, 
under the command of M. Agrippa, gained a 
decisive victory off the east coast of Sicily over 
that ot Pompeius, who abandoned Sicily and fled 
to Asia. Lepidus, who had landed in Sicily to 
support Octavianus, was impatient of the sub- 
ordinate part which he had hitherto played, 
and claimed the island for himself ; but he was 
easily subdued by Octavianus, stripped of his 
power, and sent to Rome, where he resided for 
the remainder of his life, being allowed to retain 
the dignity of Pontifex Maximus. In 85 and 
34 Octavianus was engaged in war with the 
niyrians and Dalmatians. Meantime, Antony 
had repudiated Octavia, and had rJ'enited the 
minds of the Roman people by 1 is arbitrary 
and arrogant proceedings in the East. This feel- 
ing was increased when Octavianus learnt from 
Plancus and published the will wliich Antony 
had prepared directing that liis body should be 
placed, like that of an Egyptian king, in Cleo- 
patra's mausoleum. Octavianus found that the 
Romans were quite prepared to desert his rival, 
and accordingly in 82 the senate declared war 
against Cleopatra, for Antony was looked upon 
only as her infatuated slave. In the spring of 31 
Octavianus passed over to Epirus, and in Sep- 
tember in the same year his fleet gained a bril- 
liant victory over Antony's near the promontory 
of Actium in Aoarnania. The next eleven 
months he spent in founding the city of Nico- 
polis, in making settlements for his veterans, and 
in arranging the Eastern provinces. In the 
following year (30) Octavianus sailed to Egypt. 
Antony and Cleopatra, who had escaped in 
safety from Actium, put an end to their lives 
to avoid falling into the hands of the conqueror. 
Octavianus returned to Rome in 29 and cele- 
brated the ' triple triumph ' (Verg. Aen. viii. 
714) for victories in Dahnatia, at Actium, and 
in Egypt. He was now master of the Roman 
world with an authority which no party at 
Rome really wished that he should resign. The 
senatorial management was, as Julius Caesar 
well understood, worn out and no longer possible 
to renew : it was necessary that the executive 
power should be concentrated in one strong 



AUGUSTUS 

ruler such as could be found in Octavianus 
alone, and also that this should be legally 
established : it was advisable, moreover, that it 
should outwardly agree with the old republican 
forms, so as to avoid as far as possible the 
appearance of breach of contmuity and revo- 
lution. Accordingly in liis 6th consukhip, 
B c 28 he resigned by an edict to the senate 
and people the extraordinary power which he 
had wielded since he became triumvir m 43. 
Thus nominally the republic was restored on 
its old footing; but by a vote obtained from 
the senate and people he received aU his old 
powers (theoretically for 10 years). His pro- 
vincia with the consulare impenum gave him 
absolute control of the frontier provmces and 
the appointment of theii" governors, the com- 
mand of all armies, the right of levying troops, 
and of making peace or war. This was strictly 
an enlarged proconsular power, but he held it 
until 23 with the consulship, and thus continued 
it, unlike any proconsul, in Rome, where he 
was rendered inviolable and secured from inter- 
ference with his authority by the trihunicia 
potestas, which had already in 36 been granted 
him for life. Now also he received the cog- 
nomen of Augustus. In 23, when he gave up 
the consulship, the principate assumed the 
character, which 




Bust of Octavius (Augustus). 
(British Museum.) 



it retained, with 
some changes in its 
development, till 
Diocletian. While 
he held the pro- 
vincia above men- 
tioned, since he no 
longer became con- 
sul and two other 
consuls were an- 
nually elected, it 
was now a pro- 
consulare impe- 
rium: to compen- 
sate for this he 
received in 23 the 
majus ivipcriuvi, 
which, if nominally 
on a level with 
that of the consuls, 
ranked over every other magistrate ; in 22 the 
right of convening the senate and initiating busi- 
ness ; in 19 the 12 fasces : finally to give a name 
to that power which made him superior to the 
consuls and their routine domestic duties, he 
rehed on the perpetual tribuniciapotestas, under 
cover of which he had supreme control over all 
departments. Though Augustus had nominally 
recognised the senate as the council of advisers 
to the executive magistrates, yet it did not 
really check absolutism : for (1) the most im- 
portant provinces were altogether transferred 
from its control to that of the emperor, and the 
number of senatorial provinces was always de- 
creasing ; and (2) though the emperor sat in the 
senate as a senator, his opmion was really 
decisive. Augustus officially, he was called also 
Caesar from his adoption : the title Imperator 
which he shared with others so saluted did not 
distinguish the emperor till later times ; but a 
common designation for Augustus and his suc- 
cessors in the first century A. D. was princeps, 
i.e. the foremost man of the state. Augustus 
had no regular cabinet ministers, but his trusted 
friends Agrippa, Maecenas, Corvinus and PoUio, 
especially the first two, served him as a privy 
council. The almost uninterrupted festivities, 
games, distributions of corn, and the like, made 



152 AUGUSTULUS 
the people forget the substance of their republi- 
can freedom, and obey contentedly their new 
ruler. The wars of Augustus were not aggress- 
ive, but were chiefly undertaken to protect the 
frontiers of the Roman dominions. Most of 
them were carried on by his relations and friends, 
but he conducted some of them in person. 
Thus, in 27, he attacked the warlike Cantabri 
and Astures in Spain, whose subjugation, liow- 
ever, was not completed till 19 by Agrippa. 
In 21 Augustus travelled through Sicily and 
Greece, and spent the winter following at 
Somos. Next year (20) he went to Syria, where 
he received from Pliraates, the Parthian mon- 
arch, the standards and prisoners which had 
been taken from Crassus and Antony. In 16 
the Romans suffered a defeat on the Lower 
Rhine by some German tribes; whereupon 
Augustus went himself to Gaul, and spent 
4 years there, to regulate the government of 
that province, and to make the necessary 
preparations for defending it against the 
Germans. In 9 he again went to Gaul, where 
he received German ambassadors, who sued for 
peace ; and from this time forward, he does not 
appear to have taken any active part in the 
wars that were carried on. Those in Germany 
were the most formidable, and a Roman army 
under Quintilius Varus was defeated and anni- 
hilated Ir; Arminius. FVauus.] Augustus died 

Coin of Augustus. 
Obv., head of Augustus laureate, with legend CAES.VR 
AVGVSTVS DIVI F. PATER PATRIAE ; iff., Caius and 
Lucius Caesar ; between them, shields, spears, &c. ; 
legend, C. L. CAESARES AVGVSTI F. COS. DESIG. 
PRINC. IVVENT. 

at Nola, on the 29th of August, a.d. 14, at the 
age of 76. Augustus was first married, though 
only nominally, to Clodia, a daughter of Clodius 
and Fulvia. His 2nd wife, Scribonia, bore him 
his only daughter, Julia. His 3rd wife was 
Livia Drusilla, the wife of Tiberius Nero. 
Augustus had at first fixed on M. Marcellus as 
his successor, the son of his sister Octavia, who 
was married to his daughter Julia. After his 
death Julia was married to Agrippa, and her 
2 sons, Caius and Lucius Caesar, were now 
destined by Augustus as his successors. On 
the death of these 2' youths, Augustus was per- 
suaded to adopt Tiberius, the son of Livia, and 
to make him his colleague and successor. [For a 
full accQunt of the imperial power, as constituted 
by Augustus, see Diet. Ant. s.v. Princeps.'] 

Augustulus, Romulus, last Roman emperor 
of the West, was placed upon the throne by his 
father Orestes (a.d. 475), after the latter had 
deposed the emperor Julius Nepos. In 476 
Orestes was defeated by Odoacer and put to 
death; Romulus Augustulus was allowed to 
live, but was deprived of the sovereignty. 

Aulerci, a powerful Gallic people dwelling 
between the Sequana {Seine) and the Liger 
(Loire), were divided into three great tribes. 
1. A, jSburovices, near the coast on the left 
bank of the Seine in the modern Normandy : 
the capital was iVIediolanum, afterwards called 
Eburovices (Evreux).—2. A. Cenomani, SW. 
of the preceding, near the Liger : their capital 
was Subdinnum {le Mans). At an early period i 



AURELIANUS 
some of the Cenomani crossed the Alps and 
settled in Upper Italy.— 3. A. Brannovices, E. 

of the Cenomani near the Aedui, whose cHents 
they were. The Diablintes mentioned by 
CadBar are said by Ptolemy to have been like- 
wise a branch of the Aulerci (Caes. B. G. ii. 84 
iii. 9, vii. 75). ' 

Aulis (Ai/Ai'j), a harbour in Boeotia on the 
EuripuB, wliere the Greek fleet is said to have 
assembled before sailing against Troy : it had a 
temple of Artemis (Strab. p. 403 ; Paus. ix. 19, 6). 

Aulon {Av\uv : AvKuvlTris.) 1. A district 
and town on the borders of Elis and Messenia, 
with a temple of Asclepius, who hence had the 
surname Aulonius (Strab. p. 850; Paus. iv. 
3G). — 2. A town in Chalcidice in Macedonia, on 
the Strymonic gulf (Thuc. iv. 103). — 3. [Idelone), 
a hill and valley near Tarentum celebrated for 
its wine (amicus Aulon fertili Baeclio, Hor. 
Od. ii. 6, 18 ; Mart. xiii. 125). 

Auramtis (AhpaviTis : Hauran), a district S. 
of Damascus and B. of Ituraea and Batanaea, 
on the B. side of the Jordan, belonging either 
to Palestine or to Arabia. 

Aurea Chersonesus (tj Xpvarj XeparSviia-os), 
the name given by the late geographers to tlie 
Malay Peninsida. They also mention an 
Aurea Regie beyond the Ganges, which is sup- 
posed to be the country round Ava. 

Aurelia, thewifeof C. JuliusCaesar,bywhom 
she became the mother of C. Julius Caesar, the 
dictator, and of 2 daughters. She died in B.C. 
54, while Caesar was in Gaul. 

Aurelia Gens, plebeian, of which the most 
important members are given under their 
family names, Cotta, Orestes, and Scahrus. 

Aurelia Orestilla, a beautiful but profligate 
woman, whom Catiline married. As Aurelia at 
first objected to marry him, because he had a 
grown-up son by a former marriage, Catiline is 
said to have killed his own offspring in order to 
remove this impediment to their union. 

Aurelia Via, the great coast road from 
Rome to Transalpine Gaul, at first extended to 
no fui'ther than Pisae, but was aftenvards con- 
tinued along the coast to Genua and Forum 
Julii in Gaul. 

Aureliani. [Gen.\bum.] 

Aurelianus, Roman emperor, a.d. 270-275, 
was bom about a.d. 212, at Sii-mium in Pan- 
nonia. He entered the army as a common 
soldier, but was adopted by a senator, Ulpius 
Crrnitus, and by his extraordinary bravery was 
raised to offices of trust and honour by Valerian 
and Claudius II. On the death of the latter, 
he was elected emperor by the legions on the 
Danube. ' His reign presents a succession of 
brilliant exploits, which restored for a while 
their ancient lustre to the arms of Rome. He 
first defeated the Goths and Vandals, who had 
crossed the Danube, and were ravaging Pan- 
nonia. He next gained a great victory over the 
Alemanni and other German tribes ; but they 
succeeded notwithstanding in crossing the Alps. 
Near Placentia they defeated the Romans, but 
were eventually overcome by Aurelian in two 
decisive engagements in Umbria. After crush- 
ing a formidable conspiracy at Rome, Aurelian 
next turned his arms against Zenobia, queen of 
Palmyra, whom he defeated, took prisoner, and 
can-ied with him to Rome. [Zenobia.] On his 
return to Italy he marched to Alexandria and 
put Firmus to death, who liad assumed the 
title of emperor. He then proceeded to the 
West, where Gaul, Britain, and Spain were 
still in the hands of Tetricus, who had been 
declared emperor a short time before the death 



AUBELIANUS 

of Gixllienus. Tetricus surrendered to Aurelian 
in a battle fought near ChaJons. [Tetricus.] 
The emperor now devoted liis attention to 
domestic improvements and reforms. Many 
works of public utility were commenced : the 



AUBEOLUS 



158 




Aureliarras, Eoman Emperor, A.D. 270-275. 
Obv . bust of Aurelian, laureate and draped ; rev., Mars, 
with spear and tropliy ; P. M. TE. P. VII. COS. II. P. P. ; 
Aureus, A.D. 275. 

most important of all was the erection of a new 
line of strongly fortified walls, embracing a 
much more ample circuit than the old ones, 
which had long since fallen into ruin ; but this 
vast plan was not completed until the reign of 
Probus. After a short residence in the city, 
Aurelian visited the provinces on the Danube. 
He now entirely abandoned Daoia, which had 
been first conquered by Trajan, and made the 
S. bank of the Danube, as in the time of Augus- 
tus, the boundary of the empire. A large force 
was now collected in Thrace in preparation for 
an expedition against the Persians ; but while 
tlie emperor was on the march between Hera- 
clea and Byzantium, he was killed by some of 
his officers. (Life in Script. August. ; Zosim. i. 
47 ; Eutrop. ix. 12.) 

Aurelianus, Caelius, orCoelius, a celebrated 
Latin physician, a native of Numidia, probably 
lived in the 4th century. Of his writings we 
possess three books On Acute Diseases, ' Cele- 
rum Passionmn ' (or ' De Morbis Acutis,') and 
five books On Chronic Diseases, ' Tardarum 
Passionum ' (or ' De Morbis Chroniois '). Edited 
by Amman, Amstel. 1709. 

M. Aurelius Antoninus, Eoman emperor, a.d. 
161-180, commonly called ' the philosopher,' 
was born at Eome on April 20, a.d. 121. He 
was adopted by Antoninus Pius immediately 
after the latter had been himself adopted by 
Hadrian, and was educated by Fronto. He 
received the title of Caesar, and married 
Faustina, the daughter of Pius (138). On the 
death of the latter, in 161, he succeeded to the 
throne, but he admitted to an equal share of 
the sovereign power L. Ceionius Cormnodus, 
who had been adopted by Pius at the same 
time as Marcus himself. The two emperors 




/I). 'J'Urelius Antoninus, Roman Emperor, A.D. 101-lRO. 

Oou., head of Emperor Aurolius. laureate ; rev., pile of 
German arms, enslgne, &o. ; IMP. VUI. COS. III. DE 
liEIiMANIS. Struck A.D. 17li, bat oommomoratlng vic- 
tory over the Gormani in A.D. 173. 

henceforward bore respectively the names of 
M. Aurelius Antoninus and L. Aurelius Verus. 
Boon after their accession Verus was des- 
patched to the East, and for 4 years (a.d. 102- 
165) carried on war with great success against 



Vologeses III., king of Parthia, over whom his 
lieutenants, especially Avidius Cassius, gained 
many victories. At the conclusion of the war 
both emperors triumphed, and assumed the 
titles of Armeniacus, Parthicus Maximiis, 
and Medicus. Meanwhile Italy was threatened 
by the numerous tribes dwelling along the 
northern limits of the empire, from the sources 
of the Danube to the Illyrian border. Both 
emperors set out to encounter the foe ; and the 
contest with the northern nations was con- 
tinued with varying success during the whole 
life of M. Aurelius, whose head-quarters were 
generally fixed in Pannonia, After the death of 
Verus in 169, Aurelius prosecuted the war 
against the Marcomanni with great success, 
and in consequence of his victories over them 
he assumed in 172 the title of Germanious, 
which he also conferred upon his son Commo- 
dus. In 174 he gained a decisive victory over 
the Quadi, mainly through a violent storm, 
which threw the barbarians into confusion. 
This storm is said to have been owing to the 
prayers of a legion chiefly composed of Chris- 
tians. It has given rise to a famous contro- 
versy among the historians of Christianity upon 
what is commonly termed the Miracle of the 
Thundering Legion. The Marcomanni and 
the other northern barbarians concluded a 
peace with Aurelius in 175, who forthwith set 
out for the East, where Avidius Cassius, urged 
on by Faustina, the unworthy wife of Aurelius, 
had risen in rebellion and proclaimed himself 
emperor. But before Aurelius reached the 
East, Cassius had been slain by his own officers. 
On his arrival in the East, Aurelius acted with 
the greatest clemency ; none of the accomplices 
of Cassius were put to death, and to establish 
perfect confidence in all, he ordered the papers 
of Cassius to be destroyed without suffering 
them to be read. During this expedition, Faus- 
tina, who had accompanied her husband, died, 
according to some, by her own hands. Aurelius 
returned to Eome towards the end of 176 ; but 
in 178 he set out again for Germany, where the 
Marcomanni and their confederates had again 
renewed the war. He gained several victories 
over them, but died in the middle of the war 
on March 17, 180, in Pannonia, either at Vin- 
dobona (Vienna) or at Sirmium, in the 59th year 
of liis age and 20th of his reign. — A notable 
feature in the character of M. Aurelius was his 
devotion to philosophy and literature. When 
only twelve years old he adopted the dress and 
practised the austerities of the Stoics, and he 
continued throughout his life a warm adherent 
and a bright ornament of the Stoic philosophy. 
We still possess a work by M. Aurelius, written 
in the Greek language, and entitled Ta ds 
kavr'bv, or Meditations, in 12 books. It is a 
sort of common-place book, in which were 
registered from time to time the thoughts and 
feelings of the author upon moral and religious 
topics, without an attempt at order or arrange- 
ment. No remains of antiquity present a 
nobler view of philosophical heathenism. Edi- 
tions of the Meditations by Gataker, Cantab. 
1652 ; by Stich, Leips. 1882 ; translated by Long. 
— The chief and perhaps the only stain upon 
the memory of Aurelius is his persecution of the 
Christians : in 106 the martyrdom of Polycarp 
occurred, and in 177, that of Irenaeus. Aure- 
lius was succeeded by his son Commodus. (Life 
in Script. August. ; cf. also Dio Cass. Ixxi.) 

Aurelius Victor. [Victor.] 

Aureolus. one of the Thirty Tyrants (a.d. 
260-267J, who assumed the title of Augustus 



154 AUROEA 
during tho feeble rule of